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World Studies, Semester II Spring 2008 – Mr. Brook Updated: 3:55 a.m. May 23, 2008 Second Semester Exam Review Guide The format of the exam is the same this semester as it was last semester. The material covered spans from Africa (Chapter 12) through World War II and the Cold War. There will be some extra emphasis on WWII and the Cold War, so study them slightly more closely. They’ll only be a part of the exam, however, so be sure that your preparation is comprehensive. There will be approximately 90 multiple-choice/matching questions, followed by about 20 short answer questions. You’ll need a pencil for ScanTron bubbling, and the subjective part of the test will include space for your answers. Be sure to give me places to find partial credit. As always, if your handwriting is big, remember to write more than you normally would. Remember that this review is not meant to be comprehensive – it outlines the basic content of the chapters but does not wave a flag about what’s most important or necessarily cover everything. I’ve traced the key terms for each topic pretty closely, and they should roughly be in the order you’ll find them in your notes. One the one hand, I can’t guarantee I covered everything. On the other, don’t get too intimidated by how many terms are here: many of them fit together and aren’t as much as they seem. Others are there but not massively important. Focus first on the big picture. You’re also responsible for any of the posts under “World Studies” on the website – the art, the articles, the videos, etc. You should first study your notes from class in depth, then study your guided reading sheets and the vocabulary there. For the most part, if I thought it was important, I covered it in class. Your splendidly organized notebook will be very helpful as you study… Study hard. Chapter 12 – Africa Terms Great escarpment, desertification, savanna, Bantu migrations, Nubia, Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Mansa Musa, Axum, Ethiopia, Great Zimbabwe, lineage, matrilineal, patrilineal, griots Example topics How did geography impact the history of Africa? What religions are prominent in Africa, and in what regions? What were the general characteristics of African culture during this period? What attitudes influenced what we know about the ruins of Great Zimbabwe? Chapter 13 – East Asia Terms Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty, gentry, Confucian tradition, porcelain, Ghengis Khan, tribute, Pax Mongolica, Ming Dynasty, peninsula, celadon, hangul, literacy rate, Choson Dynasty, archipelago, selective borrowing, feudalism, shogun, daimyo, samurai, kabuki, haiku, fortune cookies Example topics How did geography impact each of the regions we studied? What was the social structure in China during this era? What impact did the Mongols have on Asian history? How did the influence of China spread? What was the social structure in Japan during this era? Chapter 14 – Renaissance (1300s-1600s) Terms Renaissance, classical, patronage, Medicis, renaissance man, humanism, humanities, Machiavelli, perspective, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, Botticelli, Northern Renaissance, Albrecht Dürer, Jan van Eyck, Pieter Bruegel, Erasmus, vernacular, utopia, Gutenberg, printing press, movable type, Rabelais, Shakespeare, Cervantes Example topics What were the characteristics of Renaissance art? Why was patronage important, and how did it impact art? What were the characteristics of Northern Renaissance art? How did the works of Shakespeare impact language and culture? Why was the invention of the printing press important? Chapter 14 – Reformation (1500s) Terms Reformation, Protestant, indulgences, Martin Luther, 95 Theses, John Calvin, predestination, theocracy, Henry VIII, annul, Anglican, counter reformation, Inquisition, Council of Trent, Jesuits, ghettos Chapter 14 – Scientific Revolution (1500s, 1600s) Terms Ptolemy, geocentric, Copernicus, heliocentric, Kepler, ellipse, Galileo, scientific method, Newton, gravity, Bacon, inductive reasoning, Descartes, deductive reasoning Example topics Why were some of the ideas of the Scientific Revolution so controversial? Chapter 15 & 16 – Age of Exploration (1492-1500s-1600s) Terms Henry the Navigator, Vasco da Gama, Bartholomew Diaz, Christopher Columbus, Treaty of Tordesillas / Pope’s Line of Demarcation, Magellan, circumnavigate, Dutch East India Company, conquistadors, immunity, Cortes, Aztecs, Montezuma, Quetzalcoatl, Incas, Pizarro, viceroy, viceroyalties, missionaries, plantations, peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattoes, privateers, Drake, Mayflower, triangular trade, middle passage, mercantilism Example topics Why were the Spanish victorious in their conquest of the Americas? What was the social structure in Spanish America during this era? Chapter 17 – Absolutism in Europe (1700s) Terms Charles V, Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right, siglo de oro, El Greco, Velázquez, Hugenots, Henry IV, Edict of Nantes, “chicken in every pot”, Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu, Louis XIV, Sun King, “l’etat c’est moi”, Estates General, intendants, Versailles, Baroque, Thirty Years War, Hapsburgs, Maria Theresa, Hohenzollerns, Frederick William I, Frederick II / the Great, balance of power, Peter the Great, westernization, boyars, warm-water port, St. Petersburg, Catherine the Great, partition Example topics What two general steps do all absolute monarchs take to strengthen their power? Chapter 17 – Constitutional Monarchy in England (1600s) Terms Magna Carta, Stuarts, Tudors, Parliament, power of the purse, Elizabeth, Guy Fawkes, Gunpowder Plot, James I, King James Bible, Cromwell, Charles I, Civil War, roundheads, cavaliers, regicide, Interregnum, Instrument of Government, Restoration, habeus corpus, Charles II, James II, William & Mary, English Bill of Rights, Glorious Revolution, limited monarchy Example topics Why is the history of constitutional government in England so important? Chapter 18 – Enlightenment (1700s) Terms Enlightenment, natural laws, Hobbes, Leviathan, “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”, social contract, Locke, Two Treatises of Government, natural rights, Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, separation of powers, philosophes, salons, Voltaire, Candide, Rousseau, physiocrats, Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, invisible hand, capitalism, laissez faire, enlightened despots, Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, Joseph II, rococo, Bach, contrapuntal, Handel, Mozart, prodigy, cabinet, prime minister, constitutional government, George III, American Revolution Example topics How did the ideas of the Enlightenment impact history? Chapter 19 – French Revolution (1789-1799) Terms Ancien regime, estates, bourgeoisie, deficit spending, bread riots, living on the margin, Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, “let them eat cake”, voting by head, National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath, March of Women, Bastille, Great Fear, Declaration of Pilnitz, suffrage, “liberty, equality, & fraternity”, tricolor, nationalism, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Jacobins, sans-culottes, National Convention, Reign of Terror, guillotine, Committee of Public Safety, Robespierre, Directory, Jacques Louis David Example topics What factors led to the French Revolution? How does today’s world mirror the situation in France before 1789? How did the ideas of the Enlightenment contribute to the French Revolution? Chapter 19 – Napoleon (1804-1814) & Congress of Vienna (1814/15) Terms Napoleon Bonaparte, Corsica, Battle of the Nile, Rosetta Stone, First Consul, “order, security, & efficiency”, Empress Josephine, Marie Louise, Bank of France, Lycée system, Napoleonic Code, annex, nepotism, Admiral Horatio Nelson, Battle of Trafalgar, Berlin Decrees, Continental System/Blockade, Peninsular Campaign, Goya, Tres de Mayo, Joseph Bonaparte, Spanish Ulcer, guerilla warfare, Louisiana Territory, Russian Blunder, scorched earth policy, 6th Coalition, Battle of Dresden, Battle of Leipzig/of the Nations, abdicate, Louis XIII, Elba, 100 Days, Waterloo, St. Helena, Congress of Vienna, Metternich, Talleyrand, buffer states, Germanic Confederation, balance of power, legitimacy, compensation Example topics Trace the rise and fall of Napoleon. Evaluate Napoleon’s legacy. Evaiuate the legacy of the Congress of Vienna. Chapter 20 & 22 – Industrial Revolution (1800s – early 1900s) Terms Population explosion, steam engine, railroads, steamboats, putting out system, textile industry, turnpikes, waterwheels, factories, unions, strikes, urbanization, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, Jeremy Bentham, utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill, Robert Owen, utopians, socialism, Karl Marx, communism, proletariat, means of production, redistribution of wealth, assembly line, Henry Ford, corporations, Louis Pasteur, germ theory, Florence Nightingale, suburbs, middle class, cult of domesticity, Charles Darwin, Beethoven, impressionism Example topics What factors caused the Industrial Revolution, and what impacts did it have? How did the conflicting ideas of capitalism and communism grow out of the Industrial Revolution? Why were Marx’s predictions ultimately proven false? Chapter 25 – New Imperialism (mid-1800s – early 1900s) & 29.3 Indian independence (1948) Terms Imperialism, New Imperialism, “White Man’s Burden”, Rudyard Kipling, colony, protectorate, direct/indirect rule, sphere of influence, partition of Africa / scramble for Africa, Berlin Conference of 1884, Leopold II, missionary zeal, the Bible & the Gun, British East India Company, opium, Sepoy Mutiny, Queen Victoria, Sikhs, Indian National Congress, Muslim League, Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru, Pakistan, Indira Gandhi, outsourcing, Benazir Bhutto, Pervez Musharaff Example topics How did New Imperialism emerge from the Industrial Revolution? Why are India & Pakistan so important to today’s world? 