ppt - CERN by linfengfengfz

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									Large Scale Facilities and
  Centres of Excellence
 The CERN experience

   Luciano MAIANI. CERN
 European Laboratory for Particle Physics

                                                CERN Member
                                                States (2002)




Observer States:                                        P-P, very high energy



EU                                Cold anti-P
Israel, Turkey                                                     P, high energy

Japan, Russia, USA                              Nuclear physics
                                                                   P, low energy
CERN’s network in Europe

•Strongly based in universities
•20 members, ~270 institutes, ~4600
users
•Studentships, fellowships, etc.
Annual throughput of ~400 engineers
and ~500 physicists

Large Hadron Collider :
 a Global project with mostly
(≈80%) Regional support
 Community > 5000 physicists
world-wide
2000 MEuro of high-tech orders
over a decade - many placed by
universities.
       Registered CERN Users, July 2002


                                        637
        70
                        4306
                                  18
       538                             34              22   87
                                              4
          12                                      55

                   27                                       10




Member States            Others
Observer States                   Total non-Member States: 1735
                                  Number of users




                    100
                          200
                                300
                                      400
                                            500
                                                  600
                                                        700
                                                              800
                                                                    900
                                                                          1000




                0
       <
           20
      20
        -2
           4
      25
        -2
           9
      30
        -3
           4
      35
        -3
           9
      40
        -4
           4
      45
        -4
           9
      50
        -5
           4




Age
      55
        -5
           9
      60
        -6
           4
      65
        -6
           9
      70
        -7
           4
      75
        -7
           9
      80
        -8
           4
                                                                                 Age Distribution of CERN Users (July 2002)
      Research based on excellence
                  ACCESS TO EXPERIMENTS
• Excellence assessed by independent peer review
                        WIDE GEOGRAPHY
• Research knows no borders, and “anyone from anywhere” can
  propose to conduct an experiment at CERN. The committees will
  look carefully at the merit of the proposal, and how it will be funded,
  but neither the passport not the home base are key factors.
                        MULTIPLE FIELDS
• We don’t only need excellent theoretical and experimental particle
  physicists. We need excellent staff in multiple fields – accelerator
  construction, detector design, electronics, mechanical engineering,
  IT, etc.
    Anti-Hydrogen
 Gymnastic and Detection



Hot plasma




Cold plasma
 The Large Hadron
 Collider in the LEP
 Tunnel




Proton- Proton Collider


    7 TeV + 7 TeV
                             first targets:
                             •Higgs boson (s)
                             •Supersymmetric Particles
Luminosity = 1034cm-2sec-1   •Quark-Gluon Plasma
                             •CP violation in B
Towards the origin
ATLAS and CMS Caverns
        Barrel Toroid Integration Work @ CERN
                                                           Integration 1
                                                 Integration 1 contracted to an outside Firm in
                                                           2000 for ~ 3.5 MCHF
                                                 End 2001 the Firm stops preparation work
                                                           with substantial financial claims
    conductor pancake                            Feb 2002 ATLAS negotiated a new solution
                          Al coil casing                   with the second bidder + CEA Saclay
P(resin + m-
spheres)                                                   + JINR + ATLAS team to do the work
                                                           at CERN
                                                 Work will start in bldg 180 mid May 2002.
                                                           Original cost and schedule respected.

    bladders    prepag                        Integration 2
                                            Work contracted to the JINR group + CEA Saclay
                                                                + ATLAS team in bldg 180.
                                            Tooling prepared, readiness on schedule
                                            Includes final functional test

               cryostat
The first ATLAS Barrel Toroid vacuum vessel arriving at CERN
CMS: Magnet Barrel Yoke finished
String 2: one complete
   LHC cell, 120 m




    Being operated now
Spreading the message
       and/or
 Involving the others
CERN beyond the Member States
• Several NMS countries help to construct the
  LHC – notably Canada, India, Japan, Russia
  and USA
• Many others participate in the LHC
  experiments
• CERN is arguably the largest lab in the world
  for both the Russian and US particle physics
  communities
Infrastructure - beyond the European Member States
                             The win-win situation
  • Excellent researchers are not limited to EU-15 countries, nor even to greater
    Europe
  • People often very well-educated and highly motivated
  • If we can find the right specialities, everyone can become a major winner
  • Raw materials, heavy engineering, assembly of one-off sub-detectors, software
    components, are all things that can be spread around imaginatively…..
  • We need to engage these researchers and their governments
                                                    CMS feet from Pakistan




                                         LHC corrector
                  Russian warm dipoles   magnet from India
          Access
• It is sometimes tempting to make access dependent on
  “membership”, but particle physics has tended to be able to
  use a different approach
• Experiments running on our “facilities” tend to be based on
  very large (50-2000 person) collaborations
• This allows people from economically weaker countries to
  join with those from stronger regions
• So we tend not to look at the passport of the people making
  proposals

• But (in general) we expect people who have not funded the lab
  infrastructure to contribute more than their “fair share” to the
  cost of the experiment
• The contribution can take many forms, such as assembly
  effort, software, … Look for the “win-win”.
                       Mobility
     • Getting the new researchers to the infrastructure
     • Getting the staff of the lab to the new nations
     • Schools




The Joint CERN-
Dubna School
   Integration
• Don’t erect, or, if they exist, tear down any administrative
  barriers
• Encourage these countries to send students
• Run summer schools in new countries
• Look for funding for all of this
• CERN has good experience with ISTC and INTAS - thanks to
  EU (among others)
• Also NATO and Soros play some important roles, especially
  for computer networking
• We have high hopes of EU support to engage researchers
  from, for example, Latin America, the Mediterranean basin,
  SE Europe, the Caucasus, and Asia
Computer Networking and Grids
   Computer networking as basic
      research infrastructure
• You need up-to-date information to be a world-class
  researcher
• Today you (mainly) get that info mainly through your
  terminal (plus phone, video-meetings, and
  conferences)
• Surest way for weak countries to lose their best brains
  is to provide them poor connectivity

• Triple requirement - Campus, National Network,
  International Connectivity
       World Wide Collaboration
         distributed computing & storage capacity




CMS:    1800 physicists
        150 institutes
        32 countries
                  Grids
• Next step beyond the Web is the Grid
• A way for researchers to share their
  computing resources - including processing
  power, data and information
• CERN is very active here, with DataGrid,
  CrossGrid and DataTAG
• Plus strong national efforts in several
  countries - USA has Globus, GriPhyN and
  PPDG, UK has GridPP and major e-Science
  efforts. Also F, I, NL, ….
Processor
farms : the 90's
supercomputer  Mainframe              Mini-
                                      Computer


                   vector Supercomputer
      Tools: Fabrics and Networks




                                                                  Needed for LHC at CERN in 2006:
                       RENATER       National Research                         Storage
                                         Networks
                            SWITCH                                     Raw recording rate 0.1 – 1
                b/s




                      b/s                                                    GBytes/sec
              2M




                 0M                           Mission Oriented
               10      b/s        IN2P3                          Accumulating at 5-8 PetaBytes/year
                  34 M                         Link & USLIC
                     2Mb  /s           WHO                               10 PetaBytes of disk
                       39/155 Mb/s                                            Processing
     CERN
                             45Mb
                                  /s
                                         TEN-155      Public        200’000 of today’s fastest PCs
          2M                 100
                                 Mb                                           Networks
             b/s
      20 M




                                           KPNQwest
Genesis
                                    /s                           5-10 Gbps between main Grid nodes
        b/s




Project   JEG (Japan)                            C-IXP
CERN openlab concept
 – Create synergies between basic
   research and industry                                     Hewlett
 – Research provides challenge,                              Packard
   industry provides advanced
   items, concepts into
   collaborative forum
 – Participation fee
   Create a Collaborative Forum between public sector and industries:
   to solve a well defined problem through
   open integration of technologies, aiming at open standards
                                  CrossGrid

          INFN Grid                DataTAG
iVDGL
        And many more; Several M$ or M€ each,
        HEP and other Sciences,
        Aggressive test and development phase now,
        HEP Intergrid Coordination Board:
              Coordinated test programme
              Interoperability
              Avoid duplication of efforts
              Common standards
CERN and EU programmes
                  Active “projects”
• 14 running projects
    – 6 networks and grids   - 3 Isolde
    – 2 PS                   - nTOF (Euratom part of FP6)
    – Outreach (CBWI)        - 1 “other” (ESTA)
•   Support for schools (CAS and CSP)
•   Support for two (human) networks
•   Individual Marie Curie fellows
•   21 running INTAS projects (MS)
•   ~20 running ISTC projects (NK)
               Fellowships
• Marie Curie Fellows
  – Successfully hosted many individual MCF who
    applied to work at CERN
  – In FP5 CERN was not eligible as a Host (not
    Industry, not in a “poor” region, not a Ph.D.
    granting institute)
  – In FP6 we believe that we will be eligible as a
    Host and we intend to apply
Gas Electron Multiplier
The Gas Electron Multiplier consists of a thin polymer
foil,
metal-clad on both sides, and pierced by a high density
of holes (typically 70 µm in diameter at 140 µm pitch).
On application of a potential difference between the
two sides, electrons from a drift region are collected
into the holes, multiply in avalanche and emerge on the
lower region




     X-ray absorption radiography of a bat, recorded with a GEM
     detector. The insert shows the details of the bat’s claw (picture
     size nine by eleven millimetres).
"If this importance (of Science) has been
cast sometime into doubts, it is because
the efforts of mankind toward its most
beautiful aspirations have been
imperfect…
Above all, it is by this daily effort toward
more science that mankind has reached
the exceptional place that she occupies on
Earth.
We must belong to those who.... believe,
                         Marie Curie ,
invincibly, that science will triumph over
                         1926
ignorance and war."

								
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