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					      CONSUMBE BEHAVIOR
                             CONTENT   PART4   中文


Part4 Environmental Influences on Consumer

 Chapter 10   Household Decision Making
 Chapter 11   Group Factors
 Chapter 12   Social Class Influences
 Chapter 13   Cultural Influences and Consumer
Values
 Chapter 14   Subcultural and Cross-Cultural
Influences
 Chapter 15   Communication and Public Opinion
Leadership
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  CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

         Part4 Environmental
       Influences on Consumer


Chapter10 Household Decision Making
              Part4 Environmental Influences on Consumer

 Chapter 10 Household Decision Making
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 What is household?
  The U.S, Census Bureau defines a housing unit as having its own entrance(inside
and outside ) and basic facilities .If the housing unit has people living in it ,they
constitute a household.
 what is family?
   A family is a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption
who reside together.In view of function it can be defined as the basic unit of society , in
which two or more persons live together for personal and municipal purpose.
 So family is one kind of household.

  10.1 Family Influences on Consumer Behavior
 Family has great influence on its members. Because:
           Children’s early contacting with consuming is in family.
           Family determines its member’s consuming model to a large extent.
           Most of products are focused on families.
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10.2 Types of household
 Traditional household
 Nontraditional household
     Married couples without children
     Single-parent families with children under 18
     Individuals share with others
     Unmarried cohabitants
 Types of Family
        Family of procreation: Family established by marriage.
        The nuclear family: It is the immediate group of father, mother, and child living
         together.
        The extended family: It includes the nuclear family plus other relatives, such
         as grandparents, uncles and aunts, cousins, and in-laws.



10.3 Family Life Cycle (FLC)
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       FLC is used most often in classification. It describes how families change over
        time.
       FLC includes some factors such as marriage statues , age of family members
        an their working situations and family scale.

TABLE10.1 Nontraditional household life cycle

        sequence 1
        • young couples with children
        •young divorced couples
        • single parents with older children
        • unmarried older
        sequence 2
        • divorced young spouses with none child
        • middle-aged couple with none child
        • old couple with none child
        sequence 3
        • young couple with children
        • middle-aged divorced parents
        • middle-aged remarried parents with children of their own
        sequence 4
        • young unmarried spouses without a child
        • middle-aged couple without a child
        • old couple without a child
        • widow(widower)
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                         TABLE10.2 Traditional family life cycle
              Stage                                            Goals
Married couples                     Forming a healthy relationship, preparing for parenthood,
                                    and fitting in to their new family system.
Childbearing couples (the eldest    Creating a healthy environment for the birth and growth of
infant is less than 30 months old   a child, restructuring their relationship to keep it healthy.
 Families with preschool children   Helping develop the child’s interests and talents,
(eldest 2 ½ to 6 years old)         responding to their needs, and adapting to parental stress
                                    and a lack of privacy.
Families with pre-teens (eldest 6   Fostering a healthy educational environment, fitting in
to 13 years old)                    with other families.
Families with teens (eldest 13 to   Discovering new interests and needs, establishing
20 years old)                       freedom and responsibility for their teen
 Families with young adults (with   Developing a nurturing home to return to, encouraging
the eldest gone to the youngest     young adults’ first steps into their own lives.
getting ready to leave)
Post-parenting couples              Building bonds among family generations, establishing a
                                    new marriage relationship .
Aging couples (retirement and       Dealing with loss, leaving the family home, adjusting to
beyond)                             aging and adapting to retirement
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10.4 A Mode of Family Decision Making


                                        Postpurchase Evaluation

             Individual
              Decision
              Making



   Need
   Arousal


              Joint
                               Role
             Decision                                   Consumption
                            Specification
             Making


                                                           Figure10.1 A Mode of
                          Conflict Resolution              Family Decision
                                                           Making
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Joint Decision Making
     When the level of perceived risk in buying is high.
     When the purchasing decision is important to the family.
     When there are few time pressures.
     For certain demographic groups.
         -Joint decision making is less likely among and upper and lower
         socioeconomic groups.
         -Younger families (those under 24) show a higher frequency of joint decision
         making.
         -Joint decision making is more likely if there are no children in the family.
         -Joint decision making is more likely if only one of the parents is working.
   Roles in family decision making
      The information gather
      The influencer
      The decision maker
      The purchasing agent
      The consumer
 Conflict in family decision making
   In problem solving there are three means of decision making that are likely to
consensus among family members:
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     Experts in the family can be relied on to determine the best alternative;
     Family discussion may lead to a better solution than that proposed by any one
     member of the family; and
     Multiple purchases may be a way of avoiding conflict.

