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					  DATA COLLECTION FOR TRAVEL PLAN SURVEYS –
  HOW TO COLLECT VALID AND APPROPRIATE DATA
                                1
                                 Szakonyi Petra, 2Makó Emese
                         1
                         Győr Megyei Jogú Város Polgármesteri Hivatal
         Győr, Városház tér 1, H-9021 Győr, Hungary, e-mail: szakonyi.petra@gyor-ph.hu;
         2
             Széchenyi István Egyetem; Közlekedésépítési és Településmérnöki Tanszék
                 Győr, Egyetem tér. 1, H-9026 Győr, Hungary, e-mail: makoe@sze.hu

ABSTRACT: The municipality of Győr participated in the last five years in two Intelligent
Energy Europe projects (Promotion project, Travel Plan plus project) which aim was to deliver
transport-sector energy savings by creating a new approach to site-based mobility management
across Europe. During the development of the two projects there has been worked out two
Local Travel Plans, one for the residential area Ménfőcsanak, in the city, Győr and one for the
educational institutions of Győr. The first one is a so called ‘area travel plan’ and the second
one is a so called ‘work travel plan’. The aims of these studies were to reduce CO2 emission
caused by private car users and to promote sustainable mobility choices for the residents of the
area and for students. In order to solve the future mobility challenges in a sustainable way it is
necessary to analyze the existing travel demand and modal-split caused by target groups
(residents and students).
It is important to develop Local Travel Plans for residential areas and schools, based on
quantitative travel behavior data, which can be used for modeling of current and future
transport to provide optimized solutions for daily mobility.
Travel behavior of people depends on many things, e.g.: socioeconomic status, personal
attitude, the situation of the available modes of transport, etc. and the relationship of all of
these. Therefore is necessary to analyze the specific travel patterns in order to guarantee valid
transport modeling and appropriate forecast procedures.
Nowadays it is very hard to collect appropriate data for spatial planning and transport
development, most of them is insufficiently detailed and does not count with the personal
motivation of people. Most of the available mobility data based on car traffic demand and the
number of public transport users.
Due to this, it is very important to collect data from various sources according to the needed
detail of a Travel Plan.

KEY WORDS: data collection, travel demand data, passenger travel, modal-split, traffic
modeling
                           1. Specific request of Travel Plan surveys

A high quality survey of Travel Plan has specific request. Travel Plan surveys has to be started
with the analyzes of the site (e.g.: location of the site, available transport infrastructure, status
of the infrastructure and available mobility services etc.) and the target groups (demographic
indicators etc.). Following the spatial analyzes, the most important information comprises the
following data: origin and destination of all trips, the purpose of all trips, the mode of transport
of all trips and the personal motivation of decision.
In order to get information about, how much changed the mobility behavior of the target groups
two questionnaires has to be prepared, one at the beginning and one at the end of the project,
which has to be filled out by the target groups.
It was very important, to know how much changed the mobility behavior of the inhabitants and
the students, thanks to the project, in order to calculate the energy efficiency of the project as
well.
To arrange valid and appropriate data about the mobility behavior of the residents in the first
project case (Promotion) 600 persons from 272 households have been asked by personal
inquiry in 2008 at the beginning and in 2010 at the end of the project. The questionnaire was
designed to collect data about travel patterns and to relate them to personal characteristics as
well as accessibility of the houses by public transport social status of the respondents. The
interviews were prepared by specially trained students. In the second project case (Travel Plan
plus) 1000 students from 4 schools have been asked by questionnaire was designed to collect
data about the mobility behavior of students. The questionnaire were handed out and collected
by teachers.

                                          2. Introduction

2.1 The Pro motion project
At the beginning of the Pro.Motion project, in May 2008 we have analyzed the status of the
available transportation infrastructure and services of the site and completed a survey that
showed us the mobility behavior, preferences and needs of the inhabitants. Apart from the
above listed personal data the following questions has been raised in the survey. From the
answers of these questions we could analyze the change of the inhabitant’s behavior about
traveling.
            Where do you go to work, to school in a daily basis?
            What percentage do you use these modes of transport for getting to work or
              school?
            What percentage do you use these modes of transport for getting to shops,
              bureaus?
            What percentage do you use these modes of transport in your free time?
The last questions of the questionnaire have been raised in order to get to know the opinion
of the inhabitants about the public transport.
            Are you satisfied with the P+R parking in your town?
            How convenient are the distances of the bus stops from your home?
            Are you satisfied with the frequency of the buses when going to work?
            Are you satisfied with the level of service of public transport when going to work?
            Are you satisfied with the frequency of the buses using it in your free time?
              Are you satisfied with the level of service of public transport using it in your free
               time?
              What is your opinion of the public safety from the bus stop to get home?

