Round table Discussion by keara

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									Russian Society of American Culture Studies XXXIV International Conference

Interpretation of History in American Culture
December 12-17, 2008 ►Section 1. Journalism and Presidential Elections-2008
Coordinators Dr. Yassen Zassoursky and Dr. Mikhail Makeenko (MSU, Journalism Department, Russia) 1. Christopher Rasmussen , University of Nebraska, USA Perm State University, Russia Make Believe Ballrooms: Listening in America during Radio’s Golden Age, 1922-1949 This paper argues that during its so-called “golden age,” radio offered Americans an appealing middle ground between the isolated and modern listening style of the phonograph and social and traditional experience of the performance. By reaching its listeners live and simultaneously, radio mimicked two important aspects of the performance. By providing a choice over what, when, where, with whom to listen, radio, like the record, appealed to the individual. Americans responded, and by a large majority preferred music on the air to on the record. As a result of radio’s connective powers, histories of the golden age have trended toward the nostalgic, recalling lost communities of listeners glorying in an Indian summer of communal entertainment and shared values before the postwar arrival of television, generational conflict, and racial strife. Looking at major theorists of early radio, including academics, public intellectuals, and marketers, this paper shows how radio’s virtual communities in fact represent the beginning of a radical transformation of the musical experience and, as a result, American society. On radio, imagined communities came to substitute for real ones, and by placing the musical experience under the individual’s control, golden age commercial radio allowed for Americans to disassociate music from the social experience and to experience it as a commodity. In the prosperity that followed World War II, a heavily technologically mediated, intensely individualistic, and commodified listening culture emerged. Far from being a golden age of onair communities, radio before the war set the stage for future alienation and mirrors broader trends in twentieth century American society toward the privatization of leisure and social atomization. 2. Irina B. Arkhangelskaya Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Commerce The USA History and Culture as viewed by Marshall McLuhan Media theorist and literary critic Marshall McLuhan often emphasized that coming from «a marginal Canadian world» he was able to have a fresh view on the USA . The attitude of the Canadian scholar to different aspects of the US history and culture: Civil War 1861-1865, post-war American South, Southern intellectuals (A. Tate, J.K. Ransom, C. Brooks etc.), American mass culture of 1940-1960s and counterculture of 1960s< the US political leaders of different historical periods as well as the USA’s role on the world arena in the XX centure are under consideration in the report. McLuhan’s published works and letters are analyzed by the author. This research helps to get a new insight into American history and culture, explain typical for the USA and Canada «attraction-rivalry» relationship and serves as a key to understanding m. McLuhan’s personality and ideas. 3. Lydia Zemlyanova MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia

McLuhanisms in the Historical Prognoses of Alvin Toffler 4. Andrei Vyrkovski, MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia American Business Magazines during the Great Depression: Challenged by Crisis 5. Anna A. Danilova MSU, Philological Department, Russia Linguistic aspect of interpretation and modeling historic events in American mass media Linguistic means of influencing the audience by means of mass media have become a constantly developing integrated linguistic system closely connected with the processes of the society’s sociodynamics, the means of inner influence on public mind being realized on all the levels of language. This influence has become exceptionally visible and powerful at the beginning of the XXI century. These processes of mind control can be clearly seen in the media interpretation of political and historic events. It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to suggest, that the central tendency is to present America’s role in geopolitical events of the past and present as positively constructive, aimed at building global peace. This is carried out by the following main linguistic means:  Euphemisms and dysphemisms, that are based on the stable changes in the range of the word’s meanings.  Changes in the word’s connotation and association range, that results in the changes in the word’s meanings.  Simplification – a means of manipulation in which an event is described using short simple sentences, that reduce the depth and the complexity of the event.  Introduction of the historic parallels into the text  Materialization – reporting about the dead civilians as inanimate objects (targets).  Intentionally hidden meanings in the word structure (progress, pluralism, tolerance, liberty).

Words in geopolitical contexts acquire new meanings, alongside the euphemisms and dysphemisms there occurs a new group of the extralinguisically bound positional replacement. This daily expanding tendency of mind control in the media can influence a number of cultural and language processes and the danger of the negative influence is high. 6. Elena Zvereva Tambov State University, Russia The New Yorker Presentation of the 2008 Elections in Pictures and Cartoons “The New Yorker” magazine is famous for its sarcastic commentaries and a wide use of caricatures. A photo of a dandy, examining his bow-tie through a eye-glass who later became the brand symbol of the magazine appeared on the first page of its first issue. That is why the magazine is believed to have revealed its special interest in home affairs in the USA ever since. In many ways the detailed analyses owes to David Remnick who has been the chief editor since 2004. The election campaign in 2008 was not an exception. It was analyzed profoundly and deeply with the special help of pictures and caricatures. In 2007 the magazine launched a new project called “Naked campaign” that represented the new image of its members. Another rubric that uses caricatures to accompany reporters’ commentaries most often is called “Commentaries”. It aims at the ironical images of the political rivals mostly. 7. Oleg Bakoulin MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia The Office of Censorship Activities during the World War II