21.3 & 26.4 – Latin American Independence (late 1800s) Terms Haitian revolution, Toussaint L’Ouverture, Miguel Hidalgo, Simon Bolivar, José de San Martin, economic dependence, Monroe Doctrine, Panama Canal Example topics Why did Latin America find itself economically dependent on the rest of the world after gaining its independence? Chapter 27 – World War I (1914-1918) Terms Great War, Olympic Games, Nobel Peace Prize, pacifism, women’s suffrage, militarism, arms race, standing armies, alliance system, Nicholas II, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Franz Joseph, pan-Slavism, “the powder keg of Europe”, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Gavrilo Princip, ultimatum, blank check, mobilize, Schlieffen Plan, summer wars, “home by Christmas”, total war, conscription, propaganda, Huns/Jerrys, war bonds, munitions, war of attrition, multi-front war, western front, trench warfare, no-man’s land, bayonet, Battle of the Marne, stalemate, Verdun, Somme, morale, Lusitania, Zimmerman Telegram, airplanes, dogfights, flying aces, Red Baron, automatic machine guns, u-boats/submarines, poison gas, zeppelins, 1918 flu pandemic, counteroffensive, armistice, Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points, self-determination, League of Nations, Paris Peace Conference, Treaty of Versailles, reparations Example topics Trace attitudes about war & peace in the years before WWI. How did a single “spark” set in motion a world war? What role did women play in WWI? What role did technology play in WWI? Compare WWI to the Iraq War. Chapter 28 – Russian Revolution (1917) Terms Nicholas II, Alexandra, Rasputin, hemophilia, V.I. Lenin, Bolsheviks, war communism, dictatorship of the proletariat, Trotsky, Reds, Whites, USSR/Soviet Union, New Economic Policy / NEP, Joseph Stalin, five-year plans, command economy, collectives, Great Purge, Communist International / Comintern, totalitarian state Chapter 30 – Towards World War II (1918-1939) Chapter 31 – World War II (1939-1945) Terms Marie Curie, radioactivity, Albert Einstein, relativity, Freud, psychoanalysis, abstract art, surrealism, stream of consciousness, appliances, “stab in the back” theory, Weimar Republic, Adolf Hitler, Nazi party, Third Reich, Mein Kampf, repudiate, Aryanism, Nuremberg Laws, Kristallnacht, concentration camps, “final solution to the Jewish problem”, euphemism, genocide, Holocaust, Auschwitz, authoritarian, Great Depression, New Deal, Maginot Line, Benito Mussolini, “made the trains run on time”, fascism, Haile Selassie, Rhineland, U.S. Neutrality Acts, America First Committee, Charles Lindbergh, Axis, Pact of Steel, Francisco Franco, Spanish Civil War, Guernica, Pablo Picasso, Anschluss, Sudetenland, Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain, “peace in our time”, Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, blitzkrieg, Panzer divisions, Phoney War, Dunkirk evacuation, Vichy France, collaborators, Henri Petain, French Resistance, Charles DeGaulle, Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Lend-Lease Act, Atlantic Charter, Battle of Britain, Operation Sea Lion, the Blitz, Royal Air Force / RAF, Operation Barbarossa, El Alamein, Ernst Rommel, the Desert Fox, Bernard Law Montgomery, Monty, Operation Torch, Europe’s “soft underbelly”, Stalingrad, D-Day, Operation Overlord, Normandy, Battle of the Bulge, V-E Day, theater of war, Pearl Harbor, “a day which will live in infamy”, Bataan Death March, island-hopping, kamikaze, Iwo Jima, Manhattan Project, Robert Oppenheimer, Harry Truman, Enola Gay, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, V-J Day, Nuremburg War Trials, crimes against humanity, Example topics What three major factors led to World War II? What conditions led to the rise of facism & Nazism in Europe? Compare & contrast Hitler & Napoleon. Compare & contrast WWI & WWII. 31.5, 32.1, 33.1, 33.4, etc – The Cold War (1945-1991) Terms Cold War, United Nations, superpowers, Yalta Conference, containment, Truman Doctrine, Domino Theory, Iron Curtain, Marshall Plan, Berlin Blockade/Airlift, West Germany / East Germany, Korean War, Sputnik, Fidel Castro, Bay of Pigs invasion, John F. Kennedy, space race, Berlin Wall, mutually assured destruction, massive attack/retaliation, nuclear holocaust, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, Neil Armstrong, Mikhail Gorbachev, glasnost, Tiananmen Square, Boris Yeltsin Miscellaneous Terms Supply & demand, The Sound of Music, power vacuum, Barack Obama, John McCain, Hillary Clinton Example topics / themes How can one person change the world? How can ideas change the world? How can the study of history teach us about the present and future?
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