Executive Summary_Khuitam_English

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					                                                        Executive Summary 
                                                     of  
                                    Environmental Impact Assessment and  
                                      Environmental Management Plan 
                                                     For  
                                          66 MW Khuitam HE Project




 
 
                                                                                
Prepared for:                                                                       Prepared by: 
                                                                                                                       
                          
                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                              Energy Infratech Pvt. Ltd. 
Adishankar Power Pvt. Ltd.                                             145‐146, Udyog Vihar, Phase‐IV        
                                                                                                              Gurgaon, Haryana                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                
CONTENTS
 KHUITAM HEP (66 MW)___________________________________________________________________

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CHAPTER                                  CONTENTS                                         PAGE
  NO.                                                                                      NO.


   1.0                 INTRODUCTION                                              :          1
   1.1                 SALIENT FEATURES OF THE PROJECT                           :          3
   1.2                 ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE DATA                               :          7
   1.3                 LAND ENVIRONMENT                                          :          7
              1.3.1    Physiography                                              :          7
              1.3.2    Geology and Seismicity                                    :          8
              1.3.3    Soil                                                      :          9
              1.3.4    Land Use/Land Cover                                       :         14
              1.3.5    Water Environment                                         :         14
              1.3.6    Air Environment                                           :         18
              1.3.7    Noise Environment                                         :         20
   1.4                 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT                                    :         21
              1.4.1    Flora                                                     :         21
              1.4.2    Fauna                                                     :         23
              1.4.3    Aquatic Ecology & Fisheries                               :         24
              1.4.4    Protected Area                                            :         24
   1.5                 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT                                :         25
              1.5.1    Project Affected Families (PAF)                           :         26
              1.5.2    Population                                                :         27
              1.5.3    Education & Employment                                    :         27
              1.5.4    Assets                                                    :         27
   2.0                 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS                                     :         28
   2.1                 LAND ENVIRONMENT                                          :         28
   2.2                 CHANGE IN LAND USE PATTERN AND                            :         28
                       PRESSURE ON LAND FORMS
   2.3                 SOIL POLLUTION                                            :         29
   2.4                 LANDSLIDES                                                :         29
   2.5                 SOIL EROSION                                              :         29
   2.6                 WATER QUALITY                                             :         30
   2.7                 NOISE ENVIRONMENT                                         :         30
   2.8                 AIR QUALITY                                               :         31
   2.9                 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT                                :         31
  2.10                 TERRESTRIAL FLORA                                         :         31
  2.11                 FAUNA                                                     :         32
  2.12                 AQUATIC ECOLOGY                                           :         33
   3.0                 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN                               :         34
   3.1                 CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT (CAT)                            :         34
                       PLAN
   3.2                 RESERVOIR RIM TREATMENT PLAN                              :         34
   3.3                 BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT & WILD LIFE                       :         35
                       CONSERVATION PLAN
   3.4                 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN                               :         36
   3.5                 LANDSCAPING AND RESTORATION PLAN                          :         36
   3.6                 MUCK MANAGEMENT PLAN                                      :         37
   3.7                 FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLAN                                 :         37
   3.8                 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION                           :         38

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CHAPTER                                  CONTENTS                                         PAGE
  NO.                                                                                      NO.


                       PLAN (R&R)
              3.8.1    Compensation of Land for Project Affected Families        :         38
              3.8.2    Proposed Financial Outlay for Local Area                  :         39
                       Development (LADP)
   3.9                 HEALTH MANAGEMENT PLAN                                    :         40
  3.10                 SUBSIDIZED FUEL MANAGEMENT PLAN                           :         40
  3.11                 SOLID WASTE AND SANITATION                                :         40
                       MANAGEMENT PLAN
  3.12                 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN                                  :         40
  3.13                 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN                             :         41
   4.0                 OVERALL COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL                             :         41
                       MANAGEMENT PLANS




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FIGURES
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                               LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO                             DESCRIPTION                             PAGE NO

       1           Location map of proposed Khuitam HE Project                     2
       2           General Layout Map of proposed Khuitam HE                       6
                   Project
      3a           FCC of Khuitam HE Project catchment                             10
      3b           Relief map of Gang river Catchment upto barrage                 11
                   site of Khuitam HE Project
      3c           Aspect map of Free Draining Catchment of                        12
                   Khuitam HE Project
      3d           Soil sampling sites in the influence zone of                    14
                   proposed Khuitam HE Project
      3e           Landuse/Land cover map of free draining                         16
                   catchment of proposed Khuitam HE project
       3f          Landuse/Land cover map of influence zone of                     17
                   Khuitam HE project
       4           Sampling sites for water in the influence zone of               18
                   Proposed Khuitam HE project
       5           Sampling site for Air in the Influence Zone of                  20
                   proposed Khuitam HE project
       6           Noise sampling site in Influence Zone of proposed               21
                   Khuitam HE project
       7           Flora sampling sites in Influence Zone of proposed              23
                   Khuitam HE project
       8           Sampling sites for aquatic ecology in Influenece                24
                   Zone of proposed Khuitam HE project
       9           Influence Zone villages of proposed Khuitam HE                  28
                   project




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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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                                                                Executive Summary


1.0     INTRODUCTION
The proposed project by M/s Adishankar Power Pvt. Ltd. is located in West Kameng
district Arunachal Pradesh and is one of the projects that are being developed on Gang
River. The main tributaries joining the Gang River are Saskang Rong, Pasom Rong etc.
Khuitam Hydroelectric Project (66 MW) is essentially a run of river Project proposed on
Gang River, a tributary of Bichom River in West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh
(Location map-Figure-1). The barrage site is located at Latitude 27o19’13.5”N and
Longitude 92o23’54.9”E. The proposed Project envisages construction of a 19 m high
barrage from the river bed level, a Head Race Tunnel (HRT) of 6.3 m diameter to carry a
design discharge of 100.35 cumecs over a length of 3 km, a surge shaft of 21 m dia, 3
penstocks of 2.90 m diameter and a surface power house with an installed capacity of 66
MW (22 MW X 3 units).


Gang River originates from an elevation of more than 4000 m and joins Bichom River at
EL 760 m. It is a right bank tributary of river Bichom in Kameng River Basin which lies
between longitude 92001’ E to 93022’ E and Latitude 26038’ N to 27058’ N. and covers
almost the entire West Kameng and East Kameng districts and also a part of Lower
Subansiri district. The total Catchment area of the Gang River is 1352 sq. km. The
catchment area up to the proposed diversion site is 1123 sq. km and the free draining
Catchment for the Project is 84 sq km between Khuitam HEP and Gongri HEP barrage
site, which is in the upstream at a distance about 10.43 km from the proposed Khuitam HEP
barrage site. The Project Component Study Area is spread over 0.49 sq km (49 ha) land
and covers the area where various Project components will be set up including reservoir
area covering 0.0632 sq km (6.32 ha) and extending for 0.8 km along Gang river. The lay
out map of the Project is presented as Figure-2.