 10.5 Husband-wife Influences

 By type of product considered
  Davis and Rigaux studied family decision making in Belgian households for twenty-five
products and classified these products into four categories: ( Figure 10.2 Husband-wife
Roles in Family Decision by Product Category )

     Husband-dominant.
     Wife –dominant.
     Autonomic
     Syncratic (joint)

 By stage in decision making
   In the Davis and Rigaux study, husband-wife influences were studied in three phases
of the decision process:
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                                            Figure 10.2 Husband-wife Roles in Family Decision by Product Category

                                               Wife clothing
RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF HUSBANDS AND WIVES




                                                         Food

                                            WIFE DOMINANT              Kitchenware

                                            Husband’s clothing
                                                                      Handbag                     Furniture

                                                                                SYNCRATIC
                                              AUTONOMIC                                      Refrigerator
                                                                                      TV                      Vacation
                                                                 Camera
                                                                                                  Financial plan
                                                                                     Car
                                                  Sports appliances


                                            Hardware
                                                             Lawnmower

                                             HUSBAND DOMINANT
                                           100%                              50%                                   0%
                                                        EXTENT OF ROLE SPECIALIZATION
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         Problem recognition
         Information search
         The final decision

By type of decision
  Davis defined six types of decisions for each product:

        When to buy
         Where to buy
         How much to spend
         What make or type to buy
         What model or style to buy
         What color to select

 By family characteristics
   Various studies show that a husband will be more influential in the purchase
decision than his wife when:
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        His level of education is higher than his wife’s
        His income and occupational status are higher than his wife’s
        His wife is not employed
        The couple is at an earlier stage in the family life cycle (young parents), or
        The couple has a greater than average number of children.

 Changing patterns of    husband-wife influences
    Changes in marital roles have led to greater influence by the husband in
decisions traditionally assumed by the wife , and greater influence by the wife in
areas traditionally assumed to be the domain of the husband.


 10.6 Parent-child Influences
 Consumer socialization
  It refers to how children acquire knowledge about products and services and various
consumption-related skills(such as how to search for bargains).

   •Methods of consumer socialization
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         Observation and imitation
         Experience
         TV and schools
         Other children

   •Stages of consumer socialization
         Observation
         Providing needs
         Make a choice
         Assistant purchase
         Independent purchase
   •Parents roles in consumer socialization
         Authoritarian parents
         Neglecting parents
         Democratic parents
         Permissive parents
   •Effect in two generations

Child’s role in the purchasing process

 Parents-child interaction
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10.7 Family Decision Making and Marketing strategies

    Content of advertising messages.
      The nature of family decision making will influence the content of ad messages.
     For example, in deciding on an automobile, the husband and wife are likely to
     place different values on benefits such as performance, style. One solution is to
     direct separate ad messages to husband and wives.

    Media
      The selection of ad media will be based on who is involved in the decision. The
     husband and wife contact different media.


    Product development
      Products designed for one member of the family provide the marketer with less of
 a problem than products designed for two or more members.
     Pricing
       The fact that husbands generally determine how much to spend and wives
 determine what to buy means that price levels must reflect the price sensitivity of those
 individuals.
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     Distribution
       Family decision making may also influence distribution strategies. If decisions
      are made jointly, stores may be required to stay open longer to accommodate
      both the husband and the wife.


10.8 The Measurement of Family Influence
   Whom to interview
      Three approaches have been used in determine husband-wife influences:
          Interview both together
          Interview each separately
          Interview the wife to determine her influence and the husband’s

   Whom to measure influence
10.9 Families in The Future

  Little scale Economical conditions will better, so the expenditure will increase.
  More spare time. Family entertainment and social iteration will be more.
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      More normal education.
      More expectation on life
        The old will be better taken good care of.

