Umayyad Caliphate Information - AP World History

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					                Welcome to Alfred’s Museum of
                      The Umayyads

Major People

               Museum Entrance

        Tanner “The Dark Night” Thompson
               Curator’s Wonder”
       And Rusty “The Boy Office Hutson
       Tanner and Rusty have been
       defending Gotham city as well as
       recording history since 625 C.E.            Place your picture
       They founded this museum in                       here.
       memory of their dear butler,
       Alfred, who recently passed away
       due to overdose on the Jokers
       laughing gas.

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Muawiya, ruled from 661-680. He moved
the capital to Damascus. He had a very
highly skilled military that allowed Muslim
authority to spread in West into Africa and
east into Khorasan. He also attacked
Anatolia multiple times starting in 672 and
from 674-677 he staged an unsuccessful
siege on Constantinople that ended his
campaign. During his rule, he kept the
administrative structures of the Persian
and Byzantine empires but he maintained

his authority by placing his family
members in key positions. Before his                                Return to
death, he made sure that his son would
take over when he died, thus starting the
Umayyad Dynasty.
                        Yazid B. Muawiya
Yazid lived from 642- 683 CE and ruled
Text goes here.
for only three years from 680-683 CE.
Yazid had commanded the army that laid
siege to Constantinople during his father’s
rule and now he continued to follow the
path that his father laid for him. He
continued his father’s military and
administrative policies but he reformed the
tax system and improved irrigation in
Damascus. His reign was ended quickly
because he died shortly after he gained               Linked citation goes here

power. His death caused a nine year
conflict because the doubts about the                      Return to
successor prevented any agreements.
                       Abd al-Malik
                       Abd al-Malik
Text goes here.
 Following Yazid’s reign which
lasted only three years. Abd
helped a lot in restoring peace in
Iraq and Arabia during his reign
from 685- 705 CE. During his
rule, he made arabic the official
language and the old byzantine
coins were replaced with Islamic
style coins. Under his sons who
ruled after him, the Umayyad
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empire stretched to Spain and                           Exhibit
east to Transoxiana.
                             Marwan II
                             Marwan II
Marwan the second, who was the last
Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, ruled
from 744 to 750 CE. He tried to restore
order, but by this time the Abbasid
revolutionary movement had gained too
much power and in 749 the first Abbasid
caliph was proclaimed. In 750 the
Umayyad people were massacred and
very few of them made it to Spain
besides Abd al-Rahman who started the
Umayyads of Cordoba.            

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                                       Battle Tours
                                       Battle of Tours
In this battle between the Franks
and Umayyads, located in
northern France, the umayyads
suffered a major defeat. Abdul
Rahman al Ghafiqi, the Umayyad
caliph, was killed during this
battle. Not much is known about
this battle, such as numbers and
exact location but we do know                                  Linked citation goes here

that the Franks won without a
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cavalry.                                                               Exhibit
               Siege of Constantinople

Under Muawiya in 674 there
was a siege laid onto the city of
Constantinople that was in
control of the Byzantine Empire
at the time. Yazid, Muawiya’s
son, was the commander of the
Arabs. The Arabs could not
penetrate the Theodosian walls

of Constantinople and had to
retreat before winter to an island                    Return to
eighty miles away.                                     Exhibit
          Rebellions during Yazid’s Reign
During Yazid’s reign, there were two
rebellions. Husayn, the son of Ali and the
grandson of Muhammed lead the first
rebellion. This rebellion was quickly
destroyed, but this rebellion made a
permanent division between the shi’ites
and the sunnis. The second rebellion was
much more serious. The rebellion was
lead by Ibn al-Zubayr in Medina and
Mecca. The Medinans claimed that Yazid
was dead, so Yazid sent an army that
easily crushed the Medinans. He then

went to Mecca where Ibn was hiding, and
laid the city to siege. The news then                              Return to
arrived that Yazid actually died so the                             Exhibit
conflict was not easily resolved and
continued for nine years.
                  The Battle of Akroinon
This battle was fought in 740
between Umayyad Arabs and the
Byzantine Empire. The battle was
fought during the invasion of Anatolia
when the Arabs allegedly had 90,000
soldiers. The Arab forces were split
into different groups each attacking
different parts of Anatolia and the
largest group took part in te battle of
Akroinon. The Arabs were defeated in
this battle and it marked the end of
the invasion. This was the last great
invasion of any other empire because                               Return to
the Umayyad dynasty fell in the next
ten years.
                                                     Dynastic Rule
During here.
Text goes the Umayyad  Dynasty,
there was a dynastic rule. Power
was passed on from father to son.
The sons also carried on many of
their father’s administrations, like
Yazid continuing his fathers military
policies. The sons also improved
things that they thought needed to
be improved like the irrigation in
                                                                             Linked citation goes here
Damascus. The rulers of this
dynasty were called caliphs.
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           Umayyad Administration
Under the caliph, there were six
boards: Diwan al-Kharaj (the Board
of Revenue), Diwan al-Rasa'il (the
Board of Correspondence), Diwan
al-Khatam (the Board of Signet),
Diwan al-Barid (the Board of
Posts), Diwan al-Qudat (Board of
Justice) and Diwan al-Jund (the
Military Board). These boards
helped manage different parts of
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the dynasty so the caliph did not                               Exhibit
have to deal with them.
Diwan al-Kharaj, also known as
the Central Board of Revenues
dealt with finances, imposed
and collected taxes and
disbursed revenue. Diwan al-
Rasa’il, also known as the
Board of Correspondence,
organized the entire dynasty by
sending out fliers and  