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    Figure-1: Location map of proposed Khuitam HE project




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1.1    SALIENT FEATURES OF THE PROJECT


1.    LOCATION
      (i)     State                                      Arunachal Pradesh
      (ii)    District                                   West Kameng
      (iii)   River                                      Gang, a tributary of Bichom river
      (iv)    Location of Barrage site (WGS-84)
                      Latitude                           27° 19’ 13.5” North
                      Longitude                          92° 23’ 54.9” East
      (v)     Location of Power House (WGS-84)
                      Latitude                           27° 19’ 35.8” North
                      Longitude                          92° 25’ 49.2” East
      (vi)    Nearest rail head                          Tezpur
      (vii) Nearest Airport                              Guwahati
2.    HYDROLOGY
      (i)     Catchment Area                             1123 sq. km
      (ii)    Design flood (SPF)                         5000 cumecs
3.    RIVER DIVERSION ARRANGEMENT                        Non-monsoon          diversion        for
                                                         barrage construction in stages.
4.    BARRAGE
      (i)     Barrage top                                EL 1255 m
      (ii)    River bed level at Barrage site            EL 1236 m
      (iii)   Barrage height                             19 m
              (above river bed level)
      (iv)    Design flood (SPF)                         5000 cumecs
      (v)     Crest elevation                            EL 1236 m
      (vi)    Nos. and size of spillway opening ( w 6 Nos. 7.6 m x 10 m (w x h)
              x h)
      (vii) Energy dissipation                           Stilling Basin
5.    RESERVOIR
      (i)     Full Reservoir (FRL)                       EL 1252 m




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     (ii)    Min. draw down level                        EL 1251 m
     (iii)   Area under submergence at FRL               6.32 ha
     (iv)    Gross storage                               31.5 ha-m
6.   INTAKE
     (i)     Numbers                                     One
     (ii)    Intake invert level                         EL 1239.80 m
     (iii)   Size of gate                                5.2 m X 6.3 m (w x h)
     (iv)    Design discharge                            100.35 cumecs
7.   HEAD RACE TUNNEL
     (i)     Numbers                                     One
     (ii)    Size and type                               6.3 m dia, horse shoe shaped,
                                                         concrete lined.
     (iii)   Design discharge                            100.35 cumecs
     (iv)    Length                                      3 Km
     (v)     Adit                                        2 Nos. (one at inlet end and the
                                                         other at surge shaft end)
8.   SURGE SHAFT
     (i)     Size & type                                 21 m diameter, Restricted Orifice
     (ii)    Vertical shaft height                       70 m
9.   PRESSURE SHAFT
     (i)     Numbers                                     One
     (ii)    Type                                        Steel lined
     (iii)   Diameter                                    5.40 m
     (iv)    Upper horizontal pressure shaft length      120 m
10. PENSTOCK
     (i)     Numbers                                     Three
                                                         (trifurcated from 5.40 m to 2.90 m)
     (ii)    Type                                        Steel lined
     (iii)   Diameter                                    2.90 m
11. POWERHOUSE COMPLEX
     (i)     Type                                        Surface




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      (ii)    Minimum Tail water level at outlet         EL 1173 m
      (iii)   Turbine axis elevation                     EL 1168 m
      (iv)    Type of turbine                            Vertical Francis
      (v)     Generating units                           3 x 22 MW
      (vi)    Gross head                                 79 m
      (vii) Rated                  net            head 71.49 m
              (Design head)
      (vii) Power house size                             63 m (L) X 19 m (W) X 28.6 m
                                                         (H)
12. TRC
      (i)     Numbers                                    One
      (ii)    Size & type                                34 m wide concrete lined.
      (iii)   Design discharge                           100.35 cumecs
      (iv)    Length                                     260 m
13. POTHEAD YARD
      (i)     Type, size                                 Surface 60 m x 30 m
14. POWER GENERATION
      (i)     Installed capacity                         66 MW (3 x 22 MW)
      (ii)    Energy generation in 90% Dependable        279 MU
              year at 95 % machine availability
15.   Project Cost
      (i)    Total Hard cost (excluding escalation & Rs. 367.74 Crores
             IDC)
16.   CONSTRUCTION PERIOD                            3½ Years


The main objective of the present study is to carry out the Comprehensive Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) for the proposed Khuitam HE Project vis-à-vis to suggest
appropriate Environmental Management plan to the envisaged impacts.




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        Figure - 2: General Layout Map of proposed Khuitam HE Project




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1.2     ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE DATA
The data has been compiled for Land Environment; Water Environment; Air Environment;
Noise Environment; Ecological Environment and Socio-economic Environment. Primary
data related to the environmental attributes like air, noise level, water quality and soil was
collected from field studies for summer, winter and monsoon seasons whereas for Land
Environment baseline data set has been generated through Remote Sensing-Geographical
Information System (RS/GIS). A structured questionnaire was used for collection of
primary information on socio-economic aspects. Public perception regarding project
construction, benefits and impacts were also taken into consideration. Ecological
information was collected from field studies as well as secondary sources.


1.3     LAND ENVIRONMENT
To begin with the baseline data sets, initial information from available literature, reports,
government offices and project proponents were collected regarding locations, climate,
geology, etc. The influence zone demarcation within 10 km radius has been done with
respect to project components and reservoir rim of Khuitam HE Project. A base map was
developed to demarcate the submergence zone and influence zone of the project.
Subsequently detailed information on the road network, settlements & their demography,
etc. was collected. As a part of the study, detailed field studies on aspects related to land use
and land cover, physiography, soil type, etc. of the influence zone and free draining
catchment area including submergence zone were also conducted (Figure-3a, b c, d, e & f )


1.3.1   Physiography
The proposed barrage site is located on Gang River, a right bank tributary of Bichom River
in Kameng River basin, which originates at an elevation of more than EL 4000 m and joins
Bichom River at EL 760 m. The total length of Gang River up to barrage site of Khuitam
HE project is almost 55 km from its origin.
The Gang River has two important tributaries namely SE flowing Khouma Nala and
southerly flowing river Gongri with there confluence at Dirang. The Gongri River
originates from snow capped hills south of Gongri Chen Mountain. Khouma Nala, meeting
Gongri, d/s of Dirang originates from Sela Lake at an EL of almost 4800 m. The Gongri




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River sub-basin has a dendritic drainage with sub-rectangular to rectangular stream
segments of 2nd order. On the other hand, Khouma Nala has dendritic to sub-parallel
drainage pattern. Further downstream, the river takes NE wards turn and skirting around a
prominent fluvio- glacial fan at Selari, further travels easterly and meets the Bichom River.


Different physiographic features in all constituent sub- watersheds of Khuitam HE project
area were analyzed with the help of RS-GIS. In addition to field surveys and ground
truthing, the secondary sources like Survey of India topsheets, satellite data and GIS tools
were used to develop, analyse and interpret the spatial data base.


The slopes in the catchment area of Khuitam HEP are categorized into gentle slope (0 to
15%), moderate slope (15% to 30%), moderately steep (30% - 50%) and strongly sloping
(above 50%). The majority of the slope in catchment area is under moderately steep (45.52
%) , followed by moderately sloping (40.98 %).


1.3.2   Geology and Seismicity
The Khuitam HE project is located in Bomdi La Belt between Main Central Thrust (MCT)
in the north and the thrust defining the northern contact of Dedza-Menga Belt. The project
lies in Zone-I in the domain having under gone deformations in the Late Paleozoic period
and is located in the South Western part of the overturned antiform, on appressed northern
limb.


