Large Scale Facilities and Centres of Excellence The CERN experience Luciano MAIANI. CERN European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN Member States (2002) Observer States: P-P, very high energy EU Cold anti-P Israel, Turkey P, high energy Japan, Russia, USA Nuclear physics P, low energy CERN’s network in Europe •Strongly based in universities •20 members, ~270 institutes, ~4600 users •Studentships, fellowships, etc. Annual throughput of ~400 engineers and ~500 physicists Large Hadron Collider : a Global project with mostly (≈80%) Regional support Community > 5000 physicists world-wide 2000 MEuro of high-tech orders over a decade - many placed by universities. Registered CERN Users, July 2002 637 70 4306 18 538 34 22 87 4 12 55 27 10 Member States Others Observer States Total non-Member States: 1735 Number of users 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 < 20 20 -2 4 25 -2 9 30 -3 4 35 -3 9 40 -4 4 45 -4 9 50 -5 4 Age 55 -5 9 60 -6 4 65 -6 9 70 -7 4 75 -7 9 80 -8 4 Age Distribution of CERN Users (July 2002) Research based on excellence ACCESS TO EXPERIMENTS • Excellence assessed by independent peer review WIDE GEOGRAPHY • Research knows no borders, and “anyone from anywhere” can propose to conduct an experiment at CERN. The committees will look carefully at the merit of the proposal, and how it will be funded, but neither the passport not the home base are key factors. MULTIPLE FIELDS • We don’t only need excellent theoretical and experimental particle physicists. We need excellent staff in multiple fields – accelerator construction, detector design, electronics, mechanical engineering, IT, etc. Anti-Hydrogen Gymnastic and Detection Hot plasma Cold plasma The Large Hadron Collider in the LEP Tunnel Proton- Proton Collider 7 TeV + 7 TeV first targets: •Higgs boson (s) •Supersymmetric Particles Luminosity = 1034cm-2sec-1 •Quark-Gluon Plasma •CP violation in B Towards the origin ATLAS and CMS Caverns Barrel Toroid Integration Work @ CERN Integration 1 Integration 1 contracted to an outside Firm in 2000 for ~ 3.5 MCHF End 2001 the Firm stops preparation work with substantial financial claims conductor pancake Feb 2002 ATLAS negotiated a new solution Al coil casing with the second bidder + CEA Saclay P(resin + m- spheres) + JINR + ATLAS team to do the work at CERN Work will start in bldg 180 mid May 2002. Original cost and schedule respected. bladders prepag Integration 2 Work contracted to the JINR group + CEA Saclay + ATLAS team in bldg 180. Tooling prepared, readiness on schedule Includes final functional test cryostat The first ATLAS Barrel Toroid vacuum vessel arriving at CERN CMS: Magnet Barrel Yoke finished String 2: one complete LHC cell, 120 m Being operated now Spreading the message and/or Involving the others CERN beyond the Member States • Several NMS countries help to construct the LHC – notably Canada, India, Japan, Russia and USA • Many others participate in the LHC experiments • CERN is arguably the largest lab in the world for both the Russian and US particle physics communities Infrastructure - beyond the European Member States The win-win situation • Excellent researchers are not limited to EU-15 countries, nor even to greater Europe • People often very well-educated and highly motivated • If we can find the right specialities, everyone can become a major winner • Raw materials, heavy engineering, assembly of one-off sub-detectors, software components, are all things that can be spread around imaginatively….. • We need to engage these researchers and their governments CMS feet from Pakistan LHC corrector Russian warm dipoles magnet from India Access • It is sometimes tempting to make access dependent on “membership”, but particle physics has tended to be able to use a different approach • Experiments running on our “facilities” tend to be based on very large (50-2000 person) collaborations • This allows people from economically weaker countries to join with those from stronger regions • So we tend not to look at the passport of the people making proposals • But (in general) we expect people who have not funded the lab infrastructure to contribute more than their “fair share” to the cost of the experiment • The contribution can take many forms, such as assembly effort, software, … Look for the “win-win”. Mobility • Getting the new researchers to the