10.10 Social significance of Family Influence
      Conflict between parents and their children increased

      Socialization of consumers who are not ideal

      Alternative scheme
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Choices

1.One factor that is important in family decision making but not in individual decision
making is :
A:stimulus expose B:changes in attitudes C:role specialization
D:advertising awareness E:post-purchase evaluation

2.The individual who has the role of influencing the type of stimuli the decision unit is
exposed to is known as the:
A:information-gatherer B:influencer C:decision maker D:purchasing agent
E:consumer

3.Joint decisions are more likely when
A:the product is purchased frequently
B:there is little time to make a decision
C:the product is technologically complex
D:the level of perceived risk in purchasing is high
E:the product is likely to be used by more than one family member

4.When family members agree about goals, the primary strategy for conflict resolution is
through
A:consensus B:accomodation C:coercion D:bargaining E:persuasion
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5.When family members disagree about goals, the primary strategy for conflict resolution is
through:
A:consensus B:accomodation C:problem solving
D:budgetary allocation E:role specialization

6.Wives tend to make the decision for:
A:automobiles B:food C:housing D:vacations               E:garden tools

7.A joint decision is most likely to be made for
A:small appliances B:food C:housing D:automobiles               E:garden tools

True-False Questions

1.Expressive roles are more likely to be performed by the husband, instrumental roles by the
wife.

2.Joint decision making is more likely when there is little time pressure in making the decision.

3.Conflict is norm in family decision making.

4.The profile of the husband-dominant family suggests a family with more traditional values
and attitudes towards marital roles.
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5.The mother is the most important source of information for a child in evaluating alternative
brands.

6.Most studies that have interviewed husbands and wives separatly have found little
agreement between them regarding their respective influence on the purchase decision.

Answer

1C2A3D4A5B6B7C
1F2T3T4T5F6F
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CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

     Part4 Environmental
   Influences on Consumer



 Chapter11 Group Factors
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Chapter11 Group Factors
11.1Types of groups

  Primary    groups: they are groups that the consumer frequently comes into
    contact with each other. e.g. business groups. They have no formal structure. E.G.
    ports groups that get together once for a while.
  Secondary groups: they are groups that consumers meet infrequently.
  We have much interest in primary groups, because they have much influence on
consumers and their behaviors can easily be predicted.

    Formal groups.
      They have a more formal structure.
    Informal groups.

    Big groups.
      People don’t know all the people in the group.
    Small groups.
      People know each other. It has large influence on people.
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      Anticipatory groups
          They are groups the individual anticipates joining at some future time and has
       direct contact with.

      Symbolic groups
         They are groups that an individual is not likely to belong to, despite the
       acceptance of the group’s beliefs and attitudes.

 11.2 Reference group influences
     Reference group: a group that serves as a reference point for the individual in the
  formation of his or her beliefs, attitudes, and behavior.

11.2.1   Types of reference groups

       Membership group: be a member of a reference group .
       Aspiration group: aspire to belong to a group .

       Disclaimant group: belong to or join a group and then reject the group’s values .
       Avoidance group: regard membership in a particular group as something to be
       avoided .
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                 MEMBERSHIP          NONMEMBERSHIP
 POSITIVE          Positive           Aspiration Group
 ATTITIUDE      Membership Group

 NEGATIVE       Disclaimant Group     Avoidance Group
 ATTITUDE

                  TYPES OF MEMBERSHIP GROUPS
                  INFORMAL                FORMAL
                Family/Peer Groups      School Groups
  PRIMARY
                                       Business Groups
SECONDADRY       Shopping Groups        Alumni Groups
                  Sports Groups      Tenant Organizations



      TYPES OF ASPIRATION GROUPS
                    ASPIRATIONAL

     CONTACT          Anticipatory                    FIGURE11.1
   NO CONTACT                                   Types of reference groups
                       Symbolic
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11.2.2   The nature of reference groups
     •    Norms: Norms are the rules and standards of conduct established by the group.

     •    Values: Values are the believes shared among groupers about which conduct is
          suitable and unsuitable.

     •    Roles: Roles are functions that the group assigns to the individual in order to
     attain group objectives.

     •     Status: Status refers to the position the individual occupies in the group.

     •    Socialization: The process by which the individual learns the group’s norms and
     role expectation is called socialization.
     •     Power
                 •Expert power: To have experience and knowledge.
                 •Referent power: The basis of referent power is the individual’s
                 identification with members of the group.
                 •Reward power. Reward power is based on the group’s ability to reward
                 the individual.
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11.2.3 Reference group influences on the consumer
   Informational influence: A consumer will accept information from a source if he or
   she believes the information will enhance knowledge about product choices.