The Khuitam HE project lies in Zone V and for the domain, the PGA value as per Global
Seismic Hazard Assessment Program is of the order of 0.4 g (Bhatia, et al 1999). As the
barrage and other appurtenant structures of Khuitam HE project are of small height (<100
m), as per the codal provisions (IS 1893-2002), the seismic hazard may be evaluated
following ‘Seismic Coefficient Method’. However, considering active geo-dynamics of the
Khuitam HE project domain and possibility of valley effect due to its location in deep
gorge, it would be advisable to perform dynamic analysis for seismic hazard evaluation. In
this context, based on “Response Spectrum Method”, the design horizontal seismic
coefficient (Ah) for the barrage structure (Natural Period 0.0255 sec.) is estimated to be of
the order of 0.29. The vertical Design Spectrum value, when required, may be taken 2/3rd




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of the Design Horizontal Acceleration Spectrum. The stability of the barrage may be
checked accordingly. As regards to, the building structures of the power house complex,
structural specific dynamic analysis and modal analysis should be performed.


1.3.3 Soil
Arunachal Pradesh, the largest mountainous state of India, is situated in the Northeastern
part of the Himalayan region and is characterized by high annual rainfall, forest vegetation
and diversity in soils. A soil resource inventory and subsequent database creation for
thematic mapping using a GIS is presented in this study. Studies available shows that soils
of the warm per-humid eastern Himalayan ecosystem with a ‘thermic’ temperature regime
are Inceptisols and Entisols; and that they are highly acidic in nature. Soils of the warm per-
humid Siwalik hill ecosystem with a ‘hyper-thermic’ temperature regime are also Entisols
and Inceptisols with a high to moderate acidic condition. The dominant soils of the
Northeastern Purvachal hill ecosystem with ‘hyper-thermic’ and ‘thermic’ temperature
regimes are Ultisols and Inceptisols. Inceptisols and Entisols are the dominant soils in the
hot and humid plain ecosystem. Steeply sloping landform and high rainfall are mainly
responsible for a high erosion hazard in the state.




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                Figure - 3a: FCC of Khuitam HE Project catchment




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    Figure - 3b: Relief map of Gang river Catchment upto proposed barrage site of Khuitam HE project



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    Figure - 3c: Aspect map of Free Draining Catchment of Khuitam HE project

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 As a part of field studies, soil samples from various locations in the study area at a depth
 ranging from 20 to 50 cm were collected and analyzed during Winter, Pre-Monsoon and
 Post- Monsoon seasons (Refer Figure-3d) . Soil sampling is carried out at Barrage Site,
 Power House, Munna Camp, and Salari & Rahung Village. The results of the analysis of
 soil samples for the winter, summer and monsoon seasons are given in table below.


               Soil Quality at different selected sites during different seasons
S.no                Parameters                  Summer               Monsoon                Winter
 1     pH                                         7.13                  7.10                    7.11
 2     Bulk Density (g/cc)                        1.35                  1.36                    1.29
 3     Water Holding Capacity (%)                 39.4                  38.5                    38.8
 4     Soil Texture                           Sandy Loam            Sandy Loam            Sandy Loam
 5     Soil color                           Blackish Brown        Blackish Brown        Blackish Brown
 6     Available Nitrogen (mg/kg)                 44.53                43.15                    42.54
 7     Available Phosphorus (mg/kg)               1.95                  1.87                    1.84
 8     Carbonate (mg/kg)                          121.4                121.8                    120.4
 9     Magnesium as mg (mg/kg)                    116.2                120.8                    137
10     Conductivity (μS/cm)                       338.2                337.8                    337
11     Organic matter (%)                         2.74                  2.86                    2.42
12     Chloride (mg/gm)                           0.21                  0.10                    0.18




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    Figure – 3d : Soil sampling sites in the influence zone of proposed Khuitam HE
    project

1.3.4 Land Use/ Land Cover
The catchment area of Khuitam HE project is dominated by hills with forest patches in its
vicinity. The land use/land cover pattern for the, free draining catchment and the influence
zone was interpreted from RS-GIS data for the year 2008. The interpreted land use/ land
cover map free draining catchment and influence zone is given as Figure 3e & 3f
respectively.


1.3.5 Water Environment
Clean water is a crucial ecosystem service that supports natural habitats as well as many
economic activities. The levels of pollution found in rivers, for instance, affect all
agriculture, tourism and industrial activities. Water quality is often described in terms of a
number of physico-chemical and biological parameters depending on the intended use of
water. River water quality is described for instance by parameters such as Dissolved
Oxygen (DO), pH, Temperature, Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliforms. Seasonal
variations in average value of Physical & Chemical characteristics of the Gang River are
presented below. Water sampling locations are represented as Figure-4.




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                    Water quality of Gang River during different seasons
S.No              Parameters                  Summer              Monsoon                Winter
1       pH                                      7.12                 7.64                 7.10
2       Temperature (0C)                        16.8                 14.4                 11.2
3       Turbidity (NTU)                          <2                   <4                   <2
4       Colour                                Colorless           Colorless             Colorless
5       EC (µs/cm)                              93.4                  87                  89.4
6       Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l)            70                  65.2                 57.6
7       Chloride Cl (mg/l)                      17.9                13.04                 13.88
8       Sulphate SO 4 (mg/l)                    8.28                 6.76                  7.8
9       Total hardness (mg/l)                    32                  24.4                 28.8
10      Calcium Ca (mg /l)                      6.32                 5.18                  5.6
11      Magnesium Mg (mg/l)                     4.04                 3.18                 3.56
12      Phosphate-P PO 4 -P (mg/l)              0.04                 0.04                 0.036
13      Nitrate NO 3 (mg/l)                     1.44                 1.28                 1.66
15      DO (mg/l)                               7.82                 7.92                 8.06
16      Iron Fe (mg/l)                          0.23                 0.15                 0.58
17      Fluoride F (mg/l)                       0.15                 0.16                 0.16
18      Chromium (Cr) (mg/l)                     ND                  ND                    ND
19      E.Coli (MPN/100 ml)                      Nil                  Nil                  Nil
20      Coliform (MPN/100 ml)                    Nil                  Nil                  Nil




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Figure - 3e: Landuse/Land cover map of free draining catchment of proposed Khuitam HE project

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Figure – 3f: Landuse/Land cover map of influence zone of Khuitam HE project

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Figure - 4: Sampling sites for water in the influence zone of Proposed Khuitam HE
project


1.3.6 Air Environment
The measurement of baseline ambient air quality before starting the project work is
important. As a part of the field studies, seven Ambient Air Quality Monitoring locations
were identified and monitored. The sampling at each station was done for a period of two
days. The below given table presents (location map of air quality monitoring sites Figure-5
summarized values and results observed for each of the location. The highest NOx level of
16.8 µg/m3 was observed at station located in 14 Mile Camp upstream of barrage site
during summer season and the lowest NOx level of 8.6 µg/m3 was observed at station
located near Barrage site during monsoon season. The NOx level observed at various
sampling station in the project area and the study area was much lower than the permissible
limit of 80 µg/m3. The highest SOx level of 14.8µg/m3 was observed at station located in
Munna Camp village near Bomdila Tawang Highway during summer season whereas
lowest SOx level of 6.2 µg/m3 at barrage site was observed during monsoon season. The



