HY-WIRE CARS - 123seminarsonly

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   Cars are immensely complicated
    machines, but when you get
    down to it, they do an incredibly
    simple job. Most of the complex
    stuff in a car is dedicated to
    turning wheels, which grip the
    road to pull the car body and
    passengers along.

    In this article, we'll look at one interesting vision of the
    future, General Motor's remarkable concept car, the Hy-wire.

 Thedefining characteristic of the Hy-wire (and its
 conceptual predecessor, the AUTOnomy) is that it
 doesn't have either of these two things.
 Instead  of an engine, it has a fuel cell stack,
  which powers an electric motor connected to
  the wheels.
 Instead of mechanical and hydraulic linkages, it
  has a drive by wire system -- a computer
  actually operates the components that move the
  wheels, activate the brakes and so on, based on
  input from an electronic controller. This is the
  same control system employed in modern
  fighter jets as well as many commercial planes.
 There is no steering wheel, there
  are no pedals and there is no
  engine compartment.
 In fact, every piece of equipment
  that actually moves the car along
  the road is housed in an 11-inch-
  thick (28 cm) aluminum chassis --
  also known as the skateboard --
  at the base of the car.
 Everything above the chassis is
  dedicated solely to driver control
  and passenger comfort.
 The floor of the fiberglass-and-
  steel passenger compartment can
  be totally flat, and it’s easy to
  give every seat lots of leg room.
 The "Hy" in Hy-wire stands for hydrogen, the
  standard fuel for a fuel cell system.
 Like batteries, fuel cells have a negatively charged
  terminal and a positively charged terminal that
  propel electrical charge through a circuit connected
  to each end. They are also similar to batteries in that
  they generate electricity from a chemical reaction.
 But unlike a battery, you can continually recharge a
  fuel cell by adding chemical fuel -- in this case,
  hydrogen from an onboard storage tank and oxygen
  from the atmosphere.
Hydrogen tanks and fuel-cell stack in
           the Hy-wire

    The basic idea is to use a catalyst to split a hydrogen
     molecule (H2) into two H protons (H+, positively
     charged single hydrogen atoms) and two electrons (e-).
     Oxygen on the cathode (positively charged) side of the
     fuel cell draws H+ ions from the anode side through a
     proton exchange membrane, but blocks the flow of

    The electrons (which have a negative charge) are
     attracted to the protons (which have a positive charge)
     on the other side of the membrane, but they have to
     move through the electrical circuit to get there.
   The fuel-cell stack in the Hy-wire is made up of 200
    individual cells connected in series, which collectively
    provide 94 kilowatts of continuous power and 129
    kilowatts at peak power. re. rage tank and oxygen
    from the atmosphere.

   This system delivers DC voltage ranging from 125 to
    200 volts, depending on the load in the circuit.

   The motor controller boosts this up to 250 to 380 volts
    and converts it to AC current to drive the three-phase
    electric motor that rotates the wheels (this is similar
    to the system used in conventional electric cars).
   The Hy-wire's "brain" is a central computer housed in
    the middle of the chassis. It sends electronic signals to
    the motor control unit to vary the speed, the steering
    mechanism to maneuver the car, and the braking
    system to slow the car down.

   The computer connects to the body's electronics
    through a single universal docking port.

   The driver's control unit, dubbed the X-drive, is a lot
    closer to a video game controller than a conventional
    steering wheel and pedal arrangement. The controller has
    two ergonomic grips, positioned to the left and right of a
    small LCD monitor

 Components of the HY-WIRE car

   The 5.8-inch (14.7-cm) color monitor in the center
    of the controller displays all the stuff you'd normally
    find on the dashboard (speed, mileage, fuel level).

   One of the coolest things about the drive-by-wire
    system is that you can fine-tune vehicle handling
    without changing anything in the car's mechanical
    components -- all it takes to adjust the steering,
    accelerator or brake sensitivity is some new
    computer software.
X-drive of Hy-WIRE
The X-drive can slide to either side
         of the vehicle.
Hy-wire Numbers
 Top speed: 100 miles per hour (161 kph)
 Weight: 4,185 pounds (1,898 kg)
 Chassis length: 14 feet, 3 inches (4.3 meters)
 Chassis width: 5 feet, 5.7 inches (1.67 meters)
 Chassis thickness: 11 inches (28 cm)
 Wheels: eight-spoke, light alloy wheels.
 Tires: 20-inch (51-cm) in front and 22-inch (56-cm) in back
 Fuel-cell power: 94 kilowatts continuous, 129 kilowatts peak
 Fuel-cell-stack voltage: 125 to 200 volts
 Motor: 250- to 380-volt three-phase asynchronous electric
 Crash protection: front and rear "crush zones" (or "crash boxes")
  to absorb impact energy
 Related GM patents in progress: 30
 GM team members involved in design: 500+
   The Hy-wire has wheels, seats and windows like a
    conventional car, but the similarity pretty much ends there.
    There is no engine under the hood and no steering wheel or
    pedals inside.
 In Hy- wire car the central computer will
  be able to monitor driver input which will
  make it much safer.
 This car can resolve the major fuel
  problems and safety issues.
 This is eco-friendly car.
 This car does not have any physical
  connection between the driver and the car’s
  mechanical component, so the electrical
  failure would mean total loss of control.
 The production of the hydrogen which is
  used as fuel in the Hy-wire car can generate
  about as much pollution as using gasoline
  engines and        storage and distribution
  systems still have a long way to go.
   It fully intends to release a production version
    of the car in 2012, assuming it can resolve the
    major fuel and safety issues. But even if the
    Hy-wire team doesn't meet this goal.
    Automakers are definitely planning to move
    beyond the conventional car sometime soon,
    toward a computerized, environmentally
    friendly alternative. In all likelihood, life on the
    highway will see some major changes within
    the next few decades.
And At lAst…..

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