Teaming Foods and Fluids for Teen Athletes
Amy Peterson MS RD Extension Educator Polk County Cooperative Extension
High School Hot Spots
Not eating enough Don’t know how much to eat Don’t eat enough calories Don’t make good food choices Don’t know a lot about nutrition Don’t eat enough calories for competition and growth!
Zoning in on the Diet for YOU!
How Much More Do Teens Need?
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 15 30 Protein Fat CHO 55
Type of activity Intensity of the workout Frequency of the activity
sugars starches whole grains fruits vegetables high “fiber” foods
The Power in Carbs
Energy for exercise from carbs Body uses muscle glycogen stores - the major source of fuel in the first 1/2 hour of activity After 90 - 120 minutes, energy fueled from blood glucose stores
Why Do We Need Carbohydrates?
Moderate workouts need less carbs than high workouts
Available source of energy to stop
“hitting the wall”
Fat - How Low Do You Go?
NEED TO DECREASE FAT
NEED TO INCREASE FAT
Does anyone in your family have a history of heart disease or have high blood pressure? Do you need to lose body fat? Do you eat a high fat diet? Do you train or compete aerobically more than 60 minutes per day?
Do you have trouble keeping weight on and eat a low fat diet? Do you eat less than 30 grams of fat per day? Do you feel hungry but eat a lot? Do you not eat a lot of foods because they have too much fat?
Fats - Fuel for Fitness
“The more you restrict a food or food group in your diet, the greater the chance is that an important nutrient is lacking”
Packing in Protein?
Losing the Battle with Protein?
Vegetarians eating no animal protein Low calorie intake Growing taller
Protein Muscle Myths
True or False - “Teen athletes need high protein diets to build muscle mass”
FALSE! Teen athletes need enough protein to meet growth and training needs!
Provides building blocks for body tissues Athletes require a little bit more than average Additional protein and amino acid intake DOES NOT build larger muscles or increase muscle tissue growth during training Need to develop muscles to their maximum by training and hard work
Max Your Muscles
Stronger muscles can improve performance. Stronger muscles can increase speed when running, force when throwing or endurance in any athletic event.
Fast-Twitch Fibers work rapidly but tire quickly. Slow-Twitch Fibers don’t work as fast, but they
have greater endurance.
produce more power than slow-twitch but can be trained to have high aerobic capacity.
Aerobic Exercise Anaerobic Exercise Muscle Uses
Football Baseball Short Distance Track & Field Events
Cross Country Marathons Long Distance Swimming
Uses of Muscles During Exercise
Uses all types of twitch muscles Each can store glycogen but they can’t share it Exhausted muscles can be restored with a high CHO diet within 24 hours Choose complex CHO to restore muscle
Making Muscle Mass
Follow a good training program Get enough sleep Follow a good nutrition program Have good eating habits
How Do You Build Muscle?
Pounds of Meat? Dozens of Eggs? Gallons of Whole Milk? Packets of Protein Powder?
Both a sports and social issue Too many restrictions can slow growth and development during teen years
The Growing Rate for Girls
Fastest between 10 - 14 10” taller 40-50# heavier Slows after 14 - 15 Weight added all over!
The Growing Rate for Guys
Fastest between 12 - 16 12” taller 50 - 60# heavier Shoulders broaden Muscles grow and strengthen Fat deposits decrease and muscle increases
Does Cutting Back Cut Out Too Much?
Loss of muscle Lower BMR Can’t maintain body weight Body temperature changes Low blood and plasma volumes Reduction in cardiac output
Loss of electrolytes Decreased renal blood flow Depletion of liver glycogen stores Decrease in work performance Decrease in muscular strength
Health Concerns for High Risks Sports
Wrestlers Gymnasts Dancers Swimmers Divers
Disordered Eating Disasters
Discourage unnecessary weigh-ins Look for warning signs of eating disorders
“Forgot” to eat Weight loss Avoiding food activities Critical Diuretics/laxatives Withdrawal/low self esteem Declining performance
Lethal Weight Loss for Wrestlers
3 collegiate wrestlers die from rapid weight loss programs to qualify for competition Common weight loss tactics used:
dehydration hyperthermia restricted food and fluid intakes vapor-impermeable suits exercising in hot environments
It’s expensive to buy enough food… I don’t like to cook… There is no food around when I want to eat… I don’t like eating breakfast
I don’t have time to eat between going to class, working, studying, training, and competing… I feel sick after I eat I eat a lot, but I am still losing weight I don’t know!
Weight Loss Winners
Choose the best foods within calorie limits Choose nutrient dense and readily available foods Multi-vitamin/mineral supplement with 50-100% of RDA recommended
Fill’er Up With Fluids!
Sweating it out Thinking of thirst Body language for more liquids
When to Water?
Drink before, during, and after your workout! Water comes in all shapes and sizes
Kids give off more heat during exercise Kids can’t handle the heat as well
Heat Cramps Heat Exhaustion Heat Stroke
Kids take longer to get used to the heat during workouts Kids don’t sweat as “efficiently”
Magic Vitamins and Minerals?
Competitive edge? When do you need a supplement? What’s important to teens?
Calcium Iron Zinc
Not tested for safety or effectiveness Give false sense of security and can encourage poor eating habits There are no supplements that will make you grow “larger, stronger, or faster” by magic Expensive!
How Powerful Are Protein Supplements?
Keys to Supplement Success?
Amino Acids Creatine Liquid Meal Replacers
Real Deal or False Hope?
Amino Acids = 200-500 mg/tablet One Ounce Meat 7000 mg per serving
Steroids Caffeine Sugar
What’s On Your Training Table?
Choosing Your Food
What sport are you competing in? Variety is the spice of life! Good choices are great - bad choices can be disastrous!
Tricks for Timing?
Keep It Simple!
Eat foods you like! Eat the same kinds of foods you eat all the time – now is not the time to try something new!
How to Handle the Butterflies!
Watch the Mealtime Clock If You …
Play contact sports Lose your appetite Have a nervous digestive system Exercise in the heat In a high-intensity sport
Munch Your Lunch
Hunger pains Get shaky or weak In an endurance event
After the Final Buzzer
Refill on fluids No heavy foods Crunch on carbs
Being a Champion Eater
Most of my meals contain at least three different foods… Over the course of a week, my meals have at least 10 different foods… I plan what I am going to eat before I get hungry… I keep non-perishable foods with me so I am never caught without food when I am hungry… I make sure I get at least 6 servings of breads and cereals each day… I choose my foods based on what I have already eaten to try to get a balanced diet… I try to get at least 3 different servings of milk, yogurt, or cheese each day… I keep water, juice, milk, of other beverages close at hand during the day… I make sure to eat at least 2 servings of meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, beans, eggs, or nuts each day… I eat at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables each day…
Special thanks to Linda Boeckner, PhD, RD Extension Nutrition Specialist
University of Nebraska Cooperation Extension cooperating with the Counties and the U.S. Department of Agriculture