   Comparative influence: The basis for comparative influence is in the process of
   comparing oneself to other members of the group would be supportive.
   Normative influence: Normative influence refers to the influence exerted by a
   group to conform to their norms and expectation. (TABLE11.1 TABLE11.2)


  11.3 Application in Marketing Strategy
    Advertising strategy
         act as informational influence role
         act as comparative influence role
         act as normative influence role

   Personal selling strategy
    the significance of marketing strategies of informational influence and
   comparative influence
     the significance of marketing strategies of bargaining power
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           TABLE 11.1 Types of Influence Exerted by Reference Groups

                                      Perceived
     Nature of                                          Type of
                    Objectives      Characteristics                    Behavior
     Influence                                          Power
                                      of Source

   Informational    Knowledge          Credibility       Expert       Acceptance

                      Self-
                   maintenance
   Comparative                          Similarity      Referent     Identification
                       and
                   enrichment
                                                        Reward
     Normative        Reward             Power             or         Conformity
                                                        coercion


11.4 Social significance of reference group influences
      try to reduce the pressure of reference group to use the product
      the responsibility of marketing staff when describe reference group influences
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TABLE11.2 Conditions Reflecting Informational,Comparative, and Normative Influences

Informational influence
1.   The individual seeks information about various brands of the product from an association of
     professionals or independent group of experts .
2.   The individual seeks brand-related knowledge and experience (such as how Brand A’s
     performance compares to Brand B’s ) from those friends,neighbors,relatives ,or work
     associates who have reliable information about the brands .
3.   The individual’s observation of what experts do influences his or her choice of a brand (such
     as observing the type of car which police drive or the brand of TV which repair people buy ).
Comparative influence
4.   The individual feels that the purchase or use of a particular brand will enhance the image
     which others have of him or her .
5.   The individual feels that the purchase of a particular brand helps show others what he or she
     is ,or would like to be (such as an athlete ,successful businessperson ,etc. ).
6.   The individual feels that those who purchase or use a particular brand process the
     characteristics which he or she would like to have.
7.   The individual sometimes feels that it would be nice to be like the type of person which
     advertisements show using a particular brand .
Normative influence
8.   The individual’s decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the preferences of
     people with whom he or she has social interaction .
9.   The individual’s decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the preferences of
     family members .
10. The desire to satisfy the expectation which others have of him or her has an impact on the
     individual’s brand choice .
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Choices

1.Which of the following is membership group
A:symbolic groups B:avoidance groups C:aspirational groups
D:disclaimant groups E:none of the above

2.The most important influence on purchasing decisions is generally provided by
A:primary informal groups B:secondary informal groups
C:primary formal groups      D:secondary formal groups
E:aspiration groups

3.A consumer whose main objective is self-maintenance and enrichment is most likely
to accept which of the following types of influence
A:informational B:material C:comparative D:cultural E:normative

4.Normative influence is most closely linked to which of the following types of power
A:expert power B:bargaining power C:referent power D:reward power
E:coercive power

True-False Questions

1.Both membership and aspiration groups are reference groups.
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2.A disclaimant group is a membership group.

3.Most group influence on consumer purchasing behavior is achieved through reward
power.

4.Informational influence is an overrated aspect of group influence.Much of what
passes for informational influence is really normative influence.

Answer

1D2A3C4D
1T 2T3F4F
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CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

     Part4 Environmental
   Influences on Consumer

        Chapter12
 Social Class Influences
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 Chapter12 Social Class Influences
Social class
     Social class refers to the position of an individual or family on a social scale based
  on criteria valuable to society.

Social Stratification
     Society can be divided into several stratification, each has the same social status.
  The simple classification is the blue collar and the white collar.

 12.1 The importance of social class to marketing strategy

      Market segmentation. Different social classes reflect different values, and these
      differences are manifested in consumer buying behavior.


      Advertising. The symbols used in ad must be understood by the social class to
      which the ad is directed.


      Distribution. Lower class consumers are more likely to shop in discount stores,
      in local stores. Upper class consumers are likely to shop in regular department
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      Product development. Social class may react differently to product
       characteristics and styles.

12.2 The Nature of Social Class.

      Social classes have status.

      Social classes are hierarchical.

      Social classes serve as a frame of reference for individual norms, attitudes, and
       behavior.

      Social classes are dynamic.

      Social classes discourage contact with members of other class groups.

12.3 Social Class Categories and Measurement

   Index of Status Characteristics(ISC)
       The ISC is based on the following socioeconomic indicators:
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     1.Occupation(weighