Appendix 05 Text glossary

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					Text Glossary                                                                  Appendix 5
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Glossary of terms. See also a pictorial glossary for entries tagged “see picture”. Pictures
within this glossary are marked 
Acervulus (-li) – a cup shaped fruiting structure containing conidia, and resembling an
   apothecium. Typical of Melanconiales
Acropetal – spores produced in a chain where the youngest spore is at the tip of the chain
Adnate – gills on a mushroom attached squarely to the stem (see picture)
Adnexed – only a small part of the gills on a mushroom attached to the stem (gills nearly free,
    see picture)
Aecio- -- prefix meaning cup
Aleuriospore – a conidium developed from the blown-out end of a sporogenous cell or hyphal
   branch, from which is secedes with difficulty
Amerospore – one-celled conidium
Amyloid – turning blue-black to dark violet upon exposure to iodine stain or Melzer's reagent
     (see also dextrinoid)
Anamorph – nonsexual (usually conidial) stage in a fungal life cycle (sexual stage is the
   teleomorph)
Anastomosis – hyphal fusion
Annelide – complex phialide with a collar for each spore produced 
Anneolspore – formed on an annelide
Annulus – the “ring”; a band of tissue encircling the stem of a mushroom (e. g.
    commercial button mushrooms), sometimes movable
Apex – tip
Apical, at the tip (opp of basal – at the base)
Apo- – prefix meaning open
Appendiculate – with fragments of the veil of a mushroom hanging to the cap edge
Arthropod – animals with exoskeletons, such as insects and spiders and crabs
Arthrospore – a conidium formed from restructuring the walls of a septate
   hypha, so that it breaks into separate segments (hyphal fragmentation), e.g.
   Geotrichum. 
Asco- – prefix meaning sack



Ascus – sack-like structure containing the sexual spores of ascomycetes
Attached – gills fastened to the stem of a mushroom
Auto- – prefix meaning self
Ballisto- – prefix meaning thrown
Basal – at the base (opp of apical, at the tip)
Basidio- – prefix meaning small pedestal
Basipetal – spores produced in a chain where the youngest spore is at the base of the chain (e.g.,
   phialospores)
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Binding hyphae (in basidiomata) – thick walled, highly branched, aseptate, interwoven, narrow,
    binding generative and skeletal hyphae together.
Blastic development – formation of a conidium by enlargement/maturation of a newly formed
   conidiogenous cell, before isolation by a septum. Example: phialides/phialospores
Blastospore – a spore which has been budded off, as in yeast
Budding – a process of multiplication in yeasts or spores where there is development of a new
   cell (or spore) from a small outgrowth
Campanulate – bell shaped, typically describing mushroom caps (see picture)
Cap – the expanded, upper part of the mushroom; whose surface is the pileus
Cartilaginous – tough-brittle, making a noise when broken
Catenulate – in chains, or an end-to-end series, or a row (also called catenate), typically
   describing conidia
Central – describing mushroooms – with stem attached at the centre of the cap
Chlamydospore – a thick walled spore produced by thallic development. Often pigmented.
Chitridio- – prefix meaning little pot
Circinate – twisted round, coiled
Clavate – club shaped, widest at the tip (see obclavate)
Cleisto- – prefix meaning closed
Columella (-ae) – a sterile column of hyphae within a spore-bearing structure, often extending a
   supporting stalk. Sterile central axis in a mature fruit body
Confluent – for mushrooms – tissues of cap and stem alike and continuous so that cap and stem
    are not easily separated
Conic – roughly cone-shaped, generally for mushroom caps
Conidium (-ia) – asexually formed spore(s); a relatively thin walled asexual spore hat is terminal
   on the conidiophore, and deciduous at maturity
Conidiogenous cells – cells that directly produce conidia, such as phialides
Conidiophore – simple or branched hypha (a fertile hypha) bearing condiogenous cells
Context (in basidiomata) – tissue type in
    hymenomycetes (Holobasidiomycetes).
    The hyphal mass between the upper
    surface of the basidiocarp and the fertile
    layer of cells (gills, pores, teeth). The
    “meat” of the cap of a mushroom, or the
    middle of a bracket 
Convex – somewhat the shape of a 
    half-circle, regularly rounded on top
Coprophilous – living on dung (syn.
   fimicolous)
Corti- – prefix meaning bark
Cortina – a cobwebby, veil-like structure extending from cap margin to stem but soon
    disappearing (evanescent)
Cuticle – skin of a mushroom cap or stem
Cylindrical – having the shape of a cylinder
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Decurrent – describing mushroom gills as running down the stem (see picture)
Deliquescing – dissolving and falling to the ground as drops of liquid, e. g. Coprinus caps
Dematiaceae – a family in Moniliales (Deuteromycetes) with pigmented conidia and/or
    conidiophores (conidiophore pigmentation is particularly important)
Dendroid – treelike in form
Dentate – toothed
Denticle– short toothlike projection
Depressed – with the central part sunken below the level of the margin (see picture)
Deuteromycete – fungi whose life cycle is largely or exclusively asexual, reproducing by
     conidia (not asexual stages of zygomycetes in the strict sense). Typically when the sexual
     stage is known, these are ascomycetes.
Dextrinoid – turning red-purple upon exposure to iodine or Melzer's reagent (see also amyloid)
Dichotomous – divided into two
Dictyosprores – conidium with oblique and transverse septa (e.g., Epicoccum)
Didymospore – a two-celled spore
Dimidiate – semi-circular in outline
Dimitic (in basidiomata) – sporocarps with two kinds of hyphae, generative and skeletal
Dung – manure
Eccentric – not attached in the center
Ellipsoid – elliptical, with both ends similar (see ovoid)
Elongate – not globose, but this term does
    not specify a particular shape
Emarginate – notched next to the stem,
     typically describing mushroom gills
Endogenous development – when the
    outer wall layer of the most distal
    parental cell is not part of the
    developing conidium 