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SOx level observed at various sampling station in the project area and the study area was
much lower than the permissible limit of 80 µg/m3.
                                                       RSPM            SPM
Site                                                        3
               Season               3              3
                         SOx (µg/m ) NOx (µg/m ) (µg/m )               (µg/m3)       Features
               Winter        7.6            9.5             24              71       Forest      &
Barrage Site
               Summer        8.5           10.2             30              74       micro
               Monsoon       6.2            8.6             18              65       Hydel       at
Mean                         7.4            9.4             24              70       this site
               Winter        8.2            9.8             30              75       Forest      &
Power House
               Summer        8.9           10.5             31              78       Agriculture
               Monsoon       6.9            9.2             28              75       Land
Mean                         8.0            9.8            29. 7            76
               Winter        9.2           11.5             33             121       Village & a
Salari village Summer        9.6           12.3             38             126       large no. of
               Monsoon       7.8            9.8             28             112       Vehicle
Mean                         8.9           11.2             33            119.7      Movement
               Winter        10.2          13.5             39             122       Bomdila
Munna
               Summer        14.8          15.6             42             128       Tawang
Camp
               Monsoon       13.2          14.6             34             104       highway
Mean                         12.7          14.6            38.3            118
               Winter        7. 8          11.1             32             106
Jirigaon       Summer        8.9           12.5             36             117       Nafra
               Monsoon       7. 2           9.2             29              90       Bomdila
Mean                         8.0           10.9            32.3           104.3      Road
Rahung         Winter        12.2          15.4             38             118
village        Summer        13.2          16.5             42             132
               Monsoon       8.9           10.2             39              95       Bomdila
Mean                         11.4          14.0            39. 7           115       Nafra road
14 Mile        Winter        13.6          14.2             35             122       Bomdila
Camp           Summer        14.2          16.8             36             120       Tawang
               Monsoon       9.2           11.2             32             114       highway
Mean                         12.3          14.1            34.3           118.7




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    Figure – 5: Sampling site for Air in the Influence Zone of proposed Khuitam HE
    project

1.3.7 Noise Environment
As part of field studies, noise level was monitored at various locations in the study area
Figure-6. The noise levels were monitored continuously for 10 hour at each station during
daytime. The noise level at different station was well within the permissible limits. The
noise levels at different sites are given in table below.


                                                Sound level in Leq (dB)
 Location                     Winter                     Summer                     Monsoon
 Barrage Site                   35.2                        32.9                       34.8
 Power House                    38.1                        38.1                       37.1
 Salari Village                 44.5                        45.6                       44.8
 Munna Camp                     43.3                        48.7                       42.2
 Jirigaon village               35.9                        37.2                       33.1
 Rahung village                 44.6                        45.7                       39.7
 14 Mile Camp                   43.9                        47.8                       43.6




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    Figure - 6: Noise sampling site in Influence Zone of proposed Khuitam HE project



1.4 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
The vegetation of the valley remarkably varies due to various microclimatic and ecological
factors. In the entire valley of the catchment, the area is either covered by dense forest
along the ridges or degraded open forests interspersed with agricultural fields in lower
reaches. As a part of study, primary field survey was carried out for floral and faunal
diversity assessment for which the study area has been classified in to two categories: (I)
Influence Zone area that is the area in the region within 10 km radius from the project site.
and (II) project study area where project components are proposed.


1.4.1 Flora
The objective of the study was to prepare an inventory of flora, listing of rare, endangered,
economically important, and medicinal plant species and to determine frequency,
abundance and density of different vegetation components. The project area covers tropical
semi-evergreen forest comprising of Assam alluvial plains and Sub-Himalayan light
alluvial semi-evergreen forest in lower reaches. The vegetation in these forests (in lower



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foothills of the project area) comprises tropical plains and riverine semi-evergreen plant
species. In the mid hills sub-tropical wet hill forest occurs, while towards higher elevations
wet hill temperate, dense mixed coniferous, sub-alpine and alpine forest are prevalent To
understand the community structure, vegetation sampling was carried out in different zones
i.e. Barrage site area, Power house area, submergence zone, up stream of submergence area
etc. on the basis of the presence of vegetation cover. At each of the sampling site, trees,
shrubs and herbs were represented by fifty quadrates. Sampling sites for flora vegetation
and quadrate location is represented in Figure – 7.


The vegetation data collected in the field survey was assessed by conducting phyto-
sociological analysis. In the present field survey, a total number of 127 species (95 species
of Higher Group & 32 Lower group) of plants were recorded under the ecological
investigation during different sampling seasons. Out of which 28 were trees, 30 were shrubs
and 37 were herbs. The ground vegetation comprised of ephemeral, annual, and perennial
species of grasses, sedges, legumes and non-legume forbs. The main uses of these species
are timber, fodder, firewood, fiber and medicine. Many of them are nitrogen fixers which
are mostly preferred in agro forestry for increasing the soil fertility. Besides above uses, the
plants which are useful for ornamental value, edible fruits and bee forage are also listed.
Out of 127 floral species present in the entire Study area of proposed Khuitam HE project,
none of the species of RET category as per Red data Book (Nayar & Shastry 1987) were
recorded from the Influence Zone and Project Study area.




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    Figure – 7: Flora sampling sites in Influence Zone of proposed Khuitam HE
    project

1.4.2. Fauna
The terrestrial fauna covers a wide variety of the taxa from vertebrates and invertebrates. In
the present context mammals, avifauna, amphibians, reptiles have been assessed from
vertebrates and insects from invertebrates. Information about the fauna has been collected
based on Faunal surveys , through field visits and direct and indirect sightings, Transact
methods and Interaction with the local residents, frequent interview and meeting local
people in order to collect the information regarding occurrence of wild animals and bird.
The primary survey has been conducted during February, June, July and October 2009.
Secondary information was gathered from Department of Forests, Zoological Survey of
India and other scientific publications. Total 92 species of Terrestrial fauna have been
identified in influence zone of Khuitam HE Project. Out of them, birds represent the highest
number with 43 species, followed by 24 species of Insect, 11 species of mammals, 8 species
of Reptiles and 6 species of amphibians receptively.




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1.4.3      Aquatic Ecology & Fisheries
Arunachal Pradesh is the home of various types of endemic and migratory fish species due
to presence of major rivers. The proposed Khuitam HE Project lies on the Gang River in
West Kameng district. Ichthyofaunal diversity of Gang River comprises with 12 species
belonging to the families Cyprinidae, Psilorhynchidae, Sisiridae, Garrinae (sub family),
Cobitidae, Balitoridae, Channidae, and Rosborinae. Total 11 fish species were reported
from the Gang River during primary survey. Out of these 4 endangered and 3 vulnerable
fish species has been identified. Sampling sites for aquatic ecology are presented in Figure
- 8.




       Figure – 8: Sampling sites for aquatic ecology in Influenece Zone of proposed
       Khuitam HE project

1.4.4     Protected Area
The proposed project area is neither potential site for wildlife sanctuary nor offers migration
route to any major animal species. No National Park or Sanctuary exists in the vicinity of
the project area. The nearest protected areas are Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger
Reserve and Sessa Orchid Sanctuary which are located at 24 km, 33 km and 40 km (aerial
distance) from proposed project, respectively.



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1.5     SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
Proposed Khuitam HE Project lies in West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh. The
Construction of 66 MW Khuitam HE Project is of importance to Arunachal Pradesh
because it has the opportunity to earn a great deal of revenue by exporting its hydroelectric
power to other power deficient states of the country. The Khuitam Hydroelectric Project
requires total land of 49.14 ha. Out of which 6.32 ha land is coming under submergence.
Two village viz. Salari and Rahung are falling in the project area.