infrastructure • Getting the staff of the lab to the new nations • Schools The Joint CERN- Dubna School Integration • Don’t erect, or, if they exist, tear down any administrative barriers • Encourage these countries to send students • Run summer schools in new countries • Look for funding for all of this • CERN has good experience with ISTC and INTAS - thanks to EU (among others) • Also NATO and Soros play some important roles, especially for computer networking • We have high hopes of EU support to engage researchers from, for example, Latin America, the Mediterranean basin, SE Europe, the Caucasus, and Asia Computer Networking and Grids Computer networking as basic research infrastructure • You need up-to-date information to be a world-class researcher • Today you (mainly) get that info mainly through your terminal (plus phone, video-meetings, and conferences) • Surest way for weak countries to lose their best brains is to provide them poor connectivity • Triple requirement - Campus, National Network, International Connectivity World Wide Collaboration distributed computing & storage capacity CMS: 1800 physicists 150 institutes 32 countries Grids • Next step beyond the Web is the Grid • A way for researchers to share their computing resources - including processing power, data and information • CERN is very active here, with DataGrid, CrossGrid and DataTAG • Plus strong national efforts in several countries - USA has Globus, GriPhyN and PPDG, UK has GridPP and major e-Science efforts. Also F, I, NL, …. Processor farms : the 90's supercomputer Mainframe Mini- Computer vector Supercomputer Tools: Fabrics and Networks Needed for LHC at CERN in 2006: RENATER National Research Storage Networks SWITCH Raw recording rate 0.1 – 1 b/s b/s GBytes/sec 2M 0M Mission Oriented 10 b/s IN2P3 Accumulating at 5-8 PetaBytes/year 34 M Link & USLIC 2Mb /s WHO 10 PetaBytes of disk 39/155 Mb/s Processing CERN 45Mb /s TEN-155 Public 200’000 of today’s fastest PCs 2M 100 Mb Networks b/s 20 M KPNQwest Genesis /s 5-10 Gbps between main Grid nodes b/s Project JEG (Japan) C-IXP CERN openlab concept – Create synergies between basic research and industry Hewlett – Research provides challenge, Packard industry provides advanced items, concepts into collaborative forum – Participation fee Create a Collaborative Forum between public sector and industries: to solve a well defined problem through open integration of technologies, aiming at open standards CrossGrid INFN Grid DataTAG iVDGL And many more; Several M$ or M€ each, HEP and other Sciences, Aggressive test and development phase now, HEP Intergrid Coordination Board: Coordinated test programme Interoperability Avoid duplication of efforts Common standards CERN and EU programmes Active “projects” • 14 running projects – 6 networks and grids - 3 Isolde – 2 PS - nTOF (Euratom part of FP6) – Outreach (CBWI) - 1 “other” (ESTA) • Support for schools (CAS and CSP) • Support for two (human) networks • Individual Marie Curie fellows • 21 running INTAS projects (MS) • ~20 running ISTC projects (NK) Fellowships • Marie Curie Fellows – Successfully hosted many individual MCF who applied to work at CERN – In FP5 CERN was not eligible as a Host (not Industry, not in a “poor” region, not a Ph.D. granting institute) – In FP6 we believe that we will be eligible as a Host and we intend to apply Gas Electron Multiplier The Gas Electron Multiplier consists of a thin polymer foil, metal-clad on both sides, and pierced by a high density of holes (typically 70 µm in diameter at 140 µm pitch). On application of a potential difference between the two sides, electrons from a drift region are collected into the holes, multiply in avalanche and emerge on the lower region X-ray absorption radiography of a bat, recorded with a GEM detector. The insert shows the details of the bat’s claw (picture size nine by eleven millimetres). "If this importance (of Science) has been cast sometime into doubts, it is because the efforts of mankind toward its most beautiful aspirations have been imperfect… Above all, it is by this daily effort toward more science that mankind has reached the exceptional place that she occupies on Earth. We must belong to those who.... believe, Marie Curie , invincibly, that science will triumph over 1926 ignorance and war."
Pages to are hidden for
"ppt - CERN"Please download to view full document