2.1.1 Analysis of the survey

Where do you go to work, to school in a daily basis? The city of Győr has been divided into 13
quarters; the respondents had to choose among these. There was a possibility to answer “to
work at home” or in an other settlement. The pie chart illustrates that the share of inactive
respondents, who do not go anywhere regularly was 27%. The second biggest part of the
inhabitants goes to the city centre with 18%. The nearest quarter of the city to Menfőcsanak is
Marcalvaros, there work or study 9% of the respondents. The other part of the city of high
account of daily destination is Gyárváros with 10% where most of the former industries as well
as the new industrial park of the city is located. 11% of the pollee work in Ménfőcsanak and
3% at home (see figure 1). It was very important to know where has to commute the residents
in daily basis in order to reduce the number of commuters with the tools of spatial planning and
transport infrastructure and service development.



                                                                                 Ménfőcsanak
                Where do you go to work, to school?                              City center
                                                                                 Marcalváros I-II.
                                                                                 Ady-város
                                                      11%                        Szabadhegy
                 27%                                                             Nádorváros
                                                                         18%     Révfalu
        3%                                                                       Gyárváros, Ipari Park
                                                                                 Győrszentiván
   0%                                                                            Sziget, Újváros
  2%
                                                                                 Gyirmót
   1%                                                                 9%
                                                                                 Bácsa
     1%                  10%                                   4%
          2%                          3%     4%        5%                        Likócs
                  1%                                                             Other
                                                                                 At home
                                                                                 Do not regularly

                 Figure 1. Distribution of employees and students per city quarter

What percentage do you use these modes of transport for getting to work or school? The modal
choice of the respondent can be seen in the figure 2. The highest proportion of the inhabitants
use their car to get to work or to school, 38% as driver, 20% as passenger. The second biggest
proportion is the choice of the bus with 27%. 9% ride their bike on a daily basis, which is
approximately the same proportion as of the whole city. 4% go walking to work or to school
out of the 16% of the active inhabitants who’s daily destination is Ménfőcsanak according to
percentages of working or studying in the own village or at home. The number of inhabitants
who use car as passenger, and who ride a bike, and travel by bus increased slowly. Compared
to the last survey, the number of pedestrian and people who travel by train remained stable.
Contrarily, the number of car drivers decreased by 3 percent.




                        Modal split of getting to work or school


                                                       20%
                                                                            Car pessenger
                38%                                             2%          Train
                                                                 4%
                                                                            Pedestrian
                                                                            Bicycle
                                                                            Bus
                                                               9%
                                                                            Car driver

                                          27%




                        Figure 2. Modal split getting to work or school

What percentage do you use these modes of transport for getting to shops, bureaus? The last
survey ago, we can see some moderate change about the following chart. The pie chart
represents that people who travel by train remained stable. The number of people who go to
work or school on foot declined from 4 % to 2 %. The number of car passengers went up from
22 % to 23%. In contrast to it, the number of car drivers dropped by 1 %. There was a slight
growth the number of bicyclists. This information helped us to know which services has to be
improved in the area or what are the missing services in order to reduce number of trips outside
the site.


                           Modal split of getting to shops, services




                                                        23%
                                                                           Car pessenger
                                                                0%
               46%                                                         Train
                                                                2%         Pedestrian
                                                                           Bicycle
                                                                           Bus
                                                               12%
                                                                           Car driver
                                                17%




                        Figure 3. Modal split getting to shops, services
What percentage do you use these modes of transport in your free time? The pie chart indicates
that car still stands first on the list again, but with lower proportion than at the other two
activities. The bus has lower percentage than at the other kind of destinations but the cycling
has a bit more proportion and the walking has remarkably bigger sector than above with 13%.
According to the last survey the number of car passengers and inhabitants who travel by train
remained stable. We have to mention here that free time activities were defined rather broadly,
e.g. visiting neighbours or having a beer in the local pub are also part of this 13% figure.