                     Total Land requirement for Khuitam HE Project
S. No    Project Component                      Surface Area (ha)         Underground Total Area
                                                Surface        River      Area (ha)            (ha)


1        Submergence                            3.36           2.96                        -    6.32
A        Surface Structure
         At Barrage Site : -
2        Barrage Complex Area                   5.53           1.11                        -    6.64
3        Borrow Area                            2.69           -                           -    2.69
4        Construction Facilities Area           1.97           -                           -    1.97
5        Muck Dumping Area                      2.21           -                           -    2.21
6        Proposed Road                          0.34           -                           -    0.34
7        Magazine Area                          0.16           -                           -    0.16
8        Proposed Foot Track                    0.04           -                           -    0.04
         At Power House: -
9        Borrow Area                            4.45           -                           -    4.45
10       Muck Dumping Area                      4.08           -                           -    4.08
11       River/ Soal Area                       -              1.28                        -    1.28
12       P.H Complex & Cons. Facilities         9.15           -                           -    9.15
13       Surge Shaft Area                       2.36           -                           -    2.36
14       Permanent Colony Area                  1.54           -                           -    1.54
15       Rock Quarry                            2.61           -                           -    2.61
16       Proposed Road                          0.96           -                           -    0.96
B        Under Ground Structures
a        Adit At Power House (* Area            -              -                    0.16        -




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S. No    Project Component                       Surface Area (ha)        Underground Total Area
                                                 Surface       River      Area (ha)        (ha)


         included in Surge Shaft Area at Sl.
         No 14)
b        Surge Shaft & Pressure Shaft ( *        -             -                    0.19       -
         Area included in Surge Shaft Area
         at Sl. No. 14 & P.H Complex &
         Construction Facilities at Sl. No.13)
c        Head Race Tunnel (HRT) ( *Out of        -             -                    2.22       2.21
         2.22ha, 0.01 ha area include in
         Surge Shaft at Sl. No.14)
d        Adit At Barrage ( * Out of 0.20ha,      -             -                    0.20       0.13
         0.07 ha included in Muck Dumping
         Area at Sl. No. 5)
e        Barrage Intake Tunnel ( * Area          -             -                    0.09       -
         included in Barrage Complex at Sl.
         No. 2 )
Total                                            41.44         5.35                 2.35       49.14


1.5.1   Project Affected Families (PAF)
In order to evaluate the land details of the population residing around the Khuitam HE
project a property surrey has been carried out in the year 2009. In addition to this a
comprehensive socio-economic, land use and demographic field survey was conducted to
quantify and understand the socio-economic status of the Project affected families. For
undertaking the survey, a questionnaire was framed which catered to the demographic
features, immovable assets, livestock holding, existing health and sanitation facilities, etc.
The scope of the field survey remained confined to the 2 Project affected villages Salari and
Rahung in West Kameng district which are likely to be affected by the acquisition of land
for construction of various components of the proposed project. A total of 38 families are
PAF Out of which 24 families are residing in Salari village and 14 families belong to
Rahung village. The entire area is dominated with various tribal societies viz. Monpa,




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Sherdukpen, Adi & Galo tribes. Most of tribal communities are devotees of Buddhist
religion.


1.5.2    Population
Total population of the project affected families of two villages is 210 belonging to 38
households. The Sex ratio of Salari and Rahung Village is 1140 and 1300 respectively. All
project affected persons are Scheduled tribe, which belong mainly to Chanadok, and Raji
communities of Monpa tribes. Maximum number of PAPs comes from the Salari village
followed by Rahung village.


1.5.3     Education & Employment
Average literacy rate among the Project affected families is 66% which is significantly high
in male population. The high literacy rates in the affected families can be attributed to their
location near Bomdila Township which has well developed education facilities. About 40%
of the total population of affected families has got education up to primary level; it
decreases to 10% at graduation level.


1.5.4     Assets
A total of 69 houses, 18 Cowshed and 49 others facilities are owned by the PAFs, however,
none of these structures are located on the land that is proposed to be acquired. The village
wise detailed break up of these assets is presented in Table below. The Socio-economic
survey locations are represented as Figure-9.


S.       Village    House,    Cowshed,       Water          Threshing      Boundary       Others
No.      name       no.       no.            Tank, no.      yard
1        Salari       52            11            0                0            3              30
2        Rahung       17            7             3                0            3              19
        Total         69            18            3                0            6              49




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      Figure – 9: Influence Zone villages of proposed Khuitam HE project


2.0      ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
The section summarizes the possible impacts which may be caused on the surrounding
environment including Physical, Biological and Social environment during construction and
operational phases.


2.1      LAND ENVIRONMENT
Few impacts of construction phase are permanent and majority of the environmental
impacts attributed to construction works are temporary in nature, lasting mainly during the
construction phase or quite often little beyond the construction period. However, if these
issues are not properly addressed, the impacts can continue even after the construction
phase for longer duration. The time required for construction of the project activities will be
3½ years.


2.2     CHANGE IN LAND USE PATTERN AND PRESSURE ON LAND FORMS
The changes in land use pattern and pressure on the land form which may be caused in
some major construction activities i.e. Immigration of labour population, quarrying



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operations and muck disposal, operation of construction equipments, construction of roads,
barrage and power House. Apart from these some other impacts i.e. inundation of land,
change in land use pattern and topography and soil erosion and siltation of reservoir which
may be caused during operation phase.


2.3     SOIL POLLUTION
Approximately 6.78 lakh m3 of muck is estimated to be generated during excavation of the
tunnel, power house and other project components. It is proposed to utilize part of the muck
generated for construction of barrage, approach roads, parking lots, etc. Disposal of the
remaining quantity of muck may change soil property and cause soil pollution. Therefore,
there should be proper arrangements for its dumping so that the disposed muck does not get
scattered unwontedly. The muck disposal yard (spoil tips) created for disposal needs to be
strengthened with the help of engineering measures and the drainage in such areas needs to
be executed properly. Besides it, during peak construction phase, congregation of labour
force is likely to create problems of sewage disposal and solid waste management causing
soil pollution. These aspects need to be addressed in the form of suitable labour camp
facilities including sanitation and disposal facilities.


2.4     LANDSLIDES
For the fragile ecosystem of Himalaya, landslide is one of the major problems since past
and any new developmental activity may cause the severity of this problem. Nearly 6
landslide zones have been identified along the periphery of reservoir rim mostly along the
roads network. During construction of project, landslides may be triggered by the quarrying
and blasting operations and construction of roads, barrage and power house. To control
landslide due to project activities, proper construction management along with treatment
measures for unstable slopes etc. needs to be adopted.


2.5     SOIL EROSION
The topography of the project area has steep slopes, which descends rapidly into narrow
valleys. Any ground breaking activity for construction works, whether permanent or
temporary, would require removal of vegetation cover from ground. With the removal of
vegetal cover, erosive action of water gets pronounced and accelerates the process of soil




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erosion and formation of deep gullies. Excessive soil erosion and mass movement of soil is
likely to disrupt the natural drainage, which can lead to impounding of runoff in dangerous
preposition. Accumulation of sediment in the reservoir may decrease the water storage
capacity of the reservoir, ultimately leading in efficiency losses.


