What is an ergogenic aid? • “Ergo” = work • “Genic” = to generate • Substance or product that enhances performance • Examples?
Types of Ergogenic Aids
• • • • • Physiological Biomechanical Psychological Pharmacological Nutritional
What are dietary supplements?
• Defined by DSHEA (Dietary supplement health and education act) • Contain one or more of the following:
– – – – – – Vitamin Mineral Herb or other botanical Amino acid Dietary substance to supplement diet A concentrate or combination of above
• • • • • • Not intended to be used as foods Must be labeled as “dietary supplement” Do not require approval by FDA Are not tested for safety or efficacy Must have a “Supplements Facts” panel Supposed to list all ingredients
Common Marketing Ploys
• Product endorsements
– Athletes, movie stars, etc.
• Testimonials • Claimed “scientific research” backing:
– Studies/data is unpublished – Done in foreign country (US does not recognize)
• False label or health claims
Are supplements safe?
• Some are safer than others • “Good Manufacturing Practices” • Look for USP seal • Buy from well-known companies (USP; US Pharmacopia)
What is doping?
• Practice of enhancing performance using foreign substances or other artificial means • Derived from Dutch word “dop” • Is a problem of epidemic proportions in sport
• Ingestion of substances that unbeknownst to the athlete can cause a positive test for doping. • Causes:
– – – – Ignorance of what substances are banned. Names in ingredients list are not recognized. Manufacturer may not list all ingredients. Product could be contaminated in production.
Types of Commonly Encountered Doping Agents
• Anabolics • Prohormones (converts to hormone) and hormone releasers • Fat reducers • Anticatabolics • Vitamins and minerals
Anabolics • Enhance the body’s ability to build tissue, particularly muscle • Examples:
– Testosterone – Anabolic-androgenic hormones – Growth hormone
• Used as ergogenic aids, function similarly to the hormone testosterone. • An estimated one to three million athletes currently use androgens, often combined with stimulants, hormones, and diuretics, to facilitate the training response.
• Research findings on the effects of steroids often are inconsistent and the precise mechanism of action is unclear.
Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids
In males include: • Infertility - increased LDL- decreased HDL • Reduced sperm concentrations - decreased liver function • Decreased testicular volume - decreased endocrine function • Gynecomastia • Connective tissue damage • Chronic stimulation of the prostate gland • Injury and functional alterations in cardiovascular function • Possible pathological ventricular growth and dysfunction • Increased blood platelet aggregation • Increased risk of stroke and acute myocardial infarction
Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids
In females include: • • • • • • • • Virilization (assuming male characteristics) Deepened voice Increased facial and body hair Altered menstrual function Dramatic increase in sebaceous gland size (zits) Acne Decreased breast size Long-term effects of steroid use on reproductive function remain unknown
• Debate exists as to whether administration of exogenous growth hormone to normal, healthy people augments increases in muscle mass when combined with resistance training. • Acromegaly- type II diabetes- water retention
• A steady decrease in DHEA levels occurs throughout adulthood, prompting many individuals to supplement this hormone in the hope of optimizing training and countering the effects of aging. • No data support the ergogenic effects of DHEA supplements on young adult men and women. Actually increases estrogen in men rather than testosterone
Prohormones and Hormone Releasers
• Substances touted to be converted to or increase production of anabolic hormones in the body • Prohormone examples:
– Androstenedione; “Andro” – Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate (HMB)
• Hormone-releaser examples:
– Ornithine and arginine – Clonidine
• Supplementation has no effect on basal serum concentrations of testosterone or training response in terms of muscle size and strength and body composition. • Decreases HDL • Gynecomastia and possibly pancreatic and other cancers.
• Little credible evidence exists that amphetamines aid exercise performance or psychomotor skills any better than an inert placebo (may decrease perception of fatigue). • Side effects of amphetamines include drug dependency, headache, dizziness, confusion, and upset stomach, inc. heart attack.
• Substances that:
– Decrease appetite – Increase fat mobilization and utilization – Block absorption of ingested fats
– Caffeine – L-Carnitine – Ephedrine
• The most widely consumed behaviorally active substance in the world, caffeine belongs to a group of lipid-soluble compounds called purines. They are found naturally in coffee beans, tea leaves, chocolate, cocoa beans, and cola nuts and often added to carbonated beverages and nonprescription medicines.
