FROM NATURAL HAZARDS TO DISASTERS AND DISASTER by langkunxg

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									FROM NATURAL HAZARDS TO
 DISASTERS AND DISASTER
       RESILIENCE

A 3-Part Story That Can Take 40
     Years, or More, to Live

  Walter Hays, Global Alliance for
  Disaster Reduction, University of
        North Carolina, USA
     PLANET EARTH IS
IMPACTED EVERY YEAR BY
 DISASTERS CAUSED BY---
       EARTHQUAKES
         TSUNAMIS
    SEVERE WINDSTORMS
        VOLCANOES
          FLOODS
         WILDFIRES
DISASTERS ARE THE CITY’S
    DEFAULT OPTION
        (PART II)
  NATURAL HAZARDS ARE NOT AN
          OPTION (PART I)
               AND
TO BECOME DISASTER RESILIENT, OR
NOT; THAT IS THE QUESTION (PART III)
HAZARDS: NOT AN OPTION FOR CITIES


                          EXPOSURE AND
        HAZARDS           VULNERABILITY




                   CITY


                            DISASTER
        DISASTER
                           RESILIENCE
   RISK ASSESSMENT
                                       ACCEPTABLE RISK
•NATURAL HAZARDS
•INVENTORY                RISK
•VULNERABILITY                        UNACCEPTABLE RISK
•LOCATION



                                       DISASTER RISK
                                       REDUCTION
 DATA BASES            COMMUNITY
 AND INFORMATION



                                        POLICY OPTIONS


HAZARDS:
                                   •PREPAREDNESS
GROUND SHAKING                     •PROTECTION
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING                   •EMERGENCY RESPONSE
TECTONIC DEFORMATION               •RECOVERY
TSUNAMI RUN UP
AFTERSHOCKS
               NOTABLE DISASTERS IN 2011


                                FLOODS IN AUSTRALIA
NEW KNOWLEDGE FOR
COMMUNITY DISASTER              EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI IN
RISK REDUCTION                  JAPAN
                                WILDFIRES IN ARIZONA
                                AND TEXAS
CATALYSTS                       HURRICANE IRENE AND
                                TROPIAL STORM LEE
FOR CHANGE                      FLOODS : AUSTRALIA,
                                THAILANC
                                SUPER TORNADO
                                OUTBREAK

                                VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
   A DISASTER OCCURS
   WHEN THE CITY IS …

        UN—PREPARED
       UN—PROTECTED
UN—ABLE TO RESPOND EFFECTIVELY
      UN (NON)--RESILIENT
DISASTERS: THE DEFAULT OPTION
         FOR CITIES


     LOSS OF           ECONOMIC
     FUNCTION            LOSES


                CITY



  ENVIRONMENTAL    DEATHS AND
     IMPACTS        INJURIES
THE POTENTIAL DISASTER
     AGENTS OF AN
     EARTHQUAKE
                FAULT        TSUNAMI       DAMAGE/ LOSS
               RUPTURE

                           SUBSIDENCE      DAMAGE/ LOSS
             DAMAGE/LOSS

                           FOUNDATION
                                           DAMAGE/ LOSS
EARTHQUAKE
                             FAILURE

                               SOIL
                                           DAMAGE/ LOSS
                           AMPLIFICATION


               GROUND      LIQUEFACTION    DAMAGE/ LOSS
               SHAKING


             DAMAGE/LOSS   LANDSLIDES      DAMAGE/ LOSS




                           AFTERSHOCKS     DAMAGE/ LOSS




                              SEICHE       DAMAGE/ LOSS
                    CAUSES OF
                 DAMAGE/DISASTER


                           INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO
                          HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING


                               SOIL AMPLIFICATION

                           PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT
                           (SOIL FAILURE AND SURFACE
                                    FAULTING )

                             IRREGULARITIES IN MASS,
EARTHQUAKES                 STRENGTH, AND STIFFNESS

                          FLOODING FROM TSUNAMI WAVE
CASE HISTORIES                 RUNUP AND SEICHE


                               POOR DETAILING OF
                              STRUCTURALSYSTEM

                           FAILURE OF NON-STRUCTURAL
                                    ELEMENTS
HAITI: DEATH TOLL REACHED AN
ESTIMATED 220,OOO+; FEB 2010
THE POTENTIAL DISASTER
 AGENTS OF A TSUNAMI
     TSUNAMI HAZARDS
 (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)

• HIGH-VELOCITY, LONG-PERIOD
  WATER WAVES
• WAVE RUNUP
• FLOODING
• WAVE RETREAT
• SHORELINE EROSION
                    CAUSES OF
                 DAMAGE/DISASTER

                         HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF
                             INCOMING WAVES

                        INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE
                                 RUNUP

                        VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE
                                 RUNUP

                        INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF
  TSUNAMIS                     BUILDINGS

                                FLOODING
CASE HISTORIES

                             NO WARNING, OR
                          INADEQUATE WARNING

                         PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF
                                TSUNAMI
THE DISASTER IN JAPAN THAT
 BEGAN ON MARCH 11, 2011
 HAPPENED WITHIN MINUTES

• It only took seconds for the P-
  and S-waves and minutes for
  the tsunami waves to reach
  Sendai and other parts of
  Japan’s coast..
THE M9.0 EARTHQUAKE….
          Japan was well
           prepared to
           cope with the
           earthquake,
           and ---
THE M9.0 EARTHQUAKE….
           Japan’s
           buildings and
           infrastructure
           were protected
           through codes
           and standards,
           but ….
     THE TSUNAMI WAS
       DEVASTATING
The tsunami that followed the M9.0
  earthquake caused enormous
 damage in Japan within minutes.
THE 7-10 M TSUNAM WAVES

           The tsunami was
            devastating, inun-
            dating towns, im-
            mobilizing airports
            and roads, destroy-
            ing buildings, and
            treating everything
            (e.g., people, cars)
            in its path as debris.
THE POTENTIAL DISASTER
  AGENTS OF A SEVERE
      WINDSTORM
         RISK ASSESSMENT
        •SEVERE                                     ACCEPTABLE RISK
        WINDSTORMS                   RISK
        •INVENTORY
                                                   UNACCEPTABLE RISK
        •VULNERABILITY
        •LOCATION



                                                  SEVERE WINDSTORM
                                                  RISK REDUCTION
        DATA BASES
        AND INFORMATION


                               Storm Hazards:
                               -Wind pressure         POLICY OPTIONS
Gradient Wind
                               -Surge
                               -Rain            •PREPAREDNESS
                Wind profile   -Flood
                                                •PROTECTION
                               -Waves
                               -Salt water
                                                •EMERGENCY RESPONSE
                     Ocean                      •RECOVERY
                               -Missiles
 COMMUNITY                     -Tornadoes       • EDUCATIONAL SURGES
 HAZARDS OF A SEVERE WINDSTORM
 (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)

• WIND FIELD (COUNTER CLOCKWISE
  OR CLOCKWISE DIRECTION; CAT 1 (55
  mph) TO CAT 5 (155 mph or greater)
• STORM SURGE
• HEAVY PRECIPITATION
• LANDSLIDES (MUDFLOWS)
• COSTAL EROSION
• TORNADOES (SOMETIMES)
                    CAUSES OF
                 DAMAGE/DISASTER
                            WIND AND WATER
                          PENETRATE BUILDING
                               ENVELOPE

                          UPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM


                        FLYING DEBRIS PENETRATES
                                WINDOWS

   SEVERE                STORM SURGE AND HEAVY
                             PRECIPITATION
WINDSTORMS
                            IRREGULARITIES IN
CASE HISTORIES             ELEVATION AND PLAN


                           POOR WORKMANSHIP

                             FAILURE OF NON-
                          STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
164 TORNADOS IN 24 HOURS
 IMPACT 7 SOUTHEASTERN
         STATES

 EF4 and EF5 TORNADOES

 OVERALL DEATH TOLL REACHES 350
    WEDNESDAY, APRIL 27-
   THURSDAY, APRIL 28, 2011
TUSCALOOSA, AL: A MILE-WIDE
   STORM; APRIL 27, 2011
TUSCALOOSA, AL: 15TH STREET
  DAMAGE; APRIL 27, 2011
THE DISASTER KEEPT ON BUILDING
       AFTER IRENE’S EXIT