8. Andrei Ruskin, MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia The 2008 US Presidential Elections and their Mass-media Coverage: Basic Results of the Finished Political Marathon 9. Mikhail Makeenko MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia The Impact of 2008 Presidential Race on the Dynamics of Major TV Formats and Online Platforms 10. Irina B. Arkhangelskaya Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Commerce B. Obama vs. J. McCain in Сomedy Shows of Jay Leno and David Letterman

►Section 2. American Novel about the Civil War in the USA
Coordinator Dr. Elvira Osipova (SPbGU)

1. Louiza Bashmakova Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia John P. Kennedy's Legend of Maryland: History and Poetic Mythology 2. Irene Morozova Udmurt State University and Russian State University for the Humanities, Russia Confederates’ “Altars of Sacrifice” in Augusta Evans’ Novel Macaria Augusta Evans was one of the most popular Southern author who contributed significantly to the literary and cultural development of the South . Her novel Macaria (1863) is about Southern women who sacrifice their lives for the Confederacy. Written during the Civil War events, this novel promoted Southern desire for an independency and reflected the most essential ideas of Southerness and outlined the Lost Cause themes, images and symbols.

3. Mariya Shymchyshyn Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Ukraine. Opposition between the South and the North in William Dubois The Quest of the Silver Fleece The essay deals with the novel of an African-American activist of the first half of the 20th century – William Dubois – The Quest of the Silver Fleece, the first Afro-American Bildungsroman (Addison Gayle, Jr.). Depicting life of the Black rural community after the Emancipation Act, the author shows moral and economic dependence of black folks from white. The narrative strategy is based on oppositions: agrarian/industrial, black/white, mob/leader, the South/the North. The author uses literary conventions to oppose conventional views on race. He revises theories of black inferiority and introduces not stereotypical images of young blacks: Zora and Bles. They argue for activism and black unity. Special attention has been paid to the analysis of the formation of new racial identity of African-Americans as well as to the ways of deconstructing racial stereotypes and clichés.

4. Ivan Delazari

St. Petersburg State University, Russia The American Civil War According to William Faulkner: “Were you really there?” In the history of William Faulkner’s fictional Yoknapatawpha the Civil War is hardly less significant than in the US history per se. In most Faulkner novels the War is placed into the realm of the past that is implied at any single point of the narrative. The analysis in the present paper focuses on those fragments of the Yoknapatawpha Saga, in which the events of the Civil War (and thereby, the War itself) cease to function as historical background and acquire the status of the depicted subject, the core of the plot (Sartoris, The Unvanquished, and Absalom, Absalom!). The narrative structure of these fragments throws light upon the nature of Faulkner’s “mythologies” (R. Barthes) in terms of the problem of “fictio et dictio” (G. Genette). 5. Tatyana Kamarovskaya Belorussian State Pedagogical University, Minsk, Belarus Civil War as a Myth. Novel by R.P.Warren «Дебри»(1961)

6. Elvira Osipova Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia Focus on history: latest American novels of the Civil War 7. Natalia Vysotska Kiev National Linguistic University, Ukraine American Civil War: Literary Perspectives from the 21st Century Taking into account diverse philosophical and socio-cultural factors determining contemporary vision of the historical process, the paper looks at three novels focusing on the 1861-1865 war in the USA and published in early 21st c. – Geraldine Brooks’ March (2005), Stephen Wright’s Amalgamation Polka (2006) and E.L.Doctorow’s March (2005). The reasons impelling American authors to center on this particular period in the national history are discussed; traditional and novel aspects in treating the events of the war are highlighted; fictional strategies deployed in each novel are explored. It is argued that the writers in question espouse, albeit partially, the view of history as a textual construct. 8. Larisa Mikhaylova MSU Journalism Department, Russia Balance of History: Donald McCaig’s Rhett Butler’s People (2008) as M. Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind Continued. Translator’s Comments

►Section 3. (Re)Constructing National History in Contemporary American Culture/Fiction
Coordinators Dr. Natalia Vysotska (Kiev NLU, Ukraine) and Dr. Tatyana Kamarovskaya (Belarusian SPU, Minsk, Belarus) 1. Natalia Vysotska Kiev National Linguistic University, Ukraine Usable Past or Permanent Present?

