Pregnancy Cost

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					                                             TEEN PREGNANCY IN ARIZONA, 2008
                                                             FACT SHEET

OVERVIEW
•   In 2007, 14,713 females age 15 to 19 became pregnant in Arizona.
•   12,792 of these pregnancies resulted in live births (86.9%), 1,837 pregnancies were aborted
    (12.5%) and 84 pregnancies resulted in fetal deaths (.6%).
•   Arizona’s teenage pregnancy rate in 2007 was 68.4 per 1,000 females age 15 to 19, which
    was slightly lower than the previous year’s (2006) rate of 68.7 per 1,000 females. Arizona’s
    teen pregnancy rate was also lower than the most recent national rate of 72.2 per 1,000
    females age 15 to 19.*
•   The rate of live births to females age 15 to 19 years old was higher in Arizona (59.5 per
    1,000) than nationally (41.1 per 1,000).* However, the rate of abortion and fetal death for
    females aged 15 to 19 years old was significantly less in Arizona than nationally.*

                                                  Teenage Pregnancy Rates by Outcome

                                      80.0                                                U.S.
          Rate per 1,000 15-19 year




                                      70.0                                                Arizona
                                      60.0
                                                      59.5
                                      50.0
                     olds




                                      40.0
                                               41.1
                                      30.0
                                      20.0
                                                                19.8
                                      10.0                             8.5       11.3   0.4
                                       0.0
                                               Live Birth       Abortion        Fetal Death

    *Note: U.S. data is from 2004 and provided by the National Center for Health Care Statistics’
    report: “Estimated Pregnancy Rates by Outcome for the United States, 1990-2004.”

•   The teenage pregnancy rate in Arizona has been on the decline over the past decade,
    decreasing by 25.1% below 1996 levels.
•   The majority of the decline in national teen pregnancy rates (as much as 86%) is attributed to
    improved contraceptive use among sexually active teens and higher proportions of teens
    choosing to delay sexual activity.1




1
 Santelli J et al. Explaining recent declines in adolescent pregnancy in the United States: the contribution of
abstinence and improved contraceptive use. American Journal of Public Health 2007; 97: 3.


Teenage Pregnancy in Arizona, 2008 Fact Sheet                                                                 1
WHY ARE RATES DECLINING SINCE THE 1990S?
•   Nationally, the rate of teens using condoms has increased. National statistics in 2007
    indicate that sexually active male and female high school students are significantly more
    likely to be protected during last sexual intercourse than their counterparts were in 1991.
    About 69% of males and 55% of females used condoms the last time they had intercourse.2
•   The percentage of teens having sex has also dropped. In the United States, the percentage
    of male high school students who report ever having sexual intercourse declined between
    1991 and 2007 from 57% to 50%.2 Teenagers are also delaying sex until later in life. In 2002,
    13% of never-married female teens had had sex before age 15 compared to 19% in 1995;
    15% of males had done so compared to 21% in 1995.3
•   Results from the 2007
                                                         Teen Sexual Experience,
    Arizona Youth Risk                               Arizona YRBS 2003, 2005 & 2007
    Behavior Survey2 show that
    both the percentage of                                                                        2003
                                                                                                  2005
    students who have ever had                                                                    2007
    sex and the percentage of                                                57% 55% 56%

    students who are currently                             46%         46%
                                                                 43%

    sexually active have                 33%         34%
                                               30%                                         31%
                                                                                                       28%
                                                                                                 23%
    increased since 2005.
    However, the increases
    were not statistically
    significant for either              Sexually Active Ever Had Sex         Condom Use    Drugs/Alcohol
                                                                                               Use
    measure. And while the
    percentage of students who reported using a condom increased slightly from the 2005
    survey, the increase was not large enough to be statistically significant.
•   A larger increase was observed in the percentage of students who drank alcohol or used
    drugs prior to sexual intercourse. Although the increase was also not statistically significant
    for the total teen population, males were significantly more likely than females to report being
    under the influence of drugs or alcohol before last sexual intercourse in 2005 and 2007.




2
  Center for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion’s Youth
Online: Comprehensive Results (http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/).
3
  National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (http://www.teenpregnancy.org).