Eu- – prefix meaning true
Evanescent – soon disappearing
Falcate – curved like a sickle or new moon
Fertile – able to produce spores
Fibrils – small flecks or strands of fibrous material
Fibrillose – covered with or containing fibrils
Fibrous – tough, stringy, not breaking straight across
Filiform – threadlike; when referring to spore morphology also called scolecospores
Fimbriate – with hairs
Fimicolous – living on dung (syn. coprophilous)
Fleshy – rather soft, putrescent, spongy; often describing mushroom caps
Floccose –with cottony material on the surface
Fragile – easily broken
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Free – mushrooms with gills entirely unattached to the stem (see picture)
Fusoid – somewhat fusiform
Fusiform – spindle shaped, narrowing at each end
Gamy- – prefix meaning union
Gelatinous – the consistence jelly. Subgelatinous is firm jelly.
Generative hyphae (in basidiomata) – thin walled, branched, usually septate but with or without
     clamp connections, giving rise to other kinds of hyphae in the basidiocarp, as well as to the
     hymenium
Germ pore – special region of the spore from which germination occurs, often appearing a s a
    circle on the spore wall
Gills – blade-like structures on the underside of mushroom caps in the Agaricales
Gill attachment




Gill spacing




Globose – spherical or nearly so
Helicospore – cylindrical spiral spore, one or more cells
Hetero- – prefix meaning other
Heterothallism – self-sterility
Holoblastic development – the outermost
   wall of the conidium is continuous with
   the outermost wall layer of the parental
   cell. 
Holomorph –all forms produced by a species
    during its life cycle = anamorph +
    teleomorph
Homo- – prefix meaning same
Homothallism – self-fertility
Hyaline – devoid of colour
Hyalo- – prefix meaning colourless. Note – conidia are considered to be pigmented if the walls
   appear dark either separate or within a mass.
Hyalospore – one-celled conidium devoid of colour (if coloured, a phaeospore)
Hygrophanous – appearing water-soaked, especially of mushroom caps
Hymenium – fertile layer, for example on ascomata and basidiomata
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Hyphal analysis –(in basidiomata) descriptions of the development and structure of the
    sporocarps of higher fungi based on a paper by Corner, 1932, Transactions of the British
    Mycological Society 17:51 (TBMS, now Mycological Research) Basidiocarps are defined
    by the number of types of hyphae they contain: monomitic, dimitic… see individual entries
    for definitions)
Incurved – with the margin (usually of a mushroom cap) turning inward toward the stem
Inrolled – with the edge (usually of a mushroom cap) rolling up on the side next to the stem
Intercalary – between base and apex
Karyo- – prefix meaning nucleus
Lateral – a mushroom stipe attached to one side of the cap, e. g. Pleurotus
Lignicolous – growing on wood
Lenticular – lens shaped
Macroconidium (-ia)– larger, generally more distinctive conidium form for a species that also
   has microconidia.
Melanconiales – deuteromycete with conidia in an acervulus
Membranous – like a membrane; thin and flexible, or pliant
Meristem – actively dividing cells
Meristem arthrospore – one of a chain of conidia maturing in
   basipetal succession, and originating by meristematic growth of the
   apical region of the conidiophore, but not from a phialide, e. g.
   Oidium 
–merous – suffix meaning part (e. g. trimerous means in three parts)
Merosporangium – cylindrical sporangiolum in which a chain of sporangiospores develops
Microconidium (-ia)– smaller, less distinctive conidium form for a species that also has
   macroconidia.
Moniliaceae – a deuteromycete with a pigmented or hyaline conidium, whose conidiophore is
   not pigmented.
Moniliales – a deuteromycete with conidia not in a conidioma
Monomitic: (in basidiomata) sporocarp with one kind of hypha – generative
Muriform – spores having transverse and longitudinal septa, e.g. Alternaria 