A visible “historical turn” in U.S. culture over the past decades is a sum total of multidirectional vectors. On the one hand, the desire to look back today, when America is facing grave internal and external problems, is in line with the national tradition dominated, according to E.Stetsenko, “by the view of history as interconnection and interdependence of different times”. On the other hand, postmodern culture’s irresistible drive towards the revision of the past is determined by the present philosophical moment denying history (as one of declining grand narratives) its objectivity and emphasizing its textuality, plurality and relativity. This vision results in many theorists regarding postmodernity as a kind of dehistoricized “eternal present”. In its turn, U.S. multicultural upheaval gives rise to the opposite movement generated by the need of long marginalized social segments to retrieve their “stolen” history and turn it into the “usable past” necessary for shaping their group and individual identities. Therefore, U.S. contemporary historical discourse is of special interest as the field where encounters and interaction between these heterogeneous impulses take place 2. Tatyana Kamarovskaya Belarusian State Pedagogical University, Minsk, Belarus Re-living the Past. R. Collingwood’s Theory and the Historical Novel The paper is devoted to the possibilities which R. Collingwood’s theory opens up before a historian and a literary scholar. According to his theory, a historian must disclose the thought behind the historical event, that is he must penetrate into the intellectual life of the epoch, into mentality of its people in order to understand the reasons and motivations which brought about the historical event. Thus, Collingwoog comes to the statement that “All history is the history of thought.” For the recreation of intellectual and emotional life of the epoch Collingwood puts forward the concept of “imagination a-priory”, the essence of which is reenactment of the past experience the documents of the past contain. Collingwood’s theory helps a historical novelist and its researcher in determining the main task he must solve, and the way to solve it. 3. Marina Bronich Nizhny Novgorod Linguistic University, Russia The Philosophy of History and the Historical Background in Saul Bellow’s Novels The paper discusses a problem of historicism and its peculiarities in Saul Bellow’s novels representing characters’ consciousness dependent on social, political and intellectual conditions. The social and historical background drawn up from the typical details of the modes of life and manners includes historic events and figures as an object of both characters’ and author’s reflection. Bellow’s novels illustrate R.Collingwood’s statement that «it is only in the historical process, the process of thoughts, that thought exists at all; and it is only in so far as this process is known for a process of thoughts that it is one».

4. Vladimir Prozorov Karelian State University, Petrozavodsk, Russia Quasihistorical Postmodernist Novel The paper discusses the notion of “quasi-historical novel”, which came into prominence at the turn of the XXI century (J. Fowles, J. Barnes, P.Ackroyd, T. Pyncheon, J. Barth, E.L. Doctorow and others). The past in this novel is looked upon not as object of maximally precise reconstruction, but as the field of uncertainty and fantasy. The connection of this type of the novel with postmodern philosophy is traced. The attempt is made to define some characteristic

features of the “quasi-historical novel” in comparison with the traditional historical narration. They include textualisation of history, open anachronism, plurality and relativity of history, irony, decanonization of historic figures, etc. Aesthetic traits of quasi-historical novel include intertextuality, travesty, fragmentation, mosaic and hybrid form, open ending, etc. 5. Olga Antsyferova Ivanovo State University, Russia Large and Small Historical Time in Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club

6. Yelena Kornilova MSU, Journalism Department, Russia Mythological and Historical Time in the Novel by T. Morrison Song of Solomon

7. Lyudmila Kazakova Belaya Tserkov National Agrarian University, Ukraine In Harmony or In Opposition? Ante- and Afterbellum America in the Autobiographical Novel by J. Heller Now and Then 8. Nikolay Zykov MSU, Journalism Department, Russia Scientist and Society in Mitchell Wilson`s Novels Being a physicist, Wilson describes brilliantly relations in the scientific world and between scientists and politicians. In the novel “Live with lightning” (1949) he showed aspiration of certain political circles to use the invention of atomic weapon for blackmailing the Soviet Union, which was resisted by a responsibly thinking scientist. Mitchell Wilson demonstrated deep knowledge of subject, he wrote about. He showed the difference between true scientists and different careerists in the field of science. In the literary works of Mitchell Wilson were reflected the crisis of 1929-1932, World War II and coming after it arms race. Novels of Wilson are most popular among scientific and technical intellectuals. 9. Zhanna Konovalova Kazan State University, Russia Scientific Triumph as the Final of the “Roaring Sixties” The paper examines nonfiction books “Of a Fire to the Moon” by Norman Mailer and “The Right Stuff” by Tom Wolfe. Both works concern activities of NASA, but the authors focus their attention not on the factual side of the “space project”, but rather on the enormous significance of the project for forming national consciousness of the Americans. The paper analyses the authors’ concept of the “scientific triumph” in the roaring 60-s. 10. Ekaterina Chernetsova Ogarev Mordovian State University, Saransk, Russia Recent Past as an Object of Fiction: Kennedy’s America in the Novel by Norman Mailer Harlot’s Ghost 11. Yelena Zagarina Ogarev Mordovian State University, Saransk, Russia The Theme of Vietnam War in J. Irving`s Novel A Prayer for Owen Meany

The theme of Vietnam war is one of the most important in J. Irving`s novel “A Prayer for Owen Meany”. The writer depicts different problems of American society of this period of time. The main characters of the novel are John Wheelright, the narrator, and his best friend, Owen Meany. The author belives that they both are the victims of the war but stand on different sides of it.

►Section 4. Ethnic Components of American History and Culture
Coordinator Dr. Alexander Vashchenko (MSU, Department of Foreign Languages and Region Studies, Russia) 1.Alexander Vashchenko MSU, Department of Foreign Languages and Region Studies, Russia Presentation of a book Judgement of Paris: Comparative Mythology in Culture and Civilization

