Purported Ergogenic Aids by vivi07


									Purported Ergogenic Aids
Pharmacologic and Chemical Ergogenic Aids Evaluated

An area of increasing complexity and controversy
 In use since antiquity
 Greece, Rome, Victorian Era

 Not without risk  A need to critically evaluate
 “placebo effect” – improve performance b/c of the psychological factors (suggestive power)  Five areas for questioning the validity of research claims  Justification; subjects; research sample, subjects, and design; conclusions; dissemination of findings

Supplement Use and Abuse Among Athletes
 Broad categories encomapassing substances and methods banned by the IOC as of 2005:  Stimulants  Narcotic analgesics  Androgenic anabolic steroids  β-blockers and alcohol  β-2 agonists  Diuretics and other masking agents  Agents with anti-estrogenic activity  Peptide hormones and analogues  Substances that alter the integrity of urine samples  Enhancers of O2 transport, chemical and physical manipulation, and gene doping  Glucocorticosteroids

Mechanism for how purported ergogenic aids might work
 Act as central or peripheral nervous system stimulant (e.g. caffeine, choline, amphetamines, alcohol)  Increase storage and/or availability of a limiting substrate (e.g carbohydrate, creatine, carnitine, chromium)  Act as supplemental fuel source (e.g. glucose, medium chain TGs)  Reduce or neutralize performance-inhibiting metabolic byproducts (e.g. sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate, pangamic acid, phosphate)  Facilitate recovery (e.g. high-glycemic carbohdrates, water)

Ergogenic Aids
 Anabolic steroids function similarly to the hormone testosterone  β2-adrenergic agonists clenbuterol and albuterol increase skeletal muscle mass and slow fat gain in animals to counter the effects of aging, immobilization, malnutrition, and tissue-wasting pathology. A negative finding showed hastened fatigue during short-term, intense muscle actions  Debate exists as to whether administration of exogenous GH to normal, healthy people augments increases in mm when combined with resistance training

Ergogenic Aids
 DHEA levels decrease steadily throughout adulthood, prompting many individuals to supplement with this hormone.
 Claims: Protects against cancer, heart disease, diabetes; enhances sex drive, mood and memory; boosts immunity  No data support the ergogenic effects of DHEA on young adult men and women

 Research findings generally indicate no effect of androstenedione supplementation on concentrations of T or training response in terms of muscle size and strength and body comp  Andro = negative effects of a lowered HDL on overall CV disease risk; elevated estrogen levels (gynecomastia); increases likelihood of testing + for steroid use

Ergogenic Aids
 Little credible evidence exists that amphetamines (“pep” pills) aid exercise performance or psychomotor skills any better than a placebo.
 Side effects include drug dependency, headache, dizziness, confusion, and upset stomach

 Caffeine = +; less apparent in individuals who maintain a high-carb diet or habitually use caffeine  No compelling scientific evidence exists to conclude that ginseng supplementation offers + benefit for physiologic performance.  Accumulating evidence indicates significant health risk accompany ephedrine use

Ergogenic Aids
 Consuming alchohol produces an acute anxiolytic effect b/c it temporarily reduces tension and anxiety, enhances self-confidence, and promotes aggression.
 It conveys no ergogenic benefits and likely impairs overall athletic performance

 Increasing the body’s alkaline reserve before anaerobic exercise by ingesting buffering solutions of sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate improves performance; has no effect on aerobic performance (b/c pH and lactate remain near resting levels)
 Abdominal cramps and diarrhea ~ 1 hr after ingestion

 Buffer dosage and the cumulative anaerobic nature of the exercise interact to influence the ergogenic effect of bicarbonate (or citrate) loading

Ergogenic Aids
 Little scientific evidence exists to recommend exogenous phosphates or pangamic acid as ergogenic aids  An objective decision about the potential benefits and risks of glutamine, phosphatidylserine, and β-hydroxylβ-methyl butyrate to provide a “natural” anabolic boost with resistance training for healthy individuals awaits further research  EPO (hormone produced by the kidneys) increases hemoglobin and hematocrit to improve endurance performance. Significant risks accompany its unsupervised use