Teenage Pregnancy in Arizona, 2008 Fact Sheet                                                                2
DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
Race/Ethnicity
•     In 2007, Hispanics or Latinos continued to have the highest teen pregnancy rate (55.3 per
      1,000 females aged 19 and younger), followed by American Indian (39.1 per 1,000), African
      American (36.1 per 1,000), White, non-Hispanic (19.0 per 1,000) and Asian or Pacific
      Islander (15.3 per 1,000).
•     The greatest increases in teen pregnancy rates were for American Indian and African
      American females. American Indian females showed a sharp increase over the past year,
      from 36.2 per 1,000 females age 19 or younger in 2006 to 39.1 per 1,000 females in 2007.
      African American females showed a similar increase from 32.6 per 1,000 females age 19 or
      younger in 2006 to 36.1 per 1,000 females in 2007. However, the 2007 pregnancy rate for
      African American teens was still the second lowest rate for this group in the past twelve
      years.
•     The teen pregnancy rate for Hispanic or Latinos was slightly lower over the past year, while
      the rate for White, non-Hispanic was virtually the same in 2007. Although the teen pregnancy
      rate for Asian or Pacific Islander increased from 12.9 per 1,000 females age 19 or younger in
      2006 to 15.3 per 1,000 females in 2007, the pregnancy rate remained below all other
      race/ethnicities.

                     Teenage Pregnancy Rate by Race/Ethnicity,
                                Arizona 1996-2007
                                                                                           Hispanic or
       69.6 68.2                                                                           Latina
                 67.1
                      63.0 60.9
                                59.1 57.6               57.5 59.2 55.5 56.0                White, Not
                                                                            55.3
                           51.9                                                            Hispanic
                 50.3
       46.0 45.8      45.8      45.1                    45.4 44.2 43.5
                 42.5      41.3      42.5                                                  American
       39.5 38.9      38.0                              39.9 39.7 40.8            39.1
       29.4 27.5 28.8           36.7 36.6                                    36.2 36.1     Indian
                      25.6 25.2                                              32.6
                                21.1 20.1                                           19     African
                                                        18.2 17.7      18.9
                                                                  15.8                     American
                                   21.3 20.3
       17.8 18.3 18.5 17.8                   19.1 19.2 19.3                                Asian or
                                                                      16.2          15.3
                                                                             12.9          Pacific
                                                                                           Islander
      96

             97

                    98

                           99

                                  00

                                         01

                                                02

                                                       03

                                                              04

                                                                     05

                                                                            06

                                                                                   07
    19

           19

                  19

                         19

                                20

                                       20

                                              20

                                                     20

                                                            20

                                                                   20

                                                                          20

                                                                                 20




Teenage Pregnancy in Arizona, 2008 Fact Sheet                                                         3
Age Groups
•     Nearly two-thirds of all teen pregnancies (64.8%) occur among 18 to 19 year-olds; less than 3
      percent (2.2%) occur among mothers that are 15 years or younger .
•     The teen pregnancy rate for 18 to 19 year olds increased from 115.6 per 1,000 females in
      2006 to 121.4 per 1,000 females in 2007 – its highest level since 2000.
•     The teen pregnancy rate for 15 to 17 year olds decreased from 39.0 per 1,000 females in
      2006 to 36.9 per 1,000 females in 2007. Although the 14 years and younger rate increased
      from 1.1 per 1,000 females in 2006 to 1.5 per 1,000 females in 2007, this age cohort
      accounted for a very small proportion of total adolescent pregnancies.

                         Teenage Pregnancy Rate by Age Group,
                                  Arizona 1996-2007

      141.6 139.3 142.1 137.6                                                                     19 or
                                                                                                  younger
                                  123.6                                                   121.4   18-19
                                           112.2 111.2 108.2 108.7               115.6
                                                                      103.6
                                                                                                  15-19
       91.3 88.1 91.7
                      85.7
                                   79.1                                                           15-17
       59.4                                 72.0 70.6 68.9 69.4
              55.7 58.6                                         65.6 68.7 68.4
                      51.5 48.1
                                43.2 42.2 41.6 42.0
       45.4 43.8 45.8 42.7 39.5                     39.1 39.0 36.9
                                36.0 35.2 34.5 34.6 32.7 34.1 34.4
      96

             97

                    98

                           99

                                  00

                                          01

                                                 02

                                                        03

                                                               04

                                                                      05

                                                                              06

                                                                                       07
    19

           19

                  19

                         19

                                20

                                        20

                                               20

                                                      20

                                                             20

                                                                    20

                                                                            20

                                                                                     20




Subsequent Births to Teens
•     2,800 out of 14,694 or 1 in 5 teenage mothers (age 15-19) who gave birth in 2007 had
      delivered a previous live birth.
•     The proportion of teenage mothers (age 15-19) who had a subsequent birth in 2007 was
      approximately the same as the proportion found in 2006 (20%).
                                       Repeat Births Am ong Teenage m others (age 15-19)



                                               19%

                                                                           N o pre v io us
                                                                           birt h

                                                                           O ne o r m o re
                                                                           pre v io us birt hs
                                                       81%




Teenage Pregnancy in Arizona, 2008 Fact Sheet                                                             4
TEENAGE BIRTHRATE COMPARISON
•   In 2007, the teen birth rate remained constant at 59.5 per 1,000 females age 15-19. Although
    the teen birth remained above the 2005 low of 56.5 per 1,000 females age 15-19, the teen
    birth rate has actually dropped by 21.7 percent since 1996.
•   Arizona’s teen birth rate is consistently higher than the nation’s, as displayed in the figure
    below. In 2006, Arizona’s teen birth rate was 42.2% higher than that of the nations’ (2007
    national rate not available).