2. Yuliya Dzholos Cherkasy State Technological University, Ukraine Universal and Indian Symbolism In Contemporary Native American Literature The works of Native American authors are rich in universal & Indian symbols. The semantics of them seldom coincides, but frequently indigenous symbols are ambivalent and may differ much from the generally accepted ones. The readers of Non-Indian origin should be acquainted with the Native American literary criticism for them not to misinterpret the works of indigenous writers. The attention of the author is concentrated on the symbols used in Louise Erdrich’s cycle of novels devoted to North Dakota Indians. It consist of “Love Medicine” (1984, 1993); “The Beet Queen” (1986); “Tracks” (1988); “The Bingo Palace” (1994); “Tales of Burning Love” (1996); “The Antelope Wife” (1998). The symbols used in the works of some other Native American authors (“The Silent Language” (1959) by Edward T. Hall; “Blue Dawn, Red Earth” (1996) by Clifford Trafzer; “A Yellow Raft in Blue Water” (1987) by Michael Dorris) are analyzed as well. Louise Erdrich is considered to be one of the most prolific Native American authors whose prose is translated into several European languages and is well-read not only in Indian community, but also off the reservations, in North America & Europe. The other authors are also quite famous and have gain significant readership but they are not as well-known as she is. The following symbols are investigated in the project: 4 elements (land, water, fire, air); 4 parts of the world (North, East, West, South); symbolism of colors; material objects (beads, cow’s diamond); natural things and beings (tree, web, spider, dog, bear); institutions (casino, nunnery). The conclusions of the author are made taking into account the research of such foreign and home scholars: B. Johnston, T. Peacock, M. Wisuri, N. Chavkin, A. Chavkin, N. Lysyuk, O. Vovk, N. Rogalevich who investigated Native American and universal symbols. 3. Oxana. Danchevskaya MSPU, Moscow In Search of Turquoise Woman: Turquoise in Myths and Reality of North American Indians Mankind has known turquoise for more than ten thousand years. This is the only “live” mineral which can change its colour with weather changes and the condition of its owner. Probably it is one of the reasons why it has always been surrounded by so many legends and superstitions in most cultures of the world. Turquoise was already mentioned in the first works about minerals

and in a number of myths, especially those of the Navajo Indians of the U.S. South-West. In all continents it has been considered the happiest semi-precious stone. The article describes its major mineral qualities, deposits, the origins of its name, the most important and the oldest turquoise objects found during archeological digs, the use of turquoise in different countries and times, the legends about it, its role in different mythologies, traditional jewelry techniques of several North American Indian tribes, the varieties of the mineral and its imitations. A special emphasis is laid on the use of turquoise and the beliefs associated with it in American Indian cultures. A Navajo myth about the goddess called Changing Woman (or Turquoise Woman) is studied separately as an explanation of a special attitude of American Indians to that stone and its very important role in their life up to the present day. The author concludes that turquoise has taken a unique place in the history of civilizations and is still used in a great number of spheres of human activity. 4. Yulia Barkova MSU, Department of Foreign Languages and Region Studies, Russia Inuit throat-singing: traditions and modern times. 5. Yakushenkova Oksana MSU, Department of Foreign Languages and Region Studies, Russia The image of the Native American as the "Other" on the US Frontier History of the Frontier that we study, it not a real history, but some historical images consisting of rigid cultural patterns: «Our own» and "Other". When the western historiography spoke about relations between the White and the Native American, it basically followed definite colonial images. For example, relations between the Central and South American Indians and the Spanish conquistadors were described due to the native concepts of those Spaniards as gods. The US Frontier of the middle of 19 centuries is a "dialogue" of preformed images. The Frontier introduced to American life certain ideology not only of confrontation, but also ideology of necessity with other, who is different, thought this otherness existed in two models: Othergood/Other-bad. In any case the image of this "Other" (Indian) was very attractive for the American literature, art, social life. 6. Andrei Levitsky Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, Ukraine Ethnic contacts reflected on the map of the USA The names of cities and towns on the map of the USA - the country inhabited by people with different ethnocultural backgrounds - reflect connection of emigrants with their motherlands. Among them there are words from English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Slavic, and other languages. The names of certain settlements prove the emigrants’ desire to revive good memories about their motherland, favorite cities, important from ethnocultural perspective places and territories. Most often love to their deserted lands characterized people who came from Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, other European and Asian countries. On the map of the USA one also may find names of settlements ascending to the languages of the native inhabitants of North America which sound exotically for those who originate from other countries. References to ethnic groups in the names of towns testify to the contacts between representatives of different nations in the process of every-day inter-cultural communication on American soil which lead to the rise of stereotypes while perceiving “new neighbors”. 7. M.A. Filimonova Russian State Social University, Kursk, Russia English Cultural Models Rejection as a Foundation for Americanness during the War for Independence

Americans on the eve of the Independence did not think themselves a different people from the English. But as the conflict evolved, and the hostility towards Britain grew, the American patriots had to invent a new identity. Not common origins but some other phenomena were to be its foundation. The identity of revolutionary America was based on contraposition against England and Englishness. England was imagined to be an incarnation of despotism, luxury and corruption, while America was believed to be a personification of republicanism and virtue. Americans tried to reject English cultural models, beginning with the language and finishing with everyday habits. For example, Independence Day was to replace the King’s birthday in the festive culture. A brilliant specimen of creating the Americanness by rejecting the Englishness is provided by Royall Tyler’s comedy, which is symbolically named The Contrast. 8. I. M. Udler Chelyabinsk State University, Russia History and Historicism in the 18–19th Centuries Slave Narratives For a long time the historical science of the USA saw in the slave narratives of the 18–19th centuries only the means of abolitionist propagation which is impossible to be considered as a document, a historical source for the science based studying of the slavery. Such approach has been reconsidered in the second half of the 20th century by historians and literary critics. Undoubtedly, the slave narratives are the documentary source opening from within, by the slaves’ eyes all the aspects of slaves’ life, frequently hidden from the slaveholders. During the 18–19th centuries the historicism, increasing in the process of the genre’s development, has become the essential feature of the slave narratives. 9. Elena Dzhola Far Eastern National University, Vladivostok, Russia American History in the Lives of Tony Morrison’s Heroes (The Song of Solomon and Beloved) The past plays an important role in the works of African-American writers of the late XX th century. Tony Morrison, one of the most eminent of them, refers to definite periods of American history such as post Civil War period (1870s) the early XX th century years and time of AfricanAmerican extremism rise and its consequences in 1960s. Tony Morrison’s novels The Song of Solomon and Beloved which can be called historical, are considered in the given article. Narrating about the past Morrison demonstrates the wound unhealed till today, which was inflicted on African-Americans during the period of slavery and widespread ideas and practice of racism in the USA. Tony Morrison shows how common human feelings are corrupted in the situation where a human being with its inner world becomes an article of trade. Thus the USA history is clearly observed in Tony Morrison’s novels and makes the fates of the heroes quite distinct and true to life. Nevertheless the historical events and processes are not crucial for the writer’s analysis. For her, human life is the combination of the features determined by the definite historical period and timeless eternal categories. 10. Olga Panova MSU, Philological Department, Russia “Another History”: Search for the Past in Afro-American Literature (1940-1980) Afro-American view of American past in 1940-1980 led to understanding of America as a New World nation still being at the beginning of its history and still having a chance to choose an

alternative vector of development. This concept emerges in 1940-1950 (R.Ellison “Invisible Man” and essays of the 1940-1950). The Sixties were a period when aggressive asserting of “otherness” and wide experimentation in form took place in Afro-American literature (I.Reed “Mumbo Jumbo”, “Louisiana Red”). In late 1970-1980 there is an obvious tendency to converge Afro-American search for the past and identity quest (Toni Morrison “Song of Solomon”, Toni Cade Bambara “Salt Eaters”) with the Latin American magic realism (Gabriel Garcia Marquez) and Spanish-American authors (R.Anaya).

11. Yury Stulov Minsk State Linguistic University Discovering new approaches to the history of slavery: Ernest P. Jones' novel "The Known World" The paper discusses the peculiarities of the novel "The Known World" by Ernest P. Jones, a young African American proze-winning writer. In it Jones addresses the issue of African American slave-owners and their relationship with the whites that has not been dealt with in earlier literature. Using the traditions of slave narratives the writer creates a world where reality is mixed with fantasy. 12. T.V. Alentieva Kursk State University, Russia Representation of the Irish Ethno-confessional Problem in the Movie “Gangs of New York” Historical Saga “Gangs of New York” created by M. Scorsese (2002) didn’t get premium “Oscar”. But this film is very interesting because it reflects real American history. It is based on original facts, its personages have historical predecessors. The main achievement of Scorsese is the demonstration of the bloody war between the gangs “Dead Rabbits” and “Bowery Boys”, that took place in the New York criminal region (Five Points), and of the corruption of the police and politicians. “Gangs of New York” is based on “The Gangs of New York” (1928), a crime novel written by American writer Herbert Asbury (1889-1963). It is a string of stories about men who mythologized themselves as heroes, though the world rightly considered them scum. There was a tragic collision in the American 19th century, reflected in the film and in the book. It was the rejection of the mass Irish immigration by Anglo-Saxon Protestant Americans. They were different because of their Celtic origins and their Catholicism. Notwithstanding this they made their significant contribution to the urban culture of the U.S., while not losing their religious and cultural heritage.

13. Firdes Dimitrova Vоronezh State University, Russia Saving the Indigenous people of USA in Leslie Silko's Ceremony The Authoress of Ceremony (1977) Leslie Marmon Silko not only introduces cultural background and tradition of storytelling of Laguna Pueblo but also suggests original idea for saving American indigenous people and their values. In her modern fiction Silko transforms myths of Laguna Pueblo tribes on purpose to reveal the key idea of her novel. In Silko's opinion, storytelling contains the unique message for Native Americans survival. The article examines approaches of a modern American authoress for saving distinctive ethnic minority in USA and its cultural heritage.

►Section 5. American Drama: Looking at American History
Coordinator Dr. Maya Koreneva (Gorky Institute of Foreign Literature RAS, Russia) 1. Valentine Kotlyarova Chelyabinsk, Russia Document and Art in Historic and Biographic drama of the USA in the middle of the 20th Century 2. Galina Kovalenko The St.-Petersburg State Theatre Arts Academy, Russia The Kennedy Era In Robert Patrick’s Play Kennedy’s Children A.Voznesensky’s metaphor “the sixties were the back of the XX century” is concordant with one of the most active periods in world history. In the US history this critical decade is marked by political assassinations on one hand and the upheaval of social life on other. The 60-s are the principal “hero” of R. Patrick’s play. The play was written in 1973 and produced in 1975. The recurrent refrain is variegated phrase “I hate the goddamned sixties …that seventies are just the garbage of the sixties”. This verdict to the Kennedy era is pronounced by the young men, sitting lonely each at the separate table in a bar of New York’s East Side. This “East Side Story” is not about love but about the loss of ideals and supporting life. There is no global interpretation of the historical period in play, but it embodies Aristotle’s postulate “history deals with details”. The experimental play written for marginal theatre does not only reconstructions the events of the Kennedy generation from view point of subsequent decade but also presents a specific analyses of the youth movement in the aspects of politics and psychology.

