Work - MyTMC by jianghongl

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									Work
         Job & Life Satisfaction
❖   More than a paycheck

❖   social interaction

❖   means of achieving respect

❖   sense of identity

❖   source of engagement

❖   challenge, meaning or purpose

❖   work meets many needs (basic, social, esteem, self-actualization)
                  Job & Life Satisfaction

❖   Job satisfaction is closely related to life satisfaction—they are
    interconnected. As such, learning about what makes a job
    satisfying can be used to enhance the well being, enrich
    people’s jobs, and make organizations more effective.


“What will I have achieved in life if all I have done is to make car mirrors—there
has to be more to it than that.”

(John Donnelly, founder, Donnelley Corp., manufacturer of mirrors in most U.S.
cars, quoted in Myers.) the alienation of work…
                      What is job satisfaction?


Job satisfaction is not a single construct—it is composed of several
parts, which are somewhat independent.

Job Satisfaction a person’s global assessment of job satisfaction.

Pay, Benefits, Pay Policies and Raises compared to others in the organization
or field. Global measures of satisfaction may be inadequate. A worker might be
satisfied overall, yet still dissatisfied with benefits, policies, or raises.

Organizational Commitment Previous studies have found that organizational
commitment correlates positively with job satisfaction and attendance and
negatively with turnover.
                 What is job satisfaction?

❖ Job Involvement – the intensity of one’s psychological
  identification with the job. Identification / involvement
  usually correlates positively with job satisfaction.

❖ Job  Congruence—the extent to which a person’s
  abilities and skills match the requirements of the job.

❖ Supervision:   ability, support, interpersonal skill

❖ Promotion   opportunities/ chances for advancement

❖ Coworkers:   proficient, supportive
           Is job satisfaction related to life
                     satisfaction?

❖   Tait, Padgett & Baldwin

❖   meta analysis of 34 studies

❖   n = 19,811

❖   average correlation b/w job & life satisfaction r = .44*

    ❖   r-squared of about 20%

    ❖   stronger than wealth, material possessions, age,
        gender...
    Aspects that often contribute to Job-Life
                  Satisfaction

❖   positive social relations

❖   sense of identity

❖   purpose in life

❖   optimal level of stimulation

❖   if present, make job & life more rewarding

❖   job-life connection become more important for women as
    career opportunities have expanded
               I/O class results

❖   life satisfaction scale (Diener) and employment variables

❖   life satisfaction and length of employment r = .495

❖   people in stable positions report more life satisfaction

❖   job insecurity = less SWB
   Characteristics of Satisfying Work
 Opportunity for      personal        Good pay   and fringe benefits
 control
                                       Clear requirements
                                                         and
 Opportunity for      using skills    information on how to meet
                                       them
 Variety of   tasks
                                       Workload /   Job complexity
 Physical security
                                       Person-job /
                                                   Person-
 Supportive supervisor                organization fit

 Respect and   high status            Management’s    communication
                                       style
 Interpersonal contact
                                       Noise levels
                       Activity

❖   Think about unpleasant/dissatisfying job held

❖   Which characteristics (above) did job have or lack?

❖   How could you improve or redesign job to be more
    rewarding?
              Cause & Effect?



❖   Cross Lagged Panel Design

❖   way to discover likely cause & effect among correlations

❖   assumes causes take time to have effect
           Judge & Watanabe

❖   applied cross lagged panel design to job-life satisfaction
    questionnaire

❖   what causing what?

❖   measured job & life satisfaction at two times, 5 yrs. apart

❖   Found a reciprocal relationship--effect goes both ways

❖   Strongest of the two: Life satisfaction>>> Job satisfaction
          Causality: Well being and
                Productivity
❖   Staw & Barsade

❖   “In-basket” test-- a common assessment technique

❖   happy (+ affect) participants performed better

❖   here happiness did not arise on the job

❖   appears positive affect responsible for superior
    performance

❖   satisfaction drives productivity
       Job Satisfaction & Productivity
❖   Job satisfaction contributes to productivity of organization

❖   change lobs less frequently

❖   “shirk” less

❖   steal less

❖   better organizational citizens
        Job Satisfaction & Productivity

❖   2001 Literature review of published studies

❖   Correlation b/w satisfaction and performance r = .30

    ❖   R squared of about 10%

    ❖   Higher corr. In complex jobs

    ❖   About 10% of performance differences due to job
        satisfaction alone
    Other Benefits of Job Sat.
❖   Less turnover

❖   Less absenteeism

❖   More punctual

❖   More cooperative

❖   More helpful to other workers

❖   Go beyond requirements of job

❖   Fewer accidents

❖   More productive & profitable
        Customer Satisfaction

❖   Harter et al., happiness of workers corr’d with customer
    loyality & profitability

❖   Swaroff: satisfaction of both patients and doctors was
    corr’d with financial outcomes for hospitals

❖   Srinivasan: Estimated that lack of customer loyalty cost a
    large bank $44 million a year (closed accounts)
      Three models of job-life
           satisfaction

❖   Spillover model

❖   Compensatory model

❖   Segmentation model
                       Evidence

❖   Dolan & Gosselin

❖   827 employees of car dealerships

❖   7% showed segmentation type relationship

❖   43% showed compensatory relationship

❖   49% showed evidence of spillover
        Job-Life Satisfaction Evidence

❖   Rice, Near & Hunt

❖   Broader literature review, 23 studies

❖   Found reliable positive association b/w life sat. and work
    satisfaction

    ❖   True for both men & women

    ❖   Relationship stronger for men

    ❖   Evidence supported spillover model
           Marital Quality & Job
               Satisfaction
❖   See spillover from job to marriage

    ❖   Dissatisfaction at work.>>>negative impact on
        relationship

    ❖   Three studies found spillover to marriage

    ❖   Work satisfaction can and does spillover into home life
        and vice versa.
    The following are known to enhance job
     satisfaction if properly implemented:

Flex-time                      Facilitating friendships on the
                               job
On-site day care
                               Providing tools necessary to
Work at home options           do the job
Stock options                  Selecting workers so that
                               their personality
Generous family-leave          characteristics, strengths and
policies                       interests fit the job
Training supervisors to give
appropriate feedback/praise
                Unemployment

❖   Higher stress, lower life satisfaction, higher suicide rate

❖   Loss of income does not account for effects on SWB

❖   UE has negative psychological impact beyond $
    problems
•   UE assassinates self esteem, motivation, self worth
•   Lack sense of purpose, structure to day…
•   Effect lasts for years
•   Longer unemployed, lower well-being does
•   Unemployed are “scarred” by the experience
      Discussion item for next class

❖   If you suddenly inherited a large fortune, such that you
    could work for $1 a year, what kind of work would you
    do? (Must have skill or be able to acquire it—no rock
    stars, actors, or professional athletes.)



❖   Why not pursue that work now?
                     Life Choices

❖   “Work satisfaction impacts life satisfaction.”

    ❖   Some students select major on basis of income &
        lifestyle it may allow vs. actual interests and skills
                        Myers on Work
“We all want more free time: But when we get it we don’t
know what to do with it.”

      TV: 3% flow, 39 % apathetic vs. hobby 47% flow, 4% apathy

      60-100 cable channels and hotel channel surfing vs. no TV in college,
      Glenmont

“…people are unhappiest when they are alone and nothing
needs doing.”
End of summer, kids in school, all jobs done, wife at work…

“Well-being resides not in mindless passivity but in mindful
challenge.”

								
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