                   Birth Rate per 1,000 Females age 15-19,
                          Arizona and US 1996-2006
                                                                     Arizona
       76.1                                                          US
              72.8 73.9 72.9
                                67.6
                                       63.3
                                     59.7 59.2 58.2      59.6 59.5
       53.5 51.3                                    56.5
                 50.3 48.8 47.7
                                45.3 42.9
                                          41.6 41.1 40.4 41.9
       96

       97

       98

       99

       00

       01

       02

       03

       04

       05

       06

       07
    19

    19

    19

    19

    20

    20

    20

    20

    20

    20

    20

    20

    Note: U.S. data from provided by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen
    Pregnancy’s report “Teen Birth Rates in the United States” (available at
    teenpregnancy.org).

WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEEN PREGNANCY?
•   Research shows a strong connection between teen pregnancy and a number of negative
    consequences for mothers, fathers, and their children.4
        Teen mothers are less likely to complete high school: only one-third receive a high school
        diploma and a mere 1.5% have a college degree by age 30.
        Teen mothers are more likely to end up on welfare: nearly 80 percent of unmarried teen
        mothers end up on welfare.5
        The children of teenage mothers have lower birth weights, are more likely to perform
        poorly in school, and are at greater risk of abuse and neglect.
        The sons of teen mothers are 13 percent more likely to end up in prison while teen
        daughters are 22 percent more likely to become teen mothers themselves.


4
  See Maynard, R.A., (Ed.). (1996). Kids Having Kids: A Robin Hood Foundation Special Report on the
Costs of Adolescent Childbearing, New York: Robin Hood Foundation. Information also available at:
http://www.teenpregnancy.org/resources/data/genlfact.asp.
5
  Calculations based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1985) in Congressional Budget
Office. (1990, September). Sources of Support for Adolescent Mothers. Washington, DC: Author.


Teenage Pregnancy in Arizona, 2008 Fact Sheet                                                           5
•   Half of all teenagers 15 to 19 years old believe that having a relationship with an older
    partner is “okay”.6 However, older male partners hold disproportionate power to influence
    condom and contraceptive use in sexual relationships with teens and contribute to teen
    pregnancy. In addition, older male partners are less likely to be involved in the lives of infants
    when the mother is a teen.
        In Arizona, more than 88 percent of mothers 20 years of age and older reported
        information about the father (last name and phone number) on the 2007 birth certificate.
        However, only 76 percent of mothers 18 to 19 years old and 65 percent of mothers 15 to
        17 years of age reported the same information about the father.
        One out of five teen mothers aged 15 to 19 years old reported her partner being at least 4
        years older.


WHAT ARE THE PUBLIC HEALTH COSTS ASSOCIATED TEEN PREGNANCY?
•   An analysis from the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy shows that teen
    childbearing (teens 19 and younger) in Arizona cost taxpayers (federal, state, and local) at
    least $252 million in 2004.
•   Most of the costs of teen childbearing are associated with negative consequences for the
    children of teen mothers. In Arizona, in 2004, annual taxpayer costs associated with children
    born to teen mothers included: $48 million for public health care (Medicaid and SCHIP); $32
    million for child welfare; $43 million for incarceration; and $88 million in lost tax revenue, due
    to decreased earnings and spending.
•   The costs of childbearing are greatest for younger teens. In Arizona, the average annual cost
    associated with a child born to a mother 17 and younger is $3,364.
•   Between 1991 and 2004 there have been more than 158,300 teen births in Arizona, costing
    taxpayers a total of $3.4 billion over that period.
•   Because the teen birth rate in Arizona declined 25% between 1991 and 2004, an estimated
    $101 million (in taxpayer’s dollars) was saved in 2004 alone.
•   Public health insurance (AHCCCS & IHS) paid for 83% of teen births in Arizona during 2007.
    In 2006, hospital stays of teens with pregnancy and delivery-related diagnoses resulted in
    total charges to AHCCCS/Medicaid of over $138 million dollars




6
 National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. With One Voice 2007 America’s Adults and Teens Sound
Off About Teen Pregnancy (http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/resources/pdf/pubs/WOV2007_fulltext.pdf).




Teenage Pregnancy in Arizona, 2008 Fact Sheet                                                            6
Teenage Pregnancy in Arizona, 2008 Fact Sheet   7