2.6     WATER QUALITY
During the construction of the Khuitam project, extensive use of water will be there as most
of the activities are related to cement and concrete works. The project will have crushers
and batching plants to generate aggregates and sand. The production of aggregates and sand
entails its washing by water and disposal of such sediment laden water in the river stream
will require sedimentation tanks to make it free from sediment before its release in to river.
In addition to this, the water coming out of the tunnels during construction may also bring
lot of sediments and finally merge in river water, which can change the physical and
chemical property of water. A sedimentation tank is required to settle the sediments before
releasing polluted water in to the river water.


During operation phase reservoir discharge may differ from natural stream water in many
physicochemical characteristics. The discharge of this water from the impoundment can
strongly influence the quality of water downstream. The major water quality parameters
likely to be affected are water temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrient transport, and
turbidity. Although in case of Khuitam HE project very small reservoir along with daily
discharge of water will not affect hydraulic regime much. During the operation phase, due
to absence of any large scale construction activity, the cause and source of water pollution
will be much different. Since, only a small number of O & M staff will reside in the area in
a well designed colony with sewage/septic tank facilities and other infrastructural facilities,
the problems of water pollution due to disposal of sewage are not anticipated. Thus, no
impacts are anticipated as a result of disposal of effluents from the project colony.


2.7     NOISE ENVIRONMENT
In a Hydro Electric Power Project, the impacts on ambient noise level are expected only
during the construction phase, due to operation of the equipments. Some minor impact on




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Noise level may be expected during blasting, quarrying process and the movement of
vehicles.


2.8     AIR QUALITY
Air pollution occurs in Hydro Electric Project mostly during the construction period. The
major air pollutants generate from quarry site, from the transportation activities, and also
from the DG sets. SO 2 which gets emitted as a result of combustion of diesel from the
generators and vehicles. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) mostly comes from the quarry
site and from roads during transportation work. Regular water sprinkling around project
area road can minimize the load of SPM in Air environment. Regular maintenance of
machines and vehicle can reduce the chemical pollutants from the air.


2.9     SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
Resettlement & rehabilitation of local peoples and their assets are the major issue in
establishment of Hydro Electric Projects. It is difficult to locals people to restarts their
lifestyle in new way and correlate their self in new society. The rehabilitation plan needs to
be formulated carefully and sensibly so that after a reasonable transaction period, the
displaced persons can improve or at least regain their previous standard of living, as soon as
possible. However in case of Khuitam HE project no resettlement of PAF is needed only
partial land holdings are being acquired.


About 750 people will be involved during the peak season of the construction activity and
some of the technical staff of O&M Department will be stationed at the project site during
the operation period. Thus the project would provide substantial direct employment and in
addition to these, more people would be indirectly employed for allied activities.


Total 66-MW electricity generated from the Khuitam HE Project, will be merged in the
national grid. The addition of power in the national power grid will help the nation and the
state to progress in a big way. Apart from this, Khuitam HE Project will surely ensure the
development of area through introduction of roads, hospitals, education facilities, tourism
activities, etc.




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2.10    TERRESTRIAL FLORA
The direct impact of construction activity for any water resource project in a mountainous
terrain similar to that of proposed project is generally limited in the vicinity of the
construction sites only. A population of 750 persons including technical staff, workers and
other group of people are likely to congregate in the area during the peak time of project
construction phase. It can be assumed that the technical staff will be of higher economic
status and will live in a more urbanized habitat, and will not use wood as fuel, if adequate
alternate sources of fuel are provided. However, workers and other population groups
residing in the area may use alternative fuel. Hence, to minimize such impacts, fuel
management not only for the labour force but for the villagers needs to be formulated. It is
also required that project proponents ensure that no illegal tree felling takes place in the
project area. Similarly options for community kitchen, etc. for the labour force can also be
worked out to reduce the overall fuel requirements.


The total land required for the project is 49.14 ha out of which about 19.44 ha is temporary
in nature. For the forest land compensatory afforestation will be required. About 6.32 ha of
land are required for submergence. From loss of endangered, threatened and rare plant
species point of view, it has been documented that none of the flora species of the
submergence zone of Khuitam HEP falls under these categories. Moreover, all the species
are reported in the nearby forests/region as well. The catchment and influence zone of the
Khuitam HE Project has a large array of the diversity in timber, fuel, food, fodder,
vegetables and medicinal plants which are naturally or artificially growing in the region.
After the primary field study, it is evaluated that, there are no any floral species falls in any
conservation status based on Red Data Book.


2.11    FAUNA
Total 92 species of Terrestrial fauna have been identified in influence zone of Khuitam HE
Project. Out of them, birds represent the highest number with 43 species, followed by 24
species of Insect, 11 species of mammals, 8 species of Reptiles and 6 species of amphibians
receptively. As per the Red Data Book list some of the animals reported fall under various
conservation categories. Among mammals, 3 species falling in the vulnerable category are
reported from influence zone and 1 mammalian species (Sus scrofa) is reported from the




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Project study area.. Considering the fact that the faunal species reported under threat are
generally found in upper reaches of the catchment and especially considering the large
number of settlements in and around the project area of Khuitam HE project, it is unlikely
that they would be affected in any way by the proposed project. The project area and its
surroundings are rich in avifauna. However, water birds are not very common in the area.
With the Barrage of the river, the reservoir with surface area of about 6.32 ha will be
created, with quiescent/tranquil conditions. The reservoir banks will have wet environment
throughout the year which can lead to proliferation of vegetation e.g., grass, etc. along the
reservoir banks. Such conditions are generally ideal for various kinds of birds, especially,
water birds. This is expected to increase the avifaunal population of the area. Considering
this point, along with a due consideration of floral and faunal diversity, it is felt that the
location has significant potential for improving the habitat of the influence zone in and
around the reservoir rim of proposed Khuitam project. Here it is also worth noting that in
the entire Gang River catchment, there are no sanctuaries or reserves or parks as the
biodiversity of the region is well spread. Henceforth, it is felt that habitat improvement of
the influence zone will not only help in attracting the avifauna, but would at the same time
help in attracting tourists.


During project operation phase, the accessibility to the area will improve due to
construction of roads, which in turn may increase human interferences leading to marginal
adverse impacts on the terrestrial ecosystem. Considering the very thin presence of
terrestrial fauna in this area, no adverse impact is anticipated during operational phase.


2.12 AQUATIC ECOLOGY
The river stretch of proposed project between Khuitam and Salari village has a length of
about 3 km. The normal practices of fishing are very rarely exercised by local fishermen.
The local people of this area practice fishing practices only in river tributaries. During the
construction phase of Khuitam HE Project the aquatic ecosystem and biodiversity is not
expected to alter considerably as the water of river Gang will remain in its original course.
Construction of Barrage at village Khuitam however require diversion of river affecting the
span of river for about 3 km in length and the water will be diverted by making components
like HRT and surge shaft are going to be executed underground on the left bank pose no




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interference in aquatic ecosystem and biodiversity. During the operation phase of the
project, the obvious change in aquatic diversity is going to take place in terms of fish
movement upstream and downstream of the Barrage. However, the provision of fish ladder
in the design of the barrage structure shall be able to facilitate the spawning and pre-
spawning movements of the migratory fishes


3.0     ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN
Based on the detailed assessment of environmental parameters, detailed Environmental
Management Plans have been formulated, which defines actions to be undertaken during
the construction and operation period of the project.