  RECORD-TO-NEAR-RECORD
FLOODING IN NEW ENGLAND AND
CANADA HAPPENED AFTER IRENE
      PASSED THROUGH



       AUGUST 29 ---31, 2011
AUG 27: FORECAST AFTER 7:30 AM
 LANDFALL IN OUTER BANKS, NC
IRENE CAUSED A $20+
  BILLION DISASTER
  Irene smashed power poles,
ripped transmission wires and
flooded electrical stations over
    the weekend, blacked out
  more than 7.4 million homes
  and businesses from South
  Carolina to Maine, and killed
      44 people in 13 states
VERMONT: FLOODING
THE POTENTIAL DISASTER
 AGENTS OF A VOLCANIC
       ERUPTION
       VOLCANO HAZARDS
    (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)

•   VERTICAL PLUME
•   ASH AND TEPHRA
•   LATERAL BLAST
•   PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
•   LAhARS
                    CAUSES OF
                 DAMAGE/DISASTER

                          PROXIMITY TO LATERAL
                                 BLAST

                         IN PATH OF PYROCLASTIC
                                  FLOWS

                         IN PATH OF FLYING DEBRIS
                                 (TEPHRA)

  VOLCANIC               IN PATH OF VOLCANIC ASH
                                (AVIATION)
 ERUPTIONS
                           IN PATH OF LAVA AND
CASE HISTORIES             PYROCLASTIC FLOWS


                            IN PATH OF LAHARS

                          IGNORING WARNING TO
                               EVACUATE
MOUNT KARANGETANG
ERUPTS IN INDONESIA

 ERUPTION OCCURS WITHIN
  HOURS OF JAPAN’S M9.0
   QUAKE AND TSUNAMI
        DISASTER
 FRIDAY, MARCH 11, 2011
   MOUNT KARANGETANG
         ERUPTS
The 1,784 m
(5,853 ft)
volcano, which
is one of
Indonesia’s 129
active volcan-
oes, is located
on Siau.
THE POTENTIAL DISASTER
  AGENTS OF A FLOOD
    FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA
 POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)
• TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED
  WITHIN THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO
  BE ACCOMMODATED NORMALLY IN
  THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLE
• EROSION
• SCOUR
• MUDFLOWS
                  CAUSES OF
                 DAMAGE AND
                  DISASTER
                         LOSS OF FUNCTION OF
                      STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN


                              INUNDATION


                          INTERACTION WITH
                        HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                        STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS
  FLOODS                 DAMAGE FROM WATER

                        WATER BORNE DISEASES
CASE HISTORIES
                         (HEALTH PROBLEMS)


                        EROSION AND MUDFLOWS

                      CONTAMINATION OF GROUND
                              WATER
ROCKHAMPTON, AUSTRSLIA BECAME
   AN ISLAND:JANUARY 3, 2011
 BANGKOK: OVER 370
DEAD AND LOSSES IN
EXCESS OF $6 BILLION
  FROM PROLONGED
     FLOODING

    NOVEMBER 2011
SANDBAGGING: CHAO
   PRAYA RIVER
DON MUANG AIRPORT: A
SHELTER FOR EVACUEES
THE POTENTIAL DISASTER
 AGENTS OF A WILDFIRE
       WILDFIRE HAZARDS
    (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)

•   FIRE
•   HOT GASES AND SMOKE
•   HOT SPOTS
•   BURNED OUT SLOPES (with
    increased susceptibility to insect
    infestation, erosion, and
    landslides)
    WILDFIRE HAZARDS
 (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)

• SUNDOWNER WINDS
• SANTA ANNA WINDS
• LOCAL CHANGES IN AIR
  QUALITY
• LOCAL CHANGES IN WEATHER
                CAUSES OF
               DAMAGE AND
                DISASTER

                       LIGHTNING STRIKES


                            MANMADE FIRES


                     PROXIMITY OF URBAN AREA
                       TO THE WILDLAND FIRE

                    WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION
 WILDFIRES                 (DAY/NIGHT)

  DISASTER                    DRYNESS
LABORATORIES


                       HIGH TEMPERATURES


                       LOCAL FUEL SUPPLY
SMITHVILLE, TX FIRE
 Since the beginning of the
2011 wildfire season, Texas
 has dealt with over 20,900
 fires that have destroyed
more than 1,000 homes and
  burned 3.6 million acres
   (1.46 million hectares).
  DISASTERS MUST NOT
 BECOME THE OPTION OF
   CHOICE FOR CITIES
      (SEE PART II)
TO BECOME DISASTER RESILIENT, OR
 NOT; THAT IS STILL THE QUESTION:
             (PART III)

								
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