Stationary Power Markets by pptfiles

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									Power Generation Markets, Equipment, and Fuels
Paul Plahn Cummins Power Generation Minneapolis, Minnesota

July 23, 2003

Overview
• • • • Advances on power generation technologies Market segment requirements Power generation using hydrogen Solid oxide fuel cells

July 23, 2003

Cummins Inc.

$1.4B Power Generation
July 23, 2003

$4.0B Engines

$1.0B Filtration

Worldwide Presence
Technical Centers • Columbus, Indiana • Darlington, England • European Engine Alliance,High Wycombe, England • Fridley, Minnesota • Industrial Power Alliance, Oyama, Japan • Pune, India • Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sales and Services • Over 500 distributorships and branches worldwide

Component Manufacturing • Ahmednagar, India • Scoresby, Australia • Stamford, England • Wuxi China

Genset Manufacturing • Minneapolis, Minnesota • Ramsgate, England • Singapore • Daman, India

July 23, 2003

Parts Distribution Centers • Beijing, China • Mechelen, Belgium • Memphis, Tennessee • Pune, India • San Luis Potosi, Mexico • Sao Paulo, Brazil • Scoresby, Australia • Shanghai, People's Republic of China • Singapore

World Headquarters and Manufacturing for the Americas located in Minneapolis, MN
664,000 ft2
July 23, 2003

1,100 employees

Stationary Power Markets

Standby / Peaking

Distributed Power

GenSet

Residential

Small Remote Telecommunications

Units from 3kW to 2.7MW, Systems to 30 MW
July 23, 2003

Mobile Power Markets

Recreational Vehicle

Portable

Marine

Commercial Mobile
July 23, 2003

Rental

Power Generation Technology Evolution

Evolution of Power Gen Technology

Engine Driven Gensets Variable Speed Gensets Hybrid Power and Battery

Larger military Variable Speed Engine-Driven Gensets

Switches & Switchgear

Microturbine Gensets

Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Fuel Cell Power Systems

Mature
July 23, 2003

Emerging

Future

Cummins Fuel and Emissions Activates
Cummins Engine Group Cummins Power Generation Diesel, LP and NG Fuels •Recips •Turbines •Fuel cells Hydrogen potential Cummins Fleet Guard Nelson Engine Exhaust Aftertratment Cummins Westport

Diesel, LP and NG Fuels •Recips Engine In Cylinder Emissions Reduction

High Pressure in Cylinder LP and NG Fuel Injection Hythane with SunLine

Hydrogen with BMW

July 23, 2003

Hythane
• Potential to introduce H2 using existing distribution and minor engine modifications • 20% H2 and 80% NG can provide a 50% reduction in NOx emissions at equivalent efficiencies

Hydrogen
• Easily used in turbines and fuel cells • Advance reciprocating engines can provide low emissions and good fuel economy • Fuel cells provide an incremental improvement in fuel efficiency and emissions over turbines and reciprocating engines

•A challenge is to produce and distribute hydrogen at a commercially viable cost
July 23, 2003

Fuel Storage Volume and Cost Comparison

Fuel Storage Capacity Required gal/kW-hr

Fuel Cost Comparison for <10kW Generation
$5.00

1.80

Fuel Storage Volume Req'd gal/kW-hr

1.60 1.40

1.54

$4.50 $4.00 $3.50

Industrial "A" Cylinder

$4.38

Fuel Cost $/kW-hr

1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 #2 Diesel Fuel (Genset 1/2 Load) LPG (Genset 1/2 Load) H2 @ 3600 PSI (PEM Cell) 0.13 0.25

$3.00 $2.50 $2.00 $1.50 $1.00 $0.50 $Diesel Genset (1/2 load) no tax $0.11

Industrial Bulk Gas Pricing DOE-GTI NG Reforming Study
$0.28

$1.63

$0.29
PEM Cell on H2

LPG Genset (1/2 load) no tax

July 23, 2003

System Attributes vs. Market Segment
Market Segment Standby Interruptible Peaking Distributed Generation Operation Hours per Year <200 100-500 1000-2000 >2000 Low Initial Cost H H M M Low Fuel Use L L M H low Maint. ($/hr) L L M H Low Emissions L M H H

Importance: High, Medium, Low

July 23, 2003

Cost/kWe vs. Power
3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500
Natural Gas Recip Diesel Recip Microturbine (Recuperated) Gas Turbine (Non-recuperated) DOE Fuel Cell Program Targets Long Term FY03 TQG Fuel Cells Near Term

Price ($/kWe)

0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Power (Kw)

