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Mark Norton - Urban Water Research Center

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					   Santa Ana
Watershed TMDLs
Presentation to Urban Water Research
               Council
         Gerard Thibeault, Executive Director
   Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board

   Mark Norton, Water Resources & Planning Mgr.
      Santa Ana Watershed Project Authority

                  January 19, 2005
Santa Ana Watershed
 Newport Bay Watershed
Watershed
• 154 sq miles
Climate
 • mediterranean
 Hydrology
 • Modified
   channels
 • San Diego Creek
   (perennial
   stream)
 • High nitrate
   groundwater area
Upper/Lower
Newport Bay
 • Wildlife area
 • Boating and
   recreation areas
Newport Bay: Nutrient TMDL Issues

Excessive nutrient input
 - urban
 - commercial nurseries
 - agriculture
 - open space


Impacts to Newport Bay
- Algal Blooms – macrophytes
- Impacts to boats/recreation
- Occasional fish kills
Newport Bay: Nutrient TMDL – Why Adaptive
Management Necessary


 - Lack of data to identify and quantify all nutrient sources in
   watershed
 - Lack of data/information on responses of algae growth in
   Newport Bay to incoming nutrient levels
 - Uncertainty on appropriateness of nutrient targets to improve
   water quality
 - Uncertainty if allocations specified could be achieved by
   specified TMDL target dates
 - Identification of other nutrient reduction strategies (e.g.
   wetlands)
Newport Bay Nutrient TMDL Adaptive Management
Approach – Lessons Learned Applied to Future TMDLs



•Most watersheds data on which to base TMDLs likely
 insufficient
•Adaptive management acknowledges TMDL
 limitations: sets up program for filling data/info gaps
•Stakeholders more likely to buy into TMDL strategy if
 adaptive management approach taken
•Very much stakeholder driven: encourages
 stakeholders to assist in process to refine TMDL in
 the future
Newport Bay Nutrient TMDL Approach

   • Nutrient TMDL adopted 1998

   • Implementation on-going: focus on adaptive
      management
       • Collection of additional data to refine TMDL
      • Evaluate cause/response relationships via modeling
      • Permits issued to commercial nurseries
      • Permits issues for groundwater clean-up activities

   •Review of TMDL Effectiveness
      • Conducted by Regional Board in 2004
      • Interim nutrient reduction targets have been met
      • Extent of algae blooms have decreased
      • ID of additional studies/activities needed to further reduce
        algae blooms
Chino Basin


Watershed
• 235 sq miles
• Largest concentration of
  dairy cattle in U.S.
Hydrology
• Modified channels
   Cucamonga Cr.,
   Chino Cr.
• Natural channels
   Santa Ana River, Chino
   Cr., Mill Cr.
Pathogen Sources
   Urban, agriculture,
   dairy, open space
 Chino Basin: TMDL Issues

Excessive pathogen input
 - dairy
 - urban
 - open space
Impacts to Recreation
Proposed Chino Basin Pathogen TMDL Approach

     Schedule Regional Board adoption: June ‘05

     Issues:
     • Protection of recreation in modified channels => is it needed?
     • Protection of recreation during storms => is it needed?
     • Appropriate bacterial indicator: fecal coliform vs. e. coli

     Adaptive TMDL Approach (draft):
       • Continue monitoring to ID specific sources, evaluate wet
          vs. dry season contributions
        • Evaluate year-around use of waterbodies for recreation
        • Triennially review/revise TMDL based on additional studies
          and data
 San Jacinto Watershed

Watershed
  - 782 sq mi area

Climate
  - Mediterranean or Desert

Hydrology
San Jacinto River –
  Intermittent stream.
Tributary Streams -
  Ephemeral.
Lake Elsinore – Natural
  lake, terminus of the San
  Jacinto River, eutrophic.
Canyon Lake – Manmade
  reservoir upstream of
  Lake Elsinore, drains 90%
  of the watershed.
San Jacinto: Nutrient TMDL Issues

  Excessive nutrient input at Lake
  Elsinore
   Algal Blooms - mostly blue-green
   Depressed Oxygen Levels
   Fish Kills
TMDL Timetable

1994 – Regional Board lists Lake Elsinore as an impaired water body

1998 – Newport Beach Nutrient TMDL adopted
     – Canyon Lake added to the list of impaired waters

2000 – Regional Board initiates TMDL development process for Lake
       Elsinore and Canyon Lake

       April : Lake Elsinore and San Jacinto Watersheds Authority
       formed

       September : San Jacinto TMDL Workgroup formed

2004 – Regional Board establishes Lake Elsinore and Canyon Lake
      nutrient TMDLs
TMDL Challenges / Concerns: Data

   Nutrient Source Loading – Historical perspective
   (pre-development and post-agri/dairy storm loading to
   lakes)

   Storm Runoff – Better understanding needed of
   nutrient build-up and wash-off

   In-Lake Water Quality – Better understanding
   needed of in-lake water quality processes and storm
   event response to drought conditions
TMDL Challenges / Concerns: Costs
BMP Implementation/Treatment Options Capital          O&M
 a. At-Source                        $Billions
             - stormwater capture
             - treatment wetlands
             Annual BMP O&M                           $5 M

  b. In-Lake*                                  $40M
            - membrane / granular filtration
            - treatment wetlands
              Annual O&M                              $0.5M

Annual TMDL Monitoring                                $0.5M
       - watershed runoff
       - in-lakes
* Assumes 10 years of continuous operation
TMDL Challenges / Concerns: Achievability

    Will compliance achieve Designated Benefits -
      Improved beneficial use
        - lake water quality
        - aquatic habitat
        - lake recreational opportunities
    Benefit Measures –
      - User Surveys – perception of impairment
      - relationship between water quality and habitat
    Lake Response - lag time for lake to respond to treatment
                            measures
    Pollutant Trading – institutional barriers, cooperation
TMDL Challenges / Concerns: Regulatory Issues


 • Data – collection, management
 • TMDL End Point – uncertainty
 • Point of Compliance – where, under what conditions
 • Permit Compliance – how to monitor for compliance,
                      non-compliance
 • Participation – stakeholder Task Force
 • Public Support – financial
 • Enforcement – resources
San Jacinto: TMDL Approach
 Adaptive approach which includes:

    • Review & Revise Waste Discharge Requirement
    • Comprehensive TMDL Nutrient Monitoring Program
    • Watershed Management Plans for:
        •   Agriculture/Dairy
        •   Urban Discharges
        •   Forest Area
        •   On-site Disposal/Septic System
        •   Lake Sediment Nutrient Reduction
    • Pollutant Trading
    • Tri-annual Model Updates
    • Review & Revise WQ Objectives (December 2009)
    • Tri-annually Review & Revise TMDL
    • Funding Opportunities (Proposition 13 & 50)
Discussion
     &
Questions
Contact Information



 • Jerry Thibeault
   Executive Officer
   Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board
   gthibeault@waterboards.ca.gov


 • Mark Norton
   Water Resources & Planning Manager
   Santa Ana Watershed Project Authority
   mnorton@sawpa.org

				
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