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And the Passive Voice

By Isabel Rubio IES Infante Don Juan Manuel. Murcia
What do you know about
 Write as many words/sentences as you can

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Check this vocabulary
 Crop         According to

 Offspring    Label

 Breeding     Frost

 Disease      Grow

 Drought      Harm

 Added        Wildlife

 Deleted      Threats

 Unrelated    Weed

 Starch       Own
Let’s revise on
about Natural
What’s a hybrid?
 A hybrid is the offspring of two plants or animals
  of different species or varieties.

  A mule is the offspring of a donkey and a horse.
  Horse + donkey=mule
 What’s artificial selection?
 We call Selective breeding or artificial selection
  when people cross certain species to produce
  new 'varieties'.

        Pedigree dogs come in lots of different varieties (or
     breeds); they may be different colours and sizes, but they
                        are all still dogs.
             What’s a cell?

 The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism,
  typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a
  nucleus enclosed in a membrane.
         What’s a chromosome?

 A chromosome is a threadlike structure of nucleic acids
  and protein which is found in the nucleus of most living
  cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
What’s DNA?

 Each chromosome consists of a DNA
  (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) double helix bearing
  a linear sequence of genes.

 Bacteria and viruses lack a nucleus and have
  a single chromosome without histones.
What does GM mean?
A genetically modified organism (GMO) or
genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an
organism whose genetic material has been
altered using genetic engineering techniques.
Genetic engineering
 Genetic engineering enables scientists to create
  plants, animals and micro-organisms by
  manipulating genes in a way that does not occur

 Genes from one species can be artificially
  inserted into another, unrelated one.

 GM organisms have new abilities - such as maize
  that produces its own pesticide - which is disease
  and drought resistant.
Benefits: GM insulin
 Natural insulin can be taken from the pancreases
  of pigs or cattle, but this insulin does not suit some
  people and is limited in supply.

 Nowadays most insulin is synthesised using
  genetically modified (GM) bacteria.

 The gene for insulin secretion is cut from a length
  of human DNA, and inserted into the DNA of a
  bacterium. The bacterium is then cultivated and
  soon there are millions of bacteria producing
  human insulin.
What is a Genetically
Modified (GM) Food?

 Foods that contain an added gene sequence.

 Foods that have a deleted gene sequence.

 Animal products from animals that have been
  fed with GM food.

 Products that have been produced by GM
Common GM Foods
 Vegetables    Corn

 Tomatoes      Sugar cane

 Potatoes      Canola

 Rice          Cotton seed oil

 Cheese

 Soya
GM potato in EU
 The cultivation of a genetically modified potato
  and the use of three types of altered maize were
  approved by the EU in March 2010.
 It’s called Amflora and it’s developed by BASF
  (Germany); it will be grown in Germany and the
  Czech Republic this year, and in Sweden and the
  Netherlands in 2011.
- According to Basf, starch will be produced for
  paper production to help save "raw materials,
  energy, water and oil-based chemicals”.
- BASF says that starch from its GM potato will not
  be used in human food but it will be used to feed
 Genetically modified food must be labelled.

      It is not obligatory to label foodstuffs such as
      milk, meat, or eggs from animals that have
      been fed with GM food.
Potential benefits
of GM Foods according to big companies

  Development of crops which are:

     drought resistant
     salt-tolerant
     frost resistant
     disease resistant
     flood resistant
What’s wrong with GM?
 A monopoly on seed stocks by giant
  multinationals, such as Monsanto.

 Farmers must sign a contract that specifies that
  they can’t plant the seeds the following year or
  use any herbicide other than the corporation's
Who is behind?

   The multinational biotech companies
   such as Monsanto and Bayer, who
   develop GM crops, own the rights to the
   varieties they develop, which allow them
   to generate vast profits.

   They make even more money by making
   their crops resistant to just one brand of
   herbicide - their own.
Dangers of GMO
 There is still little scientific study about health risks.

 They can contaminate the environment with
  genetic pollution that is impossible to clean up.
Dangers of GMO

 Potential risks to human health.

 The risk of allergenic reactions may increase.

 Wildlife and beneficial insects may be harmed.

 Insects might develop resistance to pesticide
  used in GM crops.
Why most people say “No”
 These genetically modified
  organisms (GMOs) can spread
  through nature and interbreed
  with natural organisms,

 Non 'GE' environments can be

 Genetic pollution is a major threat
  because GMOs cannot be
  recalled once they have been
  released into the environment.
Why most people say “No”
 Because the public is being denied the right to
  know about GE ingredients in the food chain.
Why so many people say
 Biological diversity must be protected and
  respected as the global heritage of humankind,
  and one of our world's fundamental keys to
                                  Clic here

  Watch this video and
  answer the questions
 What GE crops are mentioned in the video?

 Where are these crops cultivated?

 Who owns 90% of the GE crops?

 What consequences can GE have? Why?

 What can happen to non-GE crops?

 Who produces the pesticides and herbicides for
  GE crops?

 How do GE crops affect humans or animals?
More info about GMO
 Greenpeace USA

 Info about DNA: BBC

 Info about insulin: BBC

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