Rwanda Economy - DOC - DOC by BeunaventuraLongjas


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									              Rwanda Economy
Economy—overview: Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of
the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the
most densely populated country in Africa; is landlocked, and has few
natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and
tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base,
severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded
the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However,
Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating
its economy. GDP has rebounded, and inflation has been curbed. In
June 1998, Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility
(ESAF) with the IMF. Rwanda has also embarked upon an ambitious
privatization program with the World Bank.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$5.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 10.5% (1998 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$690 (1998 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 36%
industry: 24%
services: 40% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 51.2% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 24.2% (1983-85)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1998)

Labor force: 3.6 million
Labor force—by occupation: agriculture 90%, government and
services, industry and commerce

Unemployment rate: NA%
revenues: $231 million
expenditures: $319 million, including capital expenditures of $13 million
(1996 est.)

Industries: production of cement, processing of agricultural products,
small-scale beverage production, manufacture of soap, furniture,
shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (1995 est.)

Electricity—production: 164 million kWh (1996)
Electricity—production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.44%
hydro: 97.56%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1996)

Electricity—consumption: 177 million kWh (1996)
Electricity—exports: 2 million kWh (1996)

Electricity—imports: 15 million kWh (1996)

Agriculture—products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from
chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Exports: $82.1 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)
Exports—commodities: coffee 55%, tea 21%, hides, tin ore (1997)

Exports—partners: Brazil 49%, Germany 16%, US, Netherlands, UK

Imports: $326 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)
Imports—commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel,
petroleum products, cement and construction material (1997)

Imports—partners: Italy, Kenya, Tanzania, US, Belgium-Luxembourg

Debt—external: $1.2 billion (1998)

Economic aid—recipient: $711.2 million (1995); note—since 1994,
World Bank financing to Rwanda has totaled more than $120 million; in
June 1998, Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility
(ESAF) with the IMF; in summer 1998, Rwanda presented its policy
objectives and development priorities to donor governments resulting in
multi-year pledges in the amount of $250 million

Currency: 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1—320.63 (February
1999), 312.31 (1998), 301.53 (1997), 306.82 (1996), 262.20 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

            Rwanda Geography
Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa
total: 26,340 sq km
land: 24,950 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo
217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to
January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with
altitude declining from west to east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten
ore), methane, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Birunga mountains
are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the
Environment—current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled
cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion;
widespread poaching
Environment—international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography—note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

                Rwanda People
Population: 8,154,933 (July 1999 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,807,695; female 1,793,590)
15-64 years: 53% (male 2,148,477; female 2,179,119)
65 years and over: 3% (male 92,490; female 133,562) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 38.97 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 19.53 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)
note: following the outbreak of genocidal strife in Rwanda in April 1994
between Tutsi and Hutu factions, more than 2 million refugees fled to
neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of
the Congo (formerly Zaire); according to the UN High Commission on
Refugees, in 1996 and early 1997 nearly 1.3 million Hutus returned to
Rwanda—of these 720,000 returned from Democratic Republic of the
Congo, 480,000 from Tanzania, 88,000 from Burundi, and 10,000 from
Uganda; probably fewer than 100,000 Rwandans remained outside of
Rwanda by the end of 1997
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 112.86 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.31 years
male: 40.84 years
female: 41.8 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1999 est.)
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic groups: Hutu 80%, Tutsi 19%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Religions: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%,
indigenous beliefs and other 25%
Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French
(official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.5%
male: 69.8%
female: 51.6% (1995 est.)

          Rwanda Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Rwandese Republic
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda

Data code: RW
Government type: republic; presidential, multiparty system

Capital: Kigali
Administrative divisions: 12 prefectures (in French—prefectures,
singular—prefecture; in Kinyarwanda—plural—NA, singular—
prefegitura); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi,
Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Kigaliville, Umutara, Ruhengeri
Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: on 5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly
adopted a new constitution which included elements of the constitution
of 18 June 1991 as well as provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace
accord and the November 1994 multi-party protocol of understanding

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and
customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pasteur BIZIMUNGU (since 19 July 1994);
Vice President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME (since 19 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Celestin RWIGEMA (since 1
September 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: normally the president is elected by popular vote for a five-
year term; election last held in December 1988 (next to be held NA);
prime minister is appointed by the president
election results: Juvenal HABYARIMANA elected president; percent of
vote—99.98% (HABYARIMANA was the sole candidate)
note: President HABYARIMANA was killed in a plane crash on 6 April
1994 which ignited the genocide and was replaced by President
BIZIMUNGU who was installed by the military forces of the ruling
Rwandan Patriotic Front on 19 July 1994
Legislative branch: unicameral Transitional National Assembly or
Assemblee Nationale de Transition (a power-sharing body with 70
seats established on 12 December 1994 following a multi-party
protocol understanding; members were predetermined by the Arusha
peace accord)
elections: the last national legislative elections were held 16 December
1988 for the National Development Council (the legislature prior to the
advent of the Transitional National Assembly); no elections have been
held for the Transitional National Assembly as the distribution of seats
was predetermined by the Arusha peace accord
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—RPF 19,
MDR 13, PSD 13, PL 13, PDC 6, PSR 2, PDI 2, other 2; note—the
distribution of seats was predetermined
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, consists of the Court of
Cassation and the Council of State in joint session

Political parties and leaders: significant parties include: Rwandan
Patriotic Front or RPF [Charles MULIGANDE, secretary general];
Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [leader NA]; Liberal Party
or PL [leader NA]; Democratic and Socialist Party or PSD [leader NA];
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [leader NA]; Islamic Democratic
Party or PDI [leader NA]; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [leader NA];
National Movement for Democracy and Development or MRND (former
ruling party) [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Rwanda Patriotic Army or
RPA [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander]; Rally for the Democracy
and Return (RDR)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Theogene N. RUDASINGWA
chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador George M. STAPLES
embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone: [250] 756 01 through 03, 721 26, 771 47
FAX: [250] 721 28
Flag description: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow,
and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses
the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea,
which has a plain yellow band

      Rwanda Communications
Telephones: 6,400 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: telephone system primarily serves business and
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the
prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network
depends on wire and HF radiotelephone
international: international connections employ microwave radio relay
to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant
countries; satellite earth stations—1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali
(includes telex and telefax service)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 630,000 (1993 est.) Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Televisions: NA

        Rwanda Transportation
Railways: 0 km
total: 12,000 km
paved: 1,000 km
unpaved: 11,000 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native
craft Ports and harbors: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye Airports: 7
(1998 est.)
Airports—with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1998 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1998 est.)

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