Mushroom – the reproductive body of certain basidiomycetes; typically consists of cap, stem
   and gills
Mutualism – “living together” of unlike species to their mutual benefit, e. g. mycorrhizae,
   lichens.
Non-amyloid – not changing colour in response to iodine (Melzer's reagent) but staying yellow-
   brown to brown
Obclavate – club shaped, but widest at the base (see clavate)
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Obconic – not quite conical
Obovoid – like ovoid (hen’s egg shape) but narrow end at the base
Obtuse – rounded or blunt
Ochre – dingy-yellowish
-oecious – suffix meaning house
Oidium (-ia) – thin walled cell released by breakdown of a septate hypha into its component
    cells. May function as a gamete or a conidium. Conidial state of Erysiphe
Ontogeny – development
Ovoid – like a hen’s egg, with one end narrower than the other, wide end at the base (see
    obovoid and ellipsoid)
Para- – prefix meaning beside
-physis – suffix meaning growth
Paraphyses – sterile determinate hyphae that separate asci in some ascomata
Parasitic – living on or within another organism and obtaining nutrients at the expense of that
    organism (see mutualistic and symbiotic)
Penicilliate – brushlike
Per- – prefix meaning 'more than'
Peri- – prefix meaning around
Persistent – remaining for a long time
Phaeo- – prefix meaning coloured. Note – conidia are considered to be pigmented if the walls
    appear dark either separate or within a mass.
Phaeospore – coloured one-celled spore
Phago- prefix meaning to eat
Phialide – a cell that develops an open end from
    which a succession of spores are produced,
    without the phialide increasing in length.
    Basipetal spore formation. Phialides are
    typically flask-shaped and are characteristic
    of Penicillium and Aspergillus spp.
Phialospores – those produced by phialides
     Pseudo- – prefix meaning false(basipetal spore production)
Phragmospore – spore with only transverse septa (often, but not exclusively three celled)
Pip-shaped – like an apple seed
-podium – suffix meaning foot
Plasmodium – vegetative, multinucleate, motile mass of cytoplasm, lacking cell
wall and contained within a single cell membrane, characteristic of myxomycetes
like Physarum (see pseudoplasmodium). Here, Physarum plasmodia each >12 cm
in diameter
Text Glossary                                                                      Appendix 5
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Pro- – prefix meaning before
Pseudo- – prefix meaning false
Pseudoplasmodium – plasmodium formed by aggregation of amoeboid
   cells, then behaving as a single entity before sporulation, characteristic of
   Dictyostelium (compare with plasmodium)




Pycnidium (-ia) – flask shaped fruiting bodies containing conidia (asexual spores),
   and resembling a perithecium. Here, section through a Sphaeropsis pycnidium
   on the lower surface of a leaf


Pyriform – pear-shaped
Rachis – a spore-bearing extension of a sporogenous cell 




Recurved – curved with the outside of the curve expanded (like a sickle, or a new moon)
Resting spore – thick walled spore that requires a period of dormancy before germination