July 23, 2003

Thermal Efficiency Vs. Technology
0.55 0.50
Electrical Efficiency (full load)
Fuel Cell/ M icroturbine Target 60-70%

Fuel Cells

Diesel Recip Natural Gas Recip (Lean Burn)

0.45
Stationary

0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 1
Hydrocarbon Fuels

DOE Fuel Cell Target

Mobile

Better

Natural Gas Recip (Stoichiometric)

Gas Turbine Recuperated

Gas Turbine (Non-recuperated)

10

100 Power (kWe)

1000

10000

July 23, 2003

Emissions Standards and Controls Technology Options
Aftertreatment Gas Turbine+ SCR Lean burn gas recip + SCR Tier 3 Diesel+ SCR Tier 2 Diesel + SCR Tier 1 Diesel+ SCR Rich burn gas recip + TWC Base Plant Fuel Cell Microturbine Gas Turbine Lean burn gas recip 0.01 0.40 0.76 1.5 0.02 0.03 0.16 0.27 0.42 0.45 TWC - Three-Way Catalyst SCR - Selective Catalytic Reduction MOH - Mobile OffHighway

US Utility Average MOH Federal Regulations Tier 3 Diesel Tier 2 Diesel Tier 1 Diesel

3.4

8.2 13.6 20.9

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

NOx (lb/MWe-hr)

July 23, 2003

Noise dBA
85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57

Noise Level vs. Technology
Open GenSet
85 dBA

Attenuated modular GenSet
Stage I 71 dBA Stage II 67 dBA

Microturbine or custom GenSet
73 dBA 63 dBA w/silencer option

Fuel Cell
59 dBA est..

Ref., commercial air conditioner is 61 dBA

60 KW @ 7 Meters - Uninstalled

Different Fuel Cell Technologies

Germanischer Lloyd

July 23, 2003

Attributes of fuel cell technologies
Technology Size Eff. N gas fuel Operating Temp C Maturity COST 5-8 yr FEATURES fast response mature efficient efficient ISSUES complex reformer expensive

PEM
3M, Ballard

< 100KW

Phosphoric >100KW
Fuel Cells Int'l.

20 - 120 C% medium 36% 28% sm. 160 - 650 C 40% high

high very high high high

Carbonate
FuelCell Energy

>100KW

50% 50% 30% sm.

600 - 650 C 900 - 1,000 C

medium low

•low density •therm.cycle
•maturity •start time

Solid Oxide 5-1000KW
Westinghouse SOFCo

Highest potential for broad applications

July 23, 2003

Fuel Cell Construction
• Anode, cathode, and electrolyte sheet • Sheets are trapped by fuel and air flow field components that also provide electrical interconnection to the next cell • Repeater cells of approx. 0.7 volt each are stacked in series to produce higher output assembly voltages • Current is a function of sheet area and is approximately 200A for a eight inch square
July 23, 2003

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Construction

5-cell cross-flow stack assembled from co-fired cells

and interconnects.
Air Channels Fuel Channels

July 23, 2003

Fuel Cell System

(STACK)

Fuel cell balance of plant equipment is not insignificant in size and as a percentage of total system cost

July 23, 2003

Cummins DOE SECA Fuel Cell Program
• DOE awarded Cummins $75M as part of a 10 year cost shared development program to develop a 10 KW SOFC fuel cell system • Other contract awards to Delphi, GE, Siemens Westinghouse, FuelCell Energy, and Acumentrics • Identified commercial markets include: – Recreational Vehicles – Commercial vehicles – Telecommunications • Base technology is scalable to – larger units over 200 KW.

Co-fired Ceramic Stack

Sub System Assembly
Stack (1 of 3) Exhaust Header Bus Connector Outer Case and Insulation Reformer

Fuel Inlet Exhaust Outlet Main Air Inlet Filter Recuperator Trim Heat Exchanger Air/Fuel Manifold Combustor

Air Inlets

July 23, 2003

Development Scope
– – – – Program management System logic controls Power inverter control Blowers and Temperature modulating controls – Fuel system – System packaging
Clean energy for the world
586 mm

– – – –

SOFC stack Partial oxidation reformer Heat recuperator Hot box packaging

July 23, 2003

Summary
• Hydrogen fuel will grow in availability and importance • • • • • Reformed gas and oil hydrocarbon fuels Renewables Coal - DOE vision 21

Reciprocating engines will serve some markets operating on hydrogen Fuel cells offer efficiency and emissions advantages

July 23, 2003

Sources for additional information

Fuel cell government and industry links
WWW.gofuellcells.com

Cummins fuel cell program WWW.cummins.com who we are, fuel cell R & D

paul.h.plahn@cummins.com

July 23, 2003


								
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