►Section 6. T. S. Eliot and World culture
Coordinator: Dr. Olga Ushakova (Tyumen SU, Russia) 1. Tatiana N. Krasavchenko ISIS, RAS, Russia T. S. Eliot in His Relation to the French Culture 2. Olga M. Ushakova, Tyumen State University, Russia “History is a pattern of timeless moments": Chronotope of Rose in T. S. Eliot's Little Gidding 3. Mikhail U. Oshukov Petrozavodsk State University, Russia Verse Drama of T. S. Eliot in the Context of Vorticist Aesthetics 4. Elina V. Sedikh Saint-Petersburg Institute of Foregn Relations, Economics and Law, Russia W. Morris and T. S. Eliot: The Waste Land

5. Elena G. Dotsenko Urals State Pedagogical University, Russia T. S. Eliot’s “footfalls (echo)” in Modern and Contemporary English Drama 6. Anna V. Ananieva Tyumen State University, Russia On Some Peculiarities of T. S. Eliot’s Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats 7. Yelena Ostrovskaya Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia September 1, 1939 by W.H. Auden in Russian Translation: Events and Realia and their Interpretation in the Original Text and the Translations

►Section 7. Gender: Overcoming Historical Sterotypes
Coordinators Dr. Larisa Mikhaylova ( and Dr. Nadezhda Shvedova ( 1. Svetlana Korotkova State University – Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia Women in American Publishing Business during the Colonial Period In the second half of XVII century printing-houses appeared in most of colonies. At the beginning of XVIII Americans adopted periodicals from the Old World. The first papers were printed in 1704 in Cambridge and in 1719 in Philadelphia. The number of newspapers rose steeply after 1740-s, in 1745 there were 22 papers. In 1765 – 43 weeklies were printed. Practically each colony had a newspaper. 26 women worked as publishers and printers during the whole colonial period. Eleven women supported themselves by this profession, ten of them printed weeklies. Seven colonies and ten towns knew their presence. Five did official printing for government. For a short time there were four women operating at once in different parts of the country. The earliest member of the group was Dinah Nuthead, who worked in 1696 in Maryland, the latest was Mary Katharine Goddard in the same place. Three of them were immigrants, one emigrated to England after Revolution and stayed there until the end of her life. All but one were married, the mothers of numerous children. Each was in her late thirties when she took up her business. One may have been little more than forty when she died, while one lived to ninety. The extent of their active careers varies from the twenty-three years of Ann Franklin, at Newport, Rhode Island, to the one year and one month of Clementina Rind, at Williamsburg, Virginia. 2. Marina Kizima MGIMO, Russia Margaret Fuller and Revolutionary Europe: Historic Events Through the Eyes of an Overseas Observeress 3. Evgenia Israelyan Institute of USA and Canada, Russia Gender: Overcoming Historical Stereotypes 4. Lyubov Pervushina,

Minsk State Linguistic University, Belarus Representation of History in Erica Jong’s Experimental Novels 5. Svetlana Avramenko Lviv National University, Ukraine To the Question of Mental Genderology An attempt is undertaken of comparative analysis of male and female mentality.The peculiarities of women's novels are considered, namely: the psychological openness of their protagonists and the common character of female experience for women all over the civilized world; the concentration on the lived experience, often presented in the confessional manner; for a woman it is no so much important to find a prompt exit from the unfavorable situation, as to comprehend the inner reality of her experience. 6. Tatyana Zabelina, Moscow Humanitarian University, Russia Violence towards women: American experience and Russian reality The US had formerly no rape crisis centres, no women’s centres, no transition houses. Police openly dissuaded women from reporting, told them to stop provoking male rage and identified easily and boldly with male abusers. Prosecutors were ineffectual in aiding women. Doctors did not know how to examine women for internal damage. Women struggled to overcome these “private problems”. But since that times things have changed not only in the USA but throughout the world. Russia is not an exception. Still Northern America is far ahead in solving these problems. A review of Russian reality reveals that the country needs detailed investigation of the problem, reliable statistics, state funding, changes in laws, etc. We can see lack of state support in Russia. Active efforts in this field could protect women’s rights in all spheres. A new approach should be adopted to provide awareness of every woman’s right to be free from violence. 7. Svetlana Svistunova MSU Journalism Department, Russia Specific Approach to Advertising in a Feminist Magazine MS 8. Nadezhda Shvedova Institute of USA and Canada, Russia Gender Dimension of the 2008 Elections in the USA 9. Irene Denisenkova Smolensk, Russia Gender Aspect in American Higher Education

►Section 8. National Originality of Сanada through the Prism of History and Culture
Coordinators: Dr. Vassily Sokolov (Institute of the USA and Canada, Russia) and Elena Ovcharenko (Moscow State University, Russia) 1.Evgenia Israelyan RAS Institute of the USA and Canada, Moscow, Russia Philantropy in Canada