• Caffeine’s inhibition of adenosine receptors on adipocyte cells increases cellular levels of cyclic3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic-AMP). • Cyclic-AMP activates hormone-sensitive lipases to promote lipolysis, which releases free fatty acids into the plasma. • Increased levels of free-fatty acids contribute to increased fat oxidation, thus conserving liver and muscle glycogen.
• Caffeine can exert an ergogenic effect in extending aerobic exercise duration by increasing fat utilization for energy, thus conserving glycogen reserves as well as power athletes (strength). • These effects become less apparent in individuals who:
– Maintain a high-carbohydrate diet. – Habitually use caffeine.
Use 5 mg / Kg one hour Prior to competition May work by: inc. blood flow inc. epi. - inc. Ca++ release inc. contraction force – inc. CNS = inc. recruitment inc. Ca++ cycling
• A potent amphetamine-like alkaloid compound with sympathomimetic physiologic effects, found in several species of the plant ephedra. • Accumulating evidence indicates significant health risk accompany ephedrine use. • Not ergogenic
• Substances that decrease the breakdown of body tissues, thus slowing protein degradation • Examples:
– – – – Glutamine Branched chain amino acids Leucine Whey protein
“Natural” Anabolic Boosters
• An objective decision about the potential benefits and risks of glutamine, phosphatidylserine, and beta-hydroxyl-betamethyl butyrate (HMB) to provide an anabolic boost with resistance training for healthy individuals awaits further research.
Nutritional Ergogenics Used by Endurance Athletes
• Branched chain amino acids • Caffeine • Coenzyme Q10 • Energy bars • Energy gels • Ginseng • Glycerol • L-Carnitine • Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) • Pyruvate • Sodium/electrolyte tablets • Sports beverages
Nutritional Ergogenics Used by Strength/Power Athletes
• • • • • Chromium Creatine Conjugated linoleic acid Growth hormone Anabolic steriods
• Beta Alanine (into Carnosine)
• Protein powders • Protein bars • Medium-chain triglycerides • Beta-hydroxy-betamethyl butyrate
• Ginseng is commonly marketed to reduce tension, revitalize, burn calories, and optimize mental and physical performance, particularly during times of fatigue and stress. • No compelling scientific evidence exists to conclude that ginseng supplementation offers positive benefit for physiologic function or performance during exercise.
• Consuming alcohol produces an acute anxiolytic effect because it temporarily reduces tension and anxiety, enhances self-confidence, and promotes aggression (is a depressant). • Other than the antitremor effect, alcohol conveys no ergogenic benefits and likely impairs overall athletic performance (ergolytic effect).
• Dramatic alterations occur in the acid–base balance of the intracellular and extracellular fluids during maximal exercise. • As a result, intracellular pH decreases. • Increased acidity inhibits the energy transfer and contractile capabilities of active muscle fibers thereby causing exercise performance to decline.
• Increasing the body’s alkaline reserve before anaerobic exercise by ingesting buffering solutions of sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate improves performance. • Buffer dosage and the cumulative anaerobic nature of the exercise interact to influence the ergogenic effect. • Use 0.3 g / Kg 1-2 hours prior
• Phosphates are used to increase buffering ability and availability of phosphorous. • Little scientific evidence exists to recommend exogenous phosphates as an ergogenic aid.
• EPO is a hormone produced by the kidneys that regulates red blood cell production within the marrow of the long bones. • It increases hemoglobin and hematocrit to improve endurance performance by increasing oxygen-carrying capacity. • Works very well for endurance only
Nutritional Ergogenic Aids Evaluated
Used to increase glycogen storage in the skeletal muscles and the liver Generally increases endurance in prolonged submaximal exercise
• A modification of the classic loading procedure provides for the same high-level of glycogen storage without dramatic alterations in one’s diet and exercise routine (can do 400-700g/day for 3 days) • A one-day rapid loading procedure produces nearly as high glycogen storage as achieved with the more prolonged loading techniques (just as effective as above, use 10g/Kg).