Purported Ergogenic Aids
Nutritional Ergogenic Aids Evaluated

Ergogenic Aids
 Long-term exercise or heavy training does not adversely affect intracellular carnitine levels. This explains why most research with carnitine supplementation fails to show an ergogenic effect, positive metabolic alterations, or body fat reductions  Bee pollen contains many important nutrients but it does not provide ergogenic effects compared with a well-balanced diet  Boron, a trace mineral, increases T levels in borondeprived, postmenopausal women. Boron supplements have no effect on anabolic hormone levels in individuals with adequate boron intake

Ergogenic Aids
 For individuals with adequate dietary chromium intakes, research fails to show any beneficial effect in muscular strength, physique, FFM, or mm  Excess chromium can adversely affect iron transport and distribution in the body  Because of it role in the ETC-OP, athletes supplement with CoQ10 to improve aerobic capacity and CV dynamics  CoQ10 supplements in healthy individuals provide no ergogenic effect on aerobic capacity, endurance or lactate levels.

Ergogenic Aids
 Consuming creatine with a glucose-containing drink increases creatine uptake and storage in skeletal muscle.
 This results from insulin-mediated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle, which facilitates creatine uptake

 Limited research indicates no effect of inosine supplement on physiologic or performance measures during aerobic or anaerobic exercise.
 A negative effect includes an increase in uric acid levels after only 5 days of supplementation

Ergogenic Aids
 Choline forms part of the cells’ phospholipid plasma membrane; it is also a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Reserch does not enhance fat metabolism to achieve the “cut look”  Consuming medium-chain TGs (86g) enhances fat metabolism and conserves glycogen during endurance exercise; enhancing performance by an additional 2.5%  The trace mineral vanadium exerts insulin-like properties in humans. No research documents an ergogenic effect, and extreme intake produces toxic effects.

Ergogenic Aids
 Pyruvate supplementation purportedly augments endurance performance and promotes fat loss.
 Its endurance effect appears to lie in enhanced pre-exercise glycogen storage and facilitated glucose transport into active muscles.  Body fat loss is attributed to its small effect on increasing metabolic rate.

 A definitive conclusion concerning pyruvate’s effectiveness requires verification by other investigators  Preexercise glycerol ingestion promotes hyperhydration, which supposedly protects the individual from heat stress and heat injury during highintensity exercise.

Nutrition Strategies to counterstress the immune system
 After a single bout of an intense or long training session, the immune defense system is weakened.  Similar to infection (bacterial or viral) or injury (muscle damage or tear)  “stress”  increase in blood leucocytes, lymphocytes and stress hormones  The 24-48 h following a stressful workout has been associated with increased risk for URTI and greater susceptibility to viral infections

Nutrition Strategies to counterstress the immune system
 Fuel your workouts appropriately
 30-60 g CHO/hr of exercise

 Eat regularly timed meals with emphasis on antioxidant rich foods
 Tomatoes, spinach, squash, V8 Fusion, fruit smoothie made with low fat milk, yogurt and frozen berries

 Eat a low fat diet, but make sure you consume omega 3-FA
 Soy, canola oil, flaxseed, walnuts and fatty fish

 Don’t skimp on protein, especially when you are not feeling well

Nutrition Strategies to counterstress the immune system
 Inconsistent eating habits? Take a one-a-day multivitamin and mineral preparation providing 100 to 200% of the RDA  Will not prevent you from getting sick, but may lessen the symptoms and decrese the duration of illness
 Avoid the “little is good, more is better” philosophy – excess can weaken the immune system

 Immune boosting foods: blueberries, beans/legumes (Soy), almond butter, lean beef, whole grains

“Let food be thy medicine and let medicine be thy food”
-Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine

To top