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                                                                                          Jan 186, 2002
MOpen markets work best when all participants have access to the information they need
to make intelligent buying and selling decisions. A nNew architecture breaks through
age-old barriers that isolate decision makers from real-time business data.

Architecting the Next Generation                           and systems that create it into the hands of
                                                           consumersof consumers and market participants is
RTO: …Let the information flow                             keyis key to successful deregulation.

William E. Lewis, Compaq Computer

Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) are             
under pressure to meet increasing demands for
information by regulatory agencies and the
marketplace. In this article, we present a new
information architecture designed to enable                IT Requirements: -Ppushing the envelope
interaction with energy management and business
informationbusiness information systems in real-           Deregulation business processes are IT- intensive and
                                                           require significant resources to deliver the required
time. Like open access to the grid, open access to
                                                           functionality. In the US, with its decentralized
information makes the marketplace work. Envisioned
                                                           transmission structure, the IT challenge is even
is a self regulatingself-regulating energy marketplace
in whichwhere consumers use or conserve energy             greater as Independent Systems Operators (ISOs) are
based upon real-time pricing information; and market       consolidatedare consolidated into large Regional
                                                           Transmission organizations (RTOs). The new RTOs,
participants compete on a level playing field made
                                                           with their wide- area view of the grid, are expected to
possible by open access to to real-time information.
                                                           significantly enhance the trading experience while at
real-time information.                                     the same time improving congestion management
                                                           and market monitoring.
Today’s reality is that consumers are on a roller
coaster ride with limited abilitylimited ability to        Such improvements require This means enhanced
moderate usage in response to energy prices.               application functionality and performance, effective
Distribution organizations lackorganizations lack          business intelligence systems and betterand better
automated processes for demand side management.            Wweb-based information access.
Transmission      oOrganizations        lack     market
monitoringmarket -monitoring tools. Atools. And the        Systems are evolving from homogeneous, tightly
field of market participants is littered with casualties   coupled architectures that impede rapid deployment
ranging from small brokers to giants in the industry.      of new business processes to new designs built
                                                           around Enterprise Applications Integration (EAI)
Transmission oOperators, the intermediaries between        strategies.     However, current EAI technologies
generators and consumers of electric power, keep the       have limitationslimitations , as we’ll discusswhich
lights on and run the marketplace according to state       are discussed later.
and federal regulations. They are the linchpins in a
complex, dynamic supply chain where parameters             RTO IT organizations are faced with          a set of
effecting electron travel are the purview of a few         conflicting requirements.
specialists with advanced degrees in electrical                 Scale: Increased data volumes and
engineering.                                                         processing throughput.        Systems Data
                                                                     volumes and processing throughput are
In no other industry do so many variables effect                     growing in size but most existing systems do
profiteffect profit and loss. These factors include                  not don’t scale gracefully to meet surges in
w…weather, fuel, supply, demand, emissions,                          user access and . lLegacy applications run
transmission capacity/congestion, and, and of course                 too slowly.
the rules of the trading game as set forth by local and
                                                                Scope: RTOs require real-time access to
federal governments. All of these variables are
                                                                     real-time data and increased functionality of
knownare known and understood to a greater or
                                                                     and       breadth of analytical tools; Yet
lesseror lesser degree. Getting data from the people
                                                                     existing.     d        Data     warehousing
         implementations come up short in enabling       time analysis and its capacity to assist is impossible,
         fast response incontinuous monitoring and       resulting in missed opportunities for rapid
         responding fast response to market activity.    troubleshooting and remediation.