• Supplementing with amino acids, either singularly or in combination, is done to create a hormonal milieu to facilitate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. • With resistance training, muscle enlargement (hypertrophy) occurs from a shift in the body’s normal dynamic state of protein synthesis and degradation to greater tissue synthesis.
• The normal hormonal milieu following resistance exercise stimulates the anabolic processes while inhibiting muscle protein degradation.
• Dietary modifications that increase amino acid transport into muscle, raise energy availability, or increase anabolic hormone levels augment the training effect by increasing the rate of anabolism and/or depressing catabolism.
• Research generally shows no benefits of such supplementation on levels of anabolic hormones or measures of body composition, muscle size, or exercise performance.
• Long-term exercise or heavy training does not adversely affect intracellular carnitine levels. • This explains why most research with carnitine supplementation fails to show an ergogenic effect, positive metabolic alterations, or body fat reductions.
• L-Carnitine is a vitamin-like compound with well-established functions in intermediary metabolism. • It is found mostly in meat and dairy products.
• Chromium is used for its fat burning and muscle building properties. • For individuals with adequate dietary chromium intakes, research fails to show any beneficial effect of chromium supplements on trainingrelated changes in muscular strength, physique, fat-free body mass, or muscle mass.
• Excess chromium can adversely affect iron transport and distribution in the body. • Prolonged excess may even contribute to chromosomal damage.
• Because of its role in electron transport–oxidative phosphorylation, athletes supplement with coenzyme Q10 to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular dynamics. • CoQ10 supplements in healthy individuals provide no ergogenic effect on aerobic capacity, endurance, submaximal exercise lactate levels, or cardiovascular dynamics.
• Creatine loading occurs by ingesting 20 g of creatine monohydrate for six consecutive days. Reducing intake to 2 g daily then maintains elevated intramuscular levels.
7-35 days = no creatine
Both: 1-6 days = 20 g / day
7-35 days = 2 g / day
• Creatine loading significantly increases intramuscular creatine and phosphocreatine, and enhances short-term anaerobic power output capacity and facilitates recovery from repeated bouts of intense effort.
• Supplementation coupled with heavy resistance training appears to influence:
– – – – – Body mass (water weight) Muscular strength Cross-sectional area of muscle (water) Sprint speed power
• Consuming creatine with a glucosecontaining drink increases creatine uptake and storage in skeletal muscle. • More than likely, this results from insulinmediated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle, which facilitates creatine uptake.
• Owing to their relatively rapid digestion, assimilation, and catabolism for energy, consuming MCT MAY enhance fat metabolism and conserve glycogen during endurance exercise. • Ingesting about 86 g of MCT + CHO enhances endurance performance by an about 2.5% (1 study, needs more research).
• Pyruvate purportedly augments endurance performance and promotes fat loss. • Its endurance effect appears to lie in enhanced pre-exercise glycogen storage and facilitated glucose transport into active muscles. • It has a small effect on increasing metabolic rate.
• A definitive conclusion concerning pyruvate’s effectiveness requires verification by other investigators.
• Pre-exercise glycerol ingestion promotes hyperhydration, which supposedly protects the individual from heat stress and heat injury during high-intensity exercise.
• Non-essential amino acid found in foods (i.e. chicken, beef) • Rate limiting substrate to carnosine synthesis • Supplementing 3 to 6 grams per day of has been shown to increase skeletal muscle [carnosine] up to 64% in 28 days
• Di-peptide (beta-alanine + Histidine)
• In humans, highest concentrations are found primarily in Fast-Twitch muscle • Body building and sprint training appears to significantly increase carnosine in skeletal muscle (Tallon 2005; Suzuki 2002) • Testosterone administration has also been shown to increase skeletal muscle carnosine (Penafiel 2004)
Physiological Actions: * Intra-muscular pH buffer * Antioxidant Importantance for the Strength and Power athlete* The only nutritional method (to date) to potentially increase the intra-muscular buffering capacity during high intensity exercise
* In theory, greater buffering capacity would delay fatigue and improve exercise performance and capacity