                               Modal split of free time activities


                                                         20%
                   29%                                                        Car pessenger
                                                                  1%          Train
                                                                              Pedestrian
                                                                              Bicycle
                                                                   13%        Bus

                    14%                                                       Car driver
                                                 23%




                           Figure 4. Modal split of free time activities

The last questions of the questionnaire have been raised in order to get to know the opinion of
the inhabitants about their opinion of the public transport, which is the most common used
transport mode among the residents, which could be the competitor of car. In the bar chart the
horizontal axes shows the satisfaction of inhabitants. The vertical axes represents the survey’s
questions. The respondent are quite satisfied with the P+R parking, it has received the highest
rate among the questions concerning the public transport. The user satisfaction about the public
safety when walking home from the bus stop is adequate. As it is shown in the following chart,
the inhabitants of Ménfőcsanak are dissatisfied with the level of public transport when they
have to go to work. With the frequency of the buses they are not too satisfied, it has received
3,1 point for going to work or school and it has achieved 3,3 point for free time activities. Their
judgment about the distances of the bus stops and their home is suitable.
                                                       User satisfaction


          Are y ou satisf ied with the P+ R parkings in y our town?
                                                                                                              4,7

  What is y our opinion of the public saf ety f rom the bus stop to                                           4,5
                               get home?
 Are y ou satisf ied with the lev el of serv ice of public transport in                                       3,3
                            y our f ree time?
  Are y ou satisf ied with the f requency of the buses in y our f ree                                         3,1
                                  time?
   Are y ou satisf ied with the lev el of serv ice of public transport                                        2,8
                           when going to work?
  Are y ou satisf ied with the f requency of the buses when going                                             3,3
                                 to work?
  How conv enient are the distances of the bus stops f rom y our                                              4,1
                                  home?

                                                                          0   1    2       3        4     5         6

                                                                                  level of satisfaction




                                                                                                                        Fi
                                     Figure 5. Modal split getting to shops, services

We faced the consequences about the survey and organized campaigns to change people’s
behavior for instance bicycle parade, media campaign, educational programs. We often
cooperated with the actors of the local public transport, for example Kisalföld Volán Zrt (Local
Bus Company), Hungarian State Railway, Hungarian Bicycle Association and local Bicycle
Club to improve services in the area. It was very important to improve infrastructure facilities
and services to the site as well to change the negative behavior of the inhabitants and be more
energy efficient in transport. We created strategies in accordance with the promotion principles.
Aside from the budget we planned P+R and B+R parking scheme and built one B+R parking as
a Pilot action in order to promotion. Outside the promotion budget, from national funding we
have get built a new bicycle lane between the new living areas and the city of Győr and we
have improved bus services and changed time table.

In 2010 we have repeated our survey. As a result of media campaigns, educational programs
and the improvement of service standards, the inhabitant’s behavior is get better than before
Pro.Motion project. All the infrastructural investment causes positive change about people’s
traffic preferences. The figures shows that more people use bicycle and public transport rather
than car. During the campaigns a lot of people get knowledge about energy efficient transport.
We reduced the proportion of individual car drivers, and increase the number of people who
use the public transport.

            Because of the Pro.Motion project:
              Number of car drivers decreased travel to work or school by 5 %
            Number of bicyclists increased by 2 %
            Number of public transport users increased by 1 %
            Use of P+R and B+R increased by 1 %
            Co2 emissions reduced by 3 %

2.2 The Travel Plan plus project

In the TRAVEL PLAN PLUS project there has been worked out a Local Travel Plan for three
primary schools in the city, Győr. These schools are located in different parts of the city. One is
in the city centre, the very reputed Gárdonyi School, which has students from all around the
city. Therefore it creates a big mobility demand among the parents. The second primary school
is also close to the city centre, but it has more students from its neighborhood. According to our
survey, which has been filled out in all the three schools by students and parents, the modal
share of cars getting to and from these two schools is very high, about 60%. The third primary
school is located in the suburbs, where all the students live close to the school. Their choice of
mobility is rather walking and biking, about 70%. The aim of this study was to promote
sustainable mobility choices of the students. Beside public transport, biking and walking new
ways of travelling has been recommended to establish for the municipality of the city, such as
encouraging of car pooling and creating a school bus system.

2.2.1 Analysis of the survey

Within this study a survey has been prepared in order to analyze the correlation between
enrolment and modal share. Three primary school has been involved in the survey:
      Gardonyi Géza Primary School and Kindergarten,
      Kolcsey Ferenc Primary School and Kindergarten,
      Moricz Zsigmond Primary School.
The survey process the basic data of the polls, furthermore we were looking for answers for the
following questions: What is the modal share in the three chosen schools, what kind of
transport mode would the children choose if they could, and what are the priorities of the
parents when choosing a transport mode.
The number polls in the three schools were the following:

Students:                                                Parents:
Gardonyi School: 352                                     Gardonyi School: 92
Kolcsey School: 47                                       Kolcsey School: 6
Moricz School: 159                                       Moricz School: 63