2.Svitlana Kozlovska NAS Institute of Literature, Kiev, Ukraine Symbolism in the Novel A Bird in the House by Margaret Laurence 3.Elena Ovcharenko MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia Before the Fall of New France: J.F.Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans and G.W.Longfellow’s Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie 4.Konstantin Romanov MSU, Department of Foreign Languages and Region Studies, Russia History of Canadian Pacific Coast through the Place Names in Stanley Park, Vancouver 5.Julia Roschina Academy of Social Education, Kazan, Russia History in Culture of Canada 6.Viola Talakhadze Institute of Philology and Journalism, Saratov State University, Russia Cultural and Historical Peculiarity of Newfoundland and the Way it is reflected in the Language 7. Ruslan Endrzhievsky Moscow, Russia Confrontation in Oke: Shadows of the Past 8. Anna Schyokina Moscow State University, Department of Journalism, Russia Image of the 19-th Century in Canadian Historical Reviews

►Section 9. Alternative History: American History Reflection in the Mirror of the Fantastic
Coordinator Dr. Larisa Mikhaylova ( 1. Larisa Mikhaylova MSU, Journalism Department, Russia Alternative History in American Science Fiction as Acupuncture of Painful Social Nodes 2. Natalia Krinitskaya Kharkov State University, Ukraine Reality in Philip K. Dick’s Man in the High Castle 3. Evgenia Ozerova MSU, Journalism Department, Russia Time and Again: Alternative History in Clifford Simak’s books 4. Anna Lavrova MSU, Journalism Department, Russia History Is Only a Starting Point (on the material of Stories by Ray Bradbury)

5. Anastasia Baburova MSU, Journalism Department, Russia The world after September11, 2001" in Contemporary fantasy and Science fiction: Alterglobalist Ideas

►Section 10. Interaction of American and World Culture
Coordinator Dr. Tatyana Belova (MSU, Philological Department, Russia) 1. Natalia Suchugova RSUH, Moscow, Russia Russian-American Cultural Contacts: J. Q. Adams` Mission to St.Petersburg (1809-1814) 2. Galina Alexeeva Leo Tolstoy’s Estate Yasnaya Polyana, Russia American Utopia in Leo Tolstoy’s Appreciation 3. Tatyana Belova MSU, Philological Department, Russia The Burlesque Distortion of the Author's Biography in the Mirror of Postmodern American Culture (V. Nabokov's Novel Look at the Harlequins') Nabokov’s novel is regarded as burlesque synthesis of his creative work in comparison with some other works of world literature. The following problems are discussed: first of all, it is the ambivalent character of the narrator’s image – if he a double of the author or not; then the specific features of its genre – whether it is a self parody or a kind of a postmodern novel; and, at last, the author’s approach in creating the plot, the system of images and word-building id considered to be surrealistic. 4. Zoya Sattarova, Uzbekistan National University, Uzbekistan Seattle Tashkent Sister City Association 5. Zinaida Kartashova Moscow State University of Culture and Art, Russia George Gershwin – to the 110th Anniversary. G.Gershwin is the most famous composer of America, “the face” of its music. As American culture, his creation formed from different national sources. He was born in the family of Russian immigrants and “Russian track” was always in his life, creation and performing of his works. For example, Russian Joseph Schillinger’s influence as his teacher of composition was visible in 1932-36, when Gershwin wrote “Porgy And Bess” what became the best American opera. Gershwin was influenced very much by French music of C.Debussy, M.Ravel, DMilhaud. Likewise Ravel’s two piano concertos evince an influence of Gershwin. Aside from the French influence Gershwin was intrigued by the works of A.Berg, D.Shostakovich, I.Stravinsky, A.Schoenberg and typical American genres of jazz and music “Tin Pan Alley”. What set Gershwin apart was his ability to manipulate forms of music into his own unique voice. Gershwin’s music as for concert and opera halls, as musicals and songs became important part of world cultures and influenced greatly on musicians of different countries, especially jazz musicians.

6. Natalia Maltseva Saratov State University, Russia Cultural Identity of Russian Immigrants in Seattle (Linguistic Perspective) The language of immigrants and diverse societies has long been subject of ethnolinguistic research. The linguistic changes brought by the increasing Russian-American cultural interaction remain relatively unexplored phenomena. The present study addresses the question of crosscultural identification in North West USA. The language production of bilingual individuals is analyzed to illuminate the process of "transnational" identities development. 7. Boris Sumashedov Izvestia Publishing House, Russia American Contacts of V.R. Arsenjev. Presentation of a biography Crucified in the Wilderness (2008)