        Security: Ttransaction reliability, enhanced
         transaction integrity and prevention of          ZLE captures real-time energy and business data as
         intrusion are musts; however safeguards can     it is produced, with linear scalability well beyond
         slow down system performance and                1000’s of terabytes and allows users to
         negatively impact business results.             simultaneously query the system without degrading
                                                         production          processingproduction-processing
Addressing any one of these is a daunting task.          performance.
Taking on all three at the same time, in a constantly
changing business and IT environment, challenges         Real-time consolidationDynamic Data Consolidation
the best IT organizations and pushes the envelop of
conventional information architectures.                  ZLE provides dynamic data consolidation, a
                                                         breakthrough that enables ISOs and other grid
Breaking through information barriers: The Zero          operators to unite into RTOs without dismantling
Latency Energy Enterprise (ZLE) Architecture             their own formation of RTOs      without dismantling
                                                         the IT systems. of local area grid operators (ISOs).
The issues of sScale, sScopecopes and sSecurity must     Through the facilities of dynamic data mapping,
be addressed to achieve needed improvements in           RTOs simply aggregate real-time energy and market
energy management and market operations and to           data from member ISOs and reassemble this data into
significantly enhance the participant experience. This   wide- area views. .      Applications include power
is certainly thecertainly the case in the US as          flow, congestion management, settlement, market
consolidation of ISO control areas into Regional         monitoring and customer information. This “virtual”
Transmission Organizations generates a manifold          approach enables deregulation architects to easily
increase in data volume.                                 configure or reconfigure the boundaries governing
                                                         control areas;, to rapidly deploy new business
Compaq Computer Corporation has already                  processes; and      to greatly enhance the market
responded       toresponded to the dramatically          participant experience.
accelerating information needs of          theof the
telecommunications and financial services industries     While allowing ZLE not only allows real-time access
by developing the ZLE architectureZLE architecture.      to mission- critical data, ZLE but also enables
Now Compaq is applying this unique, proven               operators to instantly modify business rules to be
platform to the Energy and Utilities industries.         modified on the fly based upon up- to- the-
                                                         minutesecondminute information oninformation on
Simply, ZLE is a new hybrid architecture                 the energy environment (grid congestion, trading
whicharchitecture, which marries the technologies of     activity, weather forecasts, outages, etc.). Real-time
EAI, transaction processing and a real-time highly       OASISasis, real-time -Available Transmission
scalable Operational Data Store (ODS) and deploys        Capabilitycity (ATC) and real-time compliance
them on a continuously available platform.               monitoring become realities. Transmission systems
                                                         are operated closer to their physical limits.
Real-time access                                         Consumers rapidly respond to price signals. Traders
                                                         compete on a level playing field.
The architecture breaks down through the barriers
age oldage-old brick wall separating end users from      Paradigm shift: The power of the Operational
real-time operationalproduction data. Conventional       Data Store (ODS)
wisdom holds that for data intensive applications,       Immediate access to real-time data
queries should never be allowed inallowed in real-       By solving the classic IT problem of “mixed
time because such access would degrade of the            workloads”,       real-time access to production
impact on transaction          throughputtransaction     operational data becomes possible, thus bringing , or
throughput and/or user response.                         managing “mixed workloads”, ZLE brings an
                                                         immediacy to energy information akin to that seen in
Most architectures employ data warehousing, which        today’sin    today’s     financial  and    securities
involves taking snapshots or extracts ofextracts of      markets.securities and telecommunications industries.
production data for off line business analysis. But,
such a design cannot support with such a design, real-
Rather than visualizing applications communicating
with each other over a message bus with employing a
data warehouse to extracting information for off line
analysis, a ZLE configuration puts a real-time
operational data store (ODS) is at the center of the
scheme. The ODS acts as a dynamic n integration
hub collecting and securingand buffering real-time
real-time grid data and business datatransactions
from applications such as EMS/SCADA, metering,
trading and settlements. on the fly...from every
application. And, since the ODS resides on a
continuously available platform, system-wide data
availability is ensured.