What it is the modal share of getting to school in the three primary schools? The modal share
of the Gárdonyi students is shown in the following picture. One quarter of the students walk to
get to the school and only a small proportion ride a bike. 19% of the students get to school by
bus and 57% by car. When getting home some part of the students who arrive by car go on
walk or use a bus.
                Modal share of getting                           Modal share of getting
                 to Gardonyi School                            hom e from Gardonyi School


                                             w alkin                               w alkin
                                                g                                     g
                                              23%                                   26%

                                                              car
                                                   bike                                 bike
                                                              46%
                                                   1%                                   1%
                  car
                  57%
                                               bus
                                               19%                                bus
                                                                                  27%


                                Figure 5. Modal split of the Gárdonyi school

The modal split of the Kölcsey school is very similar to the Gárdonyi School, but the share of
car users is even higher and the share of bus users is even lower. Walking and riding a bike is
much more popular and common in the Móricz School than in the inner city schools. The
higher share of the sustainable modes is due to the location of the school. Győrszentiván is one
of the suburbs of Győr, almost all the students come from this district.


                          Modal share of getting
                            to Moricz School


                        car
                       20%                          walking
                                                     34%


                 bus
                 9%




                              bike
                              37%

                                     Figure 6. Modal split of the Móricz school

What is the reason for the high rate of car usage in the inner city schools?One of the reasons is
that high percentage of the parents go to work by car, therefore they take their children to
school on the way. Another reason is that in the two inner city schools students go from further
distances. According to the answers of the parents 41% of the students come from more than
3km.
Desired transport modes of the children choose One question of the survey targeted the desired
transport mode of the children, what kind of transport they would choose if they could.
According to their answer much more students would choose the bike, as they actually do, and
only one third of the pollee would like to get to school by car.
Priorities of the parents when choosing a transport mode Children in the primary schools have
less influence to their own mode of transport than their parents. In their answers parents
emphasize the air pollution, the health and fittness of the children, and the occasion for talking
to each other on the way. Furthermore the personal safety was among the most important
aspects.
The next question of the survey was: Would you consider changing the transport mode of your
child, if the way was safer? 57% of the parents said ‘yes’, but 43% still prefers its own comfort.
How could be the way safer for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users? Principally the
parents urge to build safe traffic crossings and bike paths. Based on the accident data the
biggest part of the accidents happen in crossings, so it seems to be a right remark.
Priorities of the parents when they choose transport mode. Children in the primary schools
have less influence to their own mode of transport than their parents. In their answers parents
emphasize the air pollution, the health and fitness of the children, and the occasion for talking
to each other on the way. Furthermore the personal safety was among the most important
aspects.




                      Figure 7. Priorities of parents when choosing transport mode

In 2011 we have repeated our survey. As a result of educational programs (environmental
awareness rising campaigns in schools, bicycle rental for children, bicycle summer school, etc.)
and the improvement of services the student’s and parent’s behavior is get better than before
Travel Plan plus project. All the infrastructural investment causes positive change about
people’s traffic preferences. The figure shows that more students use bicycle and public
transport than before. Since the project has been finished, more new services has been offered
in this year (2012) e.g.: “Magic” School bus (with training videos on board), “Bicycle train”
which is a safe way to go by bike to school, because an adult lead the children to school by
bike.
Because of the Travel Plan plus project:
 Number of car drivers decreased travel to school by 5 %
 Number of bicyclists increased by 2 %
 Number of public transport users increased by 1 %
 Co2 emissions reduced by 3 %

                                        2. Introduction

In the European Union as well in Hungary, there is high interest in managing car traffic. One
approach developed for addressing the journey to work is known as ‘workplace travel
planning’. This paper reported on 2 case studies of Győr residents undertaking travel planning
who had cut commuter driving. It concludes that behavioral change can be achieved in a
variety of contexts – but first of all the travel planning process has to be started with a proper
analyses to get know the mobility behavior of employers and after that usually need an overall
strategy that addresses to improving alternative travel modes.

                                           References
[1] Koren Cs., Makó E., (2008) Modal split and transportation attitude in Győr-Ménfőcsanak
Analysis of a survey, Széchenyi István University Transport Infrastructure Department
[2] Koren Cs., Makó E., Turbók A., B., (2010) Travel Plan for Primary Schools in Győr in the
framework of the TRAVEL PLAN PLUS Project, Széchenyi István University Transport
Infrastructure Department
[3] S. Cairns; C. Newson; A. Davis; (2010) Understanding successful workplace travel
initiatives in the UK -Transportation Research Part A pp.:44 473–494

				
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