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					       Gemini (constellation)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the astronomical constellation. For the astrological sign, see
Gemini (astrology).
                         Gemini
                      Constellation




                List of stars in Gemini
Abbreviation               Gem
Genitive                   Geminorum
                           /ˈdʒɛmɨnaɪ/, genitive /ˌdʒ
Pronunciation
                           ɛmɨˈnɒrəm/
Symbolism                  the Twins, Castor & Pollux
Right ascension            7h
Declination                +20°
Quadrant                   NQ2
Area                       514 sq. deg. (30th)
Main stars                 8, 17
Bayer/Flamsteed
                           80
stars
Stars with planets         7
Stars brighter than
                           4
3.00m
Stars within 10.00 pc
                             4
(32.62 ly)
Brightest star               Pollux (β Gem) (1.15m)
                             Gliese 251
Nearest star
                             (17.99 ly, 5.52 pc)
Messier objects              1
                             Geminids
Meteor showers
                             Rho Geminids
                             Lynx
                             Auriga
                             Taurus
Bordering
                             Orion
constellations
                             Monoceros
                             Canis Minor
                             Cancer
         Visible at latitudes between +90° and −60°.
 Best visible at 21:00 (9 p.m.) during the month of February.


Gemini is one of the constellations of the zodiac. Its name is Latin for "twins", and it is
associated with the twins Castor and Pollux in Greek mythology. Its symbol is
(Unicode ♊). It lies between Taurus to the west and Cancer to the east, with Auriga and
Lynx to the north and Monoceros and Canis Minor to the south.


Contents

[hide]

        1 Location
        2 Notable features
             o 2.1 Stars
             o 2.2 Deep sky objects
        3 Visualizations
        4 Mythology
            o   4.1 Astrology
        5 Gemini as the name
        6 See also
       7 References
       8 External links



[edit] Location




The constellation Gemini as it can be seen with the naked eye, with added
connecting lines.

In October and November Gemini will appear along the eastern horizon in the morning sky
prior to sunrise. The best time to observe Gemini at night is overhead during the months of
January and February. By April and May, the constellation will be visible soon after sunset
in the west.

The easiest way to locate the constellation is to find its two brightest stars Castor and
Pollux eastward from the familiar “V” shaped asterism of Taurus and the three stars of
Orion’s belt. Another way is to mentally draw a line from the Pleiades star cluster
located in Taurus and the brightest star in Leo, Regulus. In doing so, you are drawing an
imaginary line that is relatively close to the ecliptic, a line which intersects Gemini roughly
at the midpoint of the constellation, just below Castor and Pollux. (The broken red line {- -
- -} in the constellation map is a graphic representation of the ecliptic.)


[edit] Notable features

[edit] Stars

The brightest stars in Gemini are Castor and Pollux. Although Castor has the Bayer
designation Alpha, it is actually the second brightest in the constellation after Pollux.
Castor is a sextuple star system; Pollux has an extrasolar planet revolving around it, as do
two other stars, HD 50554, and HD 59686. Another noteworthy star is Mekbuda (ζ Gem),
a supergiant with a radius that is 60 times solar, making it approximately is 220,000 times
the size of the Sun.

[edit] Deep sky objects

Given that Gemini is pointing away from the Milky Way, there are comparatively few
deep sky objects of note — the Eskimo Nebula and Medusa Nebula, Messier object M35
and Geminga being the ones that attract the most attention. The Eskimo and Medusa
nebulae are both planetary nebulae, the one approximately 2,870 light years away and the
other 1,500 light years distant. M35 is an open star cluster which was discovered in the
year 1745 by Swiss astronomer Philippe Loys de Chéseaux. And Geminga is a neutron star
approximately 550 light years from Earth. Other objects of note are NGC 2129, NGC 2158,
NGC 2266, NGC 2331, NGC 2355, and NGC 2395.


[edit] Visualizations




Diagram of H.A. Rey's alternative way to connect the stars of the constellation
Gemini. A pair of twins are shown holding hands.

Gemini is dominated by Castor and Pollux, two bright stars that appear relatively close
together, encouraging the mythological link between the constellation and twinship. The
twin to the right is Castor, whose brightest star is α Geminorum (more commonly called
Castor); it is a second magnitude star and represents Castor's head. The twin to the left is
Pollux, whose brightest star is β Geminorum (more commonly called Pollux); it is of the
first magnitude and represents Pollux's head. Furthermore, the other stars can be visualized
as two parallel lines descending from the two main stars, making it look like two figures.

H.A. Rey has suggested an alternative to the traditional visualization that connected the
stars of Gemini to show a pair of twins holding hands. Pollux's torso is represented by star
υ Geminorum, Pollux's right hand by ι Geminorum, Pollux's left hand by κ
Geminorum: all three of these stars are of the fourth magnitude. Pollux's pelvis is
represented by star δ Geminorum, Pollux's right knee by ζ Geminorum, Pollux's right
foot by γ Geminorum, Pollux's left knee by λ Geminorum, and Pollux's left foot by ξ
Geminorum. Gamma Geminorum is of the second magnitude, while Delta and Xi
Geminorum are of the third magnitude. Castor's torso is represented by the star τ
Geminorum, Castor's left hand by ι Geminorum (which he shares with Pollux), Castor's
right hand by θ Geminorum: all three of these stars are of the fourth magnitude. Castor's
pelvis is represented by the star ε Geminorum, Castor's left foot by ν Geminorum, and
Castor's right foot by μ Geminorum and η Geminorum: ε, μ, and η Geminorum are
of the third magnitude. The brightest star in this constelation is Pollux.


[edit] Mythology




Gemini as depicted in Urania's Mirror, a set of constellation cards published in
London c.1825.

Gemini was associated with the myth of Castor and Pollux, collectively known as the
Dioscuri. One myth of these twins concerns cattle theft, and may be connected to earlier
myths that described the Milky Way as a herd of dairy cows.[citation needed] On star maps, the
twins are usually viewed as leaning away from the Milky Way, but are sometimes depicted
with one of the twins residing in the Milky Way, and the other outside it, a situation
making it appear that one of the twins is stealing the cattle, and the other is observing.[citation
needed]
     Along with the other features of the area in the Zodiac sign of Gemini (i.e. Orion,
Auriga, and Canis Major), this may be the origin of the myth of the cattle of Geryon,
which forms one of The Twelve Labours of Heracles.[original research?] When Castor died because
he was mortal, Pollux begged his father Zeus to give Castor immortality and he did, by
uniting them together in the heavens.

In Babylonian astronomy these stars are known as the Great Twins
(MUL.MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL). The Babylonian Twins were regarded as minor gods
and were called Meshlamtaea and Lugalirra, meaning respectively 'The One who has arisen
from the Underworld' and the 'Mighty King'. Both names can be understood as titles of
Nergal, the major Babylonian god of plague and pestilence who was king of the
Underworld.[1]

In Chinese astronomy, constellation Gemini were divided in two areas. The areas are:

             The White Tiger of the West (西方白虎, Xī Fāng Bái Hǔ)
             The Vermillion Bird of the South (南方朱雀, Nán Fāng Zhū Què)

[edit] Astrology

Main article: Gemini (astrology)

As of 2008, the Sun appears in the constellation Gemini from June 20 to July 20. In
tropical astrology, the Sun is considered to be in the sign Gemini from May 21 to June 20,
and in sidereal astrology, from June 16 to July 15.


[edit] Gemini as the name

USS Gemini (AP-75) and USS Gemini (PHM-6), both of United States navy ships.




From : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_%28constellation%29

				
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