Rather than connecting directly, aApplications go to
the ODS to access data from peer applications. rather
than communicating with each other over the bus.
The ODS buffers application data and residesand
resides on a continuously available, fault tolerant
platformtolerant platform. This design prevents         The As implied earlier in this paper, the ZLE
disruption from overloaded or out of service            architecture hits its stride when reconfiguring or
applications thus overcoming a serious limitation of    consolidating business operations. Take the example
conventional EAI technologies.            The ZLE       of redefiningof redefining control areas orareas or
architecture also overcomes other limitations of EAI    combining        multiple      local    transmission
message brokers including OLTP latency; no              organizationsentities into a single       RTOsingle
message archiving; and inadequate reporting and         regional or national organization.RTO.
auditing. Other limitations with EAI message brokers
include                                                  In Figure 1, Individual ISO applications such as
                                                        congestion management continue to run as they did
      Not designed for large scale transaction          pre-merger. But now, data is simultaneously              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
    systems and sub second response                     transmitted to the RTO where the ZLE hub
            oLatency! Inability to handle OLTP          consolidates the data and delivers it to applications
                 levels of traffic                      for analysis and presentation on an RTO-wide basis
    Don’t provide message store
            oNo message archiving, reporting and         Since all relevant data resides in the ODS , data can
                 auditing                               be easily re-mapped according to new boundaries.
            oLike “traffic cop” with no memory          For example, in Figure 1, congestion, congestion
    Don’t provide a data store                         management analysis for each ISO could now be
            oDoes not enable new applications           implemented over the wide area defined by A+B+C
            oDesigned only to move messages             simply by re-mapping data within the ODS.
                                                        Similarly, ISO level market monitoring could be
                                                        expanded to encompass A, B and C.
                                                        Integration is “non-invasive”; ISO applications run as

                                                        Meanwhile, mMarket participants enter the RTO’s
                                                        ZLE Hubthe ODS over the Web through a secure
                                                        gateway and are allowed to view the state of real-
                                                        time information in raw or summary form as defined
                                                        per user.

                                                        Real-time pricing information is available to
                                                        consumers with privileged W web access a.nd
                                                        iIndustrial/commercial  enterprise information
                                                        systems receive this information directly for
                                                        automated demand response.
Behind the scenes, EAI middleware provides
messaging services and the ODS data base stores
“stateful” ISO information.       Incoming data is
evaluated on-the-fly by the Rules Engine whose
parameters can be dynamically modified based upon
energy conditions (i.e. Power outages, shortages, etc.)
or trading abnormalities. Data models such as EPRI’s
Common Information Model (CIM) or Tradewell’s
Enyware are used to map data between disparate

In conclusion, transmission organizations now have
next generation technologies which can dramatically
improve energy management and market operations
in the face ever increasing requirements of scale,
scope and security.

Compaq in Utilities and Deregulation

According to Newton-Evans Research Inc.This paper
is based upon the experience of Compaq and its
partners in serving the energy, telecommunications
and finance industriesfinance industries over the past
20 years. Today, , 65% of the world’s power is
controlled by systems from Compaq and itsits
solution energy management partners.1 The largest
telecommunications companies and the world’s
largest securities exchanges          employexchanges
employ Compaq high availability systems for
mission critical applicationscritical applications.

Beginning in the UK, Compaq has and its partners                William E. Lewis is Director of Compaq’s Global Energy and
have        been      directly     involved     with            Utilities industry segment. He received his BSEE in Power
implementationwith           implementation       of            Engineering from the University of Colorado and MBA from
                                                                Colorado State University and is a member of the IEEE Power
theparticipated in the vast majority of the world’s             Engineering Society.
power industry deregulation projects. . Compaq
iInstallations include: National Grid-UK, California
ISO, New York ISO, Midwest ISO, Grid South, New
England ISO, Ontario IMO, KEPCOepco-Korea,
NEEMCO-Australia, Singapore, ONS-Brazil. At the
heart of these installations are the EMS/SCADA
systems that monitor and control the transmission
grid and the market systems that enable participants
to conduct business.

Presently Compaq is collaborating with leading
industry consultants, application developers and
standards organizations on the implementation of
ZLE in ISO/RTO, Generation, Distribution and
Energy Trading environments.2

  Newton-Evans Research , January 2002
  ABB, Tradewell, Tabors, Caraminis & Assoc, Decision Systems
International, EPRI and others

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