►Round Table Discussion Imprints: Image of Russia and Image of America
Coordinator Dr. Yassen Zassoursky ( MSU, Journalism Department, Russia) 1. Christine Wilcox Russian Academy of State Service, Russia-USA American Image of Russia: Evolution from the 18th to the 21st Century 2. Cynthia A. Ruder University of Kentucky, USA Great Projects of the 30s in the USSR and USA An investigation of Stalinist large-scale construction projects reveals much not only about the USSR at the time, but also about the US during the 1930s. Hence I will discuss how these two systems, perceived as different from each other, actually share many similarities. Such an examination consequently enables us to better understand the legacy of those practices in contemporary Russian and US society. 3. Elena Tretyachenko Arzamas State Pedagogical Institute, Arzamas, Russia Mission to Moscow (1943) and Ideological Struggle between the USSR and the USA in American Film Industry It was president Roosevelt’s wish to make a screen version of Joseph Davies bestseller My Mission to Moscow. Americans in their majority sincerely believed in the truthfulness of the film. Davies himself brought the copy of the film to Stalin. Film filled Soviet cinemas and was popular in Great Britain and China. But radical changes took place after the end of the Second World War. The film was thought “pro-Soviet” and was declared out of law. Jack Warner, the owner of the film studio “Warner Brothers” honestly repented of the film being staged in his studio. In the USSR Joseph Davies was decorated with an Order of Lenin –first time in the history of the Soviets. 4. Nikolay Kubanev Volgo-Vyatskaya Civil Service Academy, Russia Larisa Nabilkina Arzamas Pedagogical Institute, Russia

"The Cold War" and the development of Russian-American cultural relations The USSR and the USA for many years blamed each other for unleashing the Cold War. But this war was inevitable because both superpowers were gaining world domination. In this struggle ideology played very important role. Both rivals were trying to create an image of the enemy. But really prominent American writers did not take part in an anti-Soviet campaign .Such authors as J.Steinbeck and E.Hemingway created favourable images of Russia and Russians. As for Russian writers and scholars not all of them had courage to withstand the ideological pressure of Communist party leaders. In critical essays about American literature many scholars distorted the content and the idea of books of most famous American writes such as W.Faulkner, J.Steinbeck, T.Wilder, R.P.Warren and even E.Hemingway, though the latter was the most popular American author among Soviet readers before the Cold War. American politicians resembled very much Soviet politicians. US Senate Antiamerican activity investigation commission did its best to abandon all books and films presenting a positive image of Soviet Russia. Cultural exchange between our countries almost stopped. But both superpowers had enough political wisdom to stop on the edge of “hot” war and began to seek the way out of a deadlock. G.Kennan and J.W.Fulbright were the first politicians and scholars to start cultural dialogue between America and Soviet Russia. In 1970-s Soviet Union joined Fulbright cultural exchange program and the first American Studies Centers were organized in Moscow by Y.Zasurskiy and N.Sivachev. American scientific conferences became very popular and significant among Russian Americanists. But still there are remnants of the Cold War. In 2007 “Veche” Publishing House issued the book “Stalin after the War” by A.Martirosyan, who distorted the image of the USA and its political leaders. But the majority of Russian scholars are partizans of constructive and friendly Russian-American cultural relations. 5. Ada Baskina MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia How to Develop a Skill of Standing One’s Ground in a Family?

►Round Table Discussion T. S. Eliot and Russia
Coordinators: Dr. Olga M. Ushakova, Dr. Olga I. Polovinkina 1. Yassen Zassoursky, MSU, Journalism Department, Russia First Edition of T.S.Eliot in Russia 2. Anatoliy G. Naiman, Moscow, Russia Interest to T. S. Eliot in Leningrad at the End of the 1950-s – Beginning of the 1960-s 3. Alexander. V. Galin, Moscow, Russia Igor Poluyakhtov as a Translator of T. S. Eliot 4. K. S. Faray, Moscow, Russia The Waste Land: a Poem or a Cantata? The Polyphonic Discourse of T. S. Eliot 5. Tatyana N. Krasavchenko, ISIS, RAS, Russia

T. S. Eliot, Akhmatova and Mandelstam 6. Dr David Ayers, University of Kent, Canterbury, Great Britain The Criterion and Communism 7. Olga M. Ushakova, Tyumen State University, Russia T. S. Eliot as an Editor: Russia and Russian Culture at The Criterion 8. Olga I. Polovinkina, Vladimir State Humanitarian Universirty, Russia Grishkin’s “Russian Eye”: an Enigma of T. S. Eliot’s Russian Personage

►Round Table Discussion “Russia - Canada: the Frontier of Mutual Understanding”
Coordinator Elena Ovcharenko (MSU, Journalism Department, Russia) 1. Meeting with Vladimir Grouzdev, Hero of Russia, Deputy of Duma, Member of Arctic Expedition-2007 Demonstration of the film Arctic Expedition-2007 (France) 2. Svetlana Davletshina, Anastasia Ougarova Academy of Social Education, Kazan, Россия Canada as Federation of Symmetrical Model 3. Kirill Markelov Russian Academy of Civil Service, Moscow, Russia Russia as Ideal and Real Image 4. Vera Parafonova Institute of Strategic Stability, Troitsk, Russia Russian Scientific Society for Arctic 5. Elena Ovcharenko MSU, Department of Journalism, Russia The New Myths: Russia and Canada in Arctic 6. Yuri Salnikov Russian Geographic Association, Russian Association of Cinematographers, Moscow Russian Chkalov and Canadian Randall - the Handshake across the North Pole Fragments of Documentary 7. Liudmila Nemova Institute of USA and Canada, Moscow, Russia Image of Russia in Canadian Media

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