pamphlets. Diwan al-Khatam,
the organizers of the postal                                 Return to
service, allowed messages to
be delivered very quick.
                     Boards continued…
Text goesal-Khatam
Diwan here.        was basically the
archivers. They would make a
copy of each official document and
store these documents. Diwan al-
Qudat was the justice department
and the judges were called Qudi.
Diwan al-Jund was in charge of
organizing the military. They would
decide how much soldiers would

get paid, and where each division
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would be in battle.                                             Exhibit
               Umayyad Capital State

The center of the Umayyad
Dynasty was in modern-day Syria.
The capital, Damascus, was
moved here by Muawiya who
wanted the capital in his homeland.
It was made the capital due to its
political, social, and economic links
with surrounding tribes and
kingdoms. Although it was the 

capital of an Islamic dynasty, the
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majority of Damascans weren’t                                    Exhibit

The terrain in the Umayyad
territory was almost completely
desert, and semi-arid plains.
There were also mountains in
the west and a small strip of
coastal plain on the
Mediterranean Sea. The fact
that there were few mountains
and mostly coastal plains made

transportation of goods,
                                                                Return to
soldiers, ideas, and Umayyad                                     Exhibit
culture much easier.
The climate of the Umayyad was
closely related to their terrain.
They’re located close to the
equator so their climate is very hot
and dry, resulting in a desert. The
summers are hot and dry with lots
of sunshine (not always a good
thing), while the winters are short,
and rainy.                   

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              Weather/Natural Hazards

The Middle East is riddled with
sand and dust storms that can
destroy crops and farm yields.
Because of this and the desert
climate, it was very hard for the
Umayyads to grow crops of any
kind. As we all know, growing
crops in sand is a no-go. 

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          Great Mosque of Damascus
The Umayyads were also the first
Muslim dynasty to rule the Arabs.
Built in 709 C.E., The Great
Mosque of Damascus was the
first architectural monument in
Islamic history. Ranked as one of
the wonders of the world, the
temple was later shared with the
Christians. The Muslims would

pray in the eastern side, and the
Christians in the western side.                                 Return to
The Umayyads were the first
Islamic dynsty and helped spread
the religion, along with their
empire, from the Middle East to
North Africa Spain and Central
Asia. The Umayyads also adopted
a theocracy where the religious
leaders ruled the empire. Because
of this the empire used sharia as

their laws, giving Islam a large
impact on their culture.                             Return to
                The Dome of the Rock

The Dome of the Rock was built
by the Umayyad caliph in 688
AD. It is located in Jerusalem on
top of The Temple Mount. It is
not a Mosque, but a Muslim
shrine. It is believed to be the
spot where Muhammad rose to
heaven. The Dome of the Rock
is the oldest Islamic monument
that stands today.                                            Return to
                   Umayyad Caliphs

Muawiya was the first Umayyad
caliph, and the founder of the
Umayyad Empire. The Caliphs
were the rulers/emperors of the
Umayyad Empire. They had
supreme political and religious
powers. The caliphs position (when
they passed away) was taken,
ususally, by a family member or
other family member of
Muhammed.                            Return to
                The Spread of Islam
The Umayyads were responsible
for the initial spread of Islam.
Islam basically was the
Umayyad culture so when their
empire and culture spread, so
did Islam. Without the Umayyad
Empire, Islam may never have
spread and become the second

largest religion in the world
today. The Umayyads helped
Islam spread to all of the Middle                                       Return to
East, West Asia, North Africa,
and Western Europe.
The Umayyad Caliphate Seal

              This was the seal that went
              on all official Umayyad
              documents and letters.

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                      Umayyad Flag

This is the official flag of the
Umayyads. The sword
represents the dynasty’s
military strength and power,
and the dark green color
shows ambition and growth.

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                         The Umayyads

In Summary, the Umayyad
Empire was responsible for the
growth and spread of Islam.
Not only that, but it was also
the fifth largest ancient empire
to ever exist. They adopted the
use of caliphs for political and
religious rulers and they
created great religious

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