Resupinate – upside down; the gills face outward, and the “upper surface” rests on
             the substrate; e.g. the gills of the mushroom Schizophyllum
Reviving – having the property of expanding to normal shape and size when moistened
Rhizoid – a root-like structure, a filamentous branchike extension for feeding rather than
    reproduction
Ring – annulus
Sapro- – prefix meaning rotten
Saprobic / saprophytic gaining nutrients from dead material
Saxi- – prefix meaning rock
Sclerotium – firm, frequently rounded mass of hyphae, lacking spores per se, but functioning for
    long-term survival
Scolecospores – filiform (threadlike) spores
Seceding – at first attached to the stem but later separating from it
Secession – release, breaking off, separating of spores from sporogenous cells
Separable – easily separated or dis-joined
Serrate – with the edge broken or notched so as to resemble the toothed edge of a saw
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Sessile – without a stem; attached directly to the substrate
Setae – bristles
Shelving – attached to an object by the side of the cap and forming a shelf, like a bracket
Silky – covered with shiny, close-set fibrils
Simple – opposite of branched
Sinuate – with a U-shaped indentation next to the stem
Skeletal hyphae (in basidiomata) – thick walled, branched or unbranched, aseptate, straight or
    slightly flexuous, with thin-walled apices
Spermatium – spore acting as a gamete, e. g. in rust fungi
Sphaeropsidales – deuteromycete with conidia in a pycnidium

Sporangiole – small sporangium with one or a few
   sporangiospores but no columella (zygomycetes) 
Sporangium – large asexual sporogenous structure in
   oomycetes, chytridiomycetes, and zygomycetes, containing
   many sporangiospores 
   Image shows Thamnidium (Zygomycetes) with a large,
   terminal sporangium, and clusters of basal sporangioles

Sporangiospore – non-sexual spore produced by
   rearrangement/packaging of pre-existing cytoplasm within a
   sporangium.



Spore – general term for a reproductive structure of fungi, that does not contain an embryo. In
   fungi, spores may be single or multicelled.
Spore colour – In mushrooms, spore colour is diagnostic, and can be determined by placing a
   severed cap right-side up on a white or black paper and covering with a tumbler; usually
   after a few hours many spores will have fallen



Sporocladium (-ia) – complex of zygomycete sporangia, characteristic
     of the Kickxcellales 
Sporodochium (-ia) – cushion of laterally fused or compacted
     conidiophores, typical of Fusarium sp.
Sp(p) – abbreviation for species, singular and plural
Stalked – with a stem
Staurospore – conidia that are star-shaped (stellate) or branched
Stellate – star-shaped
Stolon – horizontal hypha that becomes anchored in the substrate at
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    points of contact (Zygomycetes: Mucorales)
Stroma – fused mass of hyphae appearing as a tissue
Stuffed – filled with a soft, rather cottony center that usually disappears in mature specimens
Sub- – a prefix meaning “somewhat”
Subglobose – nearly but not completely spherical
Subhyaline – not quite colourless, but not strongly pigmented, e.g., conidiophore of Aspergillus
   nidulans
Subtending – extending from underneath
Symbiosis – “living together” of unlike species to their mutual benefit, e. g. mycorrhizae, lichens

Sympodial growth – characterized by continued growth. After the main axis has produced a
    terminal spore, a new apex develops at one side of its base, producing a subsequent spore.
    May be repeated. Similar to rachis-like growth
Sympodulospore – produced by sympodial growth
Synnema (-ata) – a more or less compact group of erect and sometimes fused conidiophores,
    producing conidia either at the apex, or at the apex and on the sides, e. g. Graphium
Teleomorph – sexual stage in a fungal life cycle (nonsexual stage is the anamorph)
Terri- – prefix meaning earth
Terrestrial – on the ground
Throughout – in all parts of the structure
Thallic development – conidia are derived from a pre-existing cell, the fertile hypha. Septa are
    inserted after growth of the fertile hypha has ceased, and additional wall changes may occur.
    Examples: oidia and arthrospores.
-thecium – suffix meaning case
Trama – the inner tissue of the cap or gill
Trimitic (in basidiomata) – Sporocarp with three kinds of hyphae: generative, skeletal, and
     binding
Verticilliate – having parts in rings or whorls
Vesiculose – with a delicate, bubbly or foamy texture
Viscid – slimy
Whorl – a ring, one turn of a spiral
Zygo- – prefix meaning yoke; a paired structure
Zygospore – thick walled resting spore characteristic of Zygomycetes
    (here, a Rhizopus zygospore, produced between a mated pair of hyphae)

				
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