3.1     CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT (CAT) PLAN
The Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) plan focuses on the management techniques to
control erosion in the catchment area of a water resource project. The life span of a
reservoir is greatly reduced due to erosion in the catchment area. Sufficient protective
measures are thus required for the treatment of catchment for its stabilization against future
erosion. The total free draining catchment area of the Gang River up to the proposed
barrage site is about 84 sq km up to the tail water level of proposed Gongri HE Project on
Gang River. In the present study `Silt Yield Index’ (SYI), method has been used. In this
method, the terrain is subdivided into various watersheds and the erodibility is determined
on relative basis. Overall financial provision for CAT Plan under Engineering, Biological
measures, other provisions, administrative changes and contingencies is for Rs. 235.75.


3.2     RESERVOIR RIM TREATMENT PLAN
Reservoir Rim Treatment Plan refers to the stabilization of landslide along the periphery of
reservoir, protection of banks at confluence where streams joining the reservoir and
mitigate the effects of debris flows on critical slopes. Reservoir Rim Treatment Plan is
essential to check the sedimentation in the reservoir caused by loose debris on critical slope,
landslides and instability of streams at the confluence where it joins the reservoir due to
reservoir operation.




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A detailed survey was carried out along the periphery of the submergence zone of Khuitam
Hydroelectric project to delineate the zones of weaknesses (talus cones, stream network
draining to the reservoir and the existing landslides). A total of six landslides have been
identified around the reservoir of Khuitam HE project. A sum of Rs. 58.15 lakhs are
proposed to the treatment of reservoir rim.


3.3    BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT & WILD LIFE CONSERVATION PLAN
The Biodiversity conservation and Wildlife Management Plan for the proposed 66 MW
Khuitam H.E. Project has been formulated considering the existing Wildlife (fauna and
flora) profile of the region, customs, cultures and traditional rights of Monpa tribe,
conservation significance of the area, State Biodiversity Conservation Strategy Action
Plans (SBCSAP) and Biological Diversity Act (2002). It may be stressed here that during
the primary flora/fauna survey in the Project area where construction activities are
proposed, none of the species of rare, threatened or endangered category was recorded;
however, recognizing the need for conservation and likelihood of their existence in the
vicinity areas, a comprehensive biodiversity management plan is drawn up.


Natural Resource Management
Natural resource management can be achieved by Joint Forest Management (JFM)
activities by involving the locals through local NGOs and coordinated efforts of the Project
proponents and the government. This joint programme should be carried at various levels
like awareness programmes, financial incentives to villagers for their involvement,
awareness about continued survival and importance of wildlife, etc. Total financial outlay
for the natural resource management would be Rs. 5,50,000/- (Rs. Five lakh Fifty
Thousand).


Forest Protection Plan
For the improvement of vigilance and measures to check poaching, measures in terms of
infrastructure facilities, acess roads , bridges, check posts, watch towers etc.) and survey/
camping facilities. Organizing occasional public awareness programmes, conducting
training camps, preparation of research documents, pamphlets, brochures, hoardings, etc.




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Wildlife Management
The wildlife management plan shall comprise of measures such as up-gradation of check
list of wildlife of the area, expansion of Wildlife habitat, infrastructure development, special
conservation of habitat of vulnerable species, improvement of existing waterholes and
spring, rehabilitation of a small wildlife health cum ex-situ conservation centre , patrolling
and surveillance, anti-poaching and hunting operational measures, study of Wildlife
population during the Project implementation, enhancing bird diversity and dynamics, eco-
development and community participation, awareness, education and sensitizing of fringe
population. A Lumpsum amount of 12 lakhs has been allocated for management of the
Wildlife.


The total cost estimated for Biodiversity Management and Conservation Plan for Khuitam
HE Project is Rs 2,950,000


3.4 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN
To mitigate the environmental impacts arising during project construction require the
development of green belt in the project area. In the proposed Khuitam H.E. Project, the
area taken for the development of green belt around the reservoir is around 8.7 ha along the
periphery of the reservoir and 10.75 km plantation on approach road sides. A total of Rs.
24.09 Lakhs is proposed for this purpose.


3.5 LANDSCAPING AND RESTORATION PLAN
Various construction activities would be involved in Khuitam HE Project viz. construction
of colonies of staff and laborers, road linking to various components of project, offices,
workshops etc. Total area likely to be affected due to these activities is around 21 ha. This
land also includes areas likely to be disturbed due to quarries, barrage construction and
powerhouse site. At present, the proposed project area is mostly covered with open forest
particularly at barrage and power house site. Other project components excepting barrage &
power house area are also covered by open forest. It is therefore important that after the
project work and related activities are over, these disturbed areas are restored to bring them
back to their similar or near to similar pre-construction condition or in improved state. It
will be essential for the project authorities to restore the area to its natural/ original state




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after completion of the project. For the restoration and landscaping of the colony and other
disturbed regions in the project, a budget of Rs. 9.96 Lakhs is proposed in the management
of Restoration and landscaping.


3.6 MUCK MANAGEMENT PLAN
The construction of Khuitam HE project envisages construction of a barrage, a surface
powerhouse, a head race tunnel and development of infrastructural works for constructional
and operational purposes. It is expected that the execution of project would generate huge
quantity of excavated material as muck. The components that would generate muck are
diversion tunnel, barrage, open channel, silt flushing tunnel, surge shaft, pressure shaft, and
tailrace tunnel.


It is estimated that about 6.78 lakh m3 of muck would be generated. Out of which 40 % of
total muck shell be used in the construction phase such as construction of gabions, retaining
walls, buildings, roads, etc. The remaining quantity taking a swelling factor of 30% works
out to 5.28 lakh m3 which will be dumped at the proposed dumping sites of 6.29 ha at
Barrage and power house site (4.08 ha at power house site and 2.21 ha at Barrage site). The
overall cost estimate for restoration of muck disposal sites, therefore, works out to Rs.
101.00 Lakhs.


3.7 FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLAN
The fisheries management has been aimed towards multiplication of important commercial
fish species and the conservation of threatened species and economic enrichment of the
region. During baseline study, it was found that the river Gang and its tributaries have three
main migratory fish species namely Seemira (Garra gotyla gotyla), Sucker throat catfish
(Pseudecheneis sulcatus) and Snow trout (Schizothoracids/ Schizothoracines). Considering
these factors, provision of fish ladders is of utmost importance. Subsequently, evaluation of
environmental flows to sustain the aquatic ecology between barrage and powerhouse site is
felt necessary. Finally, to overcome the minor impacts on fish population, it is necessary
that the conservation of these three fish species should be done with the help of fish farm
and hatchery creation. A well facilitated Fish hatchery is also established by state
Government in Salari village. It has been, therefore, proposed to support State Fisheries




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Department financially for creation of hatchery as well as fish pond for proper fish
management. Two slide type fish pass gates of size 0.5 x 1 m shall be provided to allow
water for fish passage providing in the barrage. The total cost proposed for Fisheries
Management Plan is Rs. 86.00 Lakhs.


3.8 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION PLAN (R&R)
Base line status of the socio-economic environment in respect of the Khuitam HE project
was evaluated for population status and cultural environment, land holdings and other
parameters. On the basis of baseline studies and data, a comprehensive Resettlement and
Rehabilitation (R&R) Plan for the Khuitam HE Project has been formulated, In order to
formulate the R&R plan, the guideline issued by the Arunachal Pradesh State Government
under its R & R policy and the recommendations of National Rehabilitation and
Resettlement Policy for Project Affected Families – 2007 and the draft National Policy for
the Scheduled Tribes, Govt. of India which outlines measures for Local Area Development
Plan (LADP) have been considered. The affected families would be compensated for
acquisition of their land in accordance with the local norms applicable for such acquisition.


As per the assessment carried out, there are 38 PAFs that are likely to get affected/lose their
agricultural lands and community lands due to acquisition of land for the proposed Khuitam
HE Project. Foremost, they would have to be compensated for the acquisition of their lands.
Over and above this compensation, the PAFs will be given the best option between the
rehabilitation benefits as per the NRRP – 2007, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy of
Arunachal Pradesh Government (2008) and the draft National Policy for the Scheduled
Tribes, Govt. of India and the best option among the policies have been selected. All the
PAFs who are expected to loose land would be compensated as per the rates that would be
assessed and decided by the State Government.


3.8.1   Compensation of Land For Project Affected Families
The total land affected due to various Project activities is 49.14 ha, which belongs to
individuals as well as community. 38 families are Project affected families whose only land
is getting affected by the construction of Project components. The land of Rajii, Chanadok
and Rahung Communities is also getting affected by the Project.




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         R&R package for the Project affected families of proposed Khuitam HEP
Particulars                                                   Nos.             Amount (in Rs.)
A) Scheduled Tribe family grant Total Number @ Rs.                   38            1,900,000
50,000/-
B) Vulnerable Person Grant Pension for vulnerable                    63            11,340,000
persons (average life 50 years per person) @ Rs.
500/month for lifetime
C) Free Electricity grant 100 units per month for PAF’s              37            2,280,000
for 10 year No. of families @Rs. 5.00/unit (lump sum
rate)
D) Livelihood grant                                                  37            3,800,000
E) BPL Family grant                                                  24            12,000,00
Grand Total (A+B+C+D+E)                                                            20,520,000


3.8.2      Proposed Financial Outlay for Local Area Development Plan (LADP)
In addition to the above provisions and R & R benefits for the Affected families, Project
developer would aim at the improvement in the living standards of inhabitants in the Project
area by not only being a catalyst for development but also will develop infrastructure in the
area. The infrastructure development will be other than rightful compensation to the Project
affected families. A fund under the name LADF will be created for development of
infrastructure in the Project affected area. In order to provide the infrastructural facilities
and amenities for social and area development survey was carried out for the Existing
Facilities within the Project area. The total outlay for the Rehabilitation and Resettlement
(R&R) Plan of Khuitam H.E. Project is Rs. 83,049,000.00 inclusive of LADP.


Overall cost estimates of R&R plan for Khuitam Hydroelectric Project
S. No.                          Item                                 Amount to be paid (Rs)


1          R & R grant                                        20,520,000.00
2          Local Area development programme                   62,529,000.00
                          Total                               83,049,000.00




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3.9     HEALTH MANAGEMENT PLAN
Public Health & Delivery system is one of the essential aspects in environmental
management activities. In respect of Environmental Management Plan for Khuitam HE
Project, a sum of Rs. 100.96 Lakhs has been proposed for public health & delivery system
under Health management Plan.


3.10    SUBSIDIZED FUEL MANAGEMENT PLAN
Congregations of a labour force along with villagers are likely to create pressure on forest
resource on the area which will imbalance environmental matrix of the area. In this regard
subsidy on LPG connection is proposed. As far as project proponents and their contractors
are concerned, supply of subsidized fuel to the labours should be ensured. The overall cost
works out to be Rs 7,663,050 for Subsidized Fuel Management Plan.


3.11    SOLID WASTE AND SANITATION MANAGEMENT PLAN
Improper management of solid waste causes all types of pollution: air, soil, and water.
Uncontrolled dumping of wastes accelerates the contamination of surface and ground water
supplies. After proper understanding of locations of labour camps, residential areas,
hospitals, office complex, etc., provisions for solid waste management facilities are made
for safe collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste for which Rs. 3,510,000 is
kept in the estimate. It is estimated that 156,000 liter of sewage shell be generated from
labour camp per day. It is therefore proposed to treat the sewage generated from labour
colonies before disposal. In this regard about 60 community latrines and 6 septic tanks have
proposed to be constructed.


3.12      DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN
In respect of hydroelectric project, disaster is the phenomenon of any type of failure of
barrage as well as disturbance caused by natural factors like earthquake. In view of the
adverse effects of barrage failure, it is imperative to assess the flows expected in the
downstream reaches and prepare a relevant disaster management plan, well in advance to
minimize the loss of life and property. The flood wave, in case of failure of barrage, is
expected to reach the downstream stretch of about 28.258 km approximately in 1 hour. This




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means that very little time would be available for execution of any rescue and/or evacuation
plan. Therefore, the Disaster Management Plan has been devised mostly for preventive
measures; however, it is noted that no settlement or infrastructural facilities fall in the area
likely to be affected.


Monitoring: The project authorities (Adishankar Power Pvt. Ltd.) should prepare an
effective Barrage Safety Plan including barrage safety surveillance and monitoring scheme.
This should also include rapid analysis and interpretation of instrumentation and different
observation data along with periodic inspection, safety reviews and their evaluation.
Communication System: An efficient communication system is absolutely essential for
the success of any disaster management plan. This has to be worked out in consultation
with local authorities.
A sum of Rs. 38.6 Lakhs has proposed in respect to Disaster Management Plan.


3.13    ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN
Environmental monitoring provides feedback about the actual environmental impacts of a
project during all stages (namely: Construction, Commissioning and Operation) to ensure
that the impacts are no greater than predicted, and to verify the impact predictions.
Monitoring results help to judge the success of mitigation measures in protecting the
environment. They are also used to ensure compliance with environmental standards, and to
facilitate any needed project design or operational changes. In this regard a monitoring
committee consisting of member from Ministry of Environment & Forests, GoI, State
Forest Department, Pollution Control Board, Administration of West Kameng District, and
Representative of Project Proponent may be constituted to evaluate the efficiency of works
being implemented. It is further strongly felt that the agency associated with formulation of
EIA/EMP study should also be involved in the monitoring of EMPs implementation. A sum
of Rs 61.81 Lakhs has been proposed for environmental monitoring plan.


4.0 OVERALL COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLANS
The over all cost of environmental Management Plans has been made of Rs. 1688.04
Lakhs. The detail of total cost of Environmental Management Plans is mentioned below:




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                      Cost Estimates for Environmental Management Plan


     S. No.    Item                                                     Cost (Rs. Lakhs)
     1         Catchment Area Treatment                                 235.75
     2         Bio-diversity Conservation                               29.50
     3         Greenbelt Development                                    24.09
     4         Reservoir Rim Treatment                                  58.15
     5         Landscaping & Restoration                                9.96
     6         Muck Management                                          101.00
     7         Fisheries Management                                     86.00
     8         Health Management                                        100.96
     9         Subsidized Fuel Management                               76.63
     10        Solid waste Management                                   35.10
     11        Disaster Management                                      38.60
     12        Environmental Monitoring                                 61.81
     13        Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan                       830.49
                              Grand Total                               1688.04




Executive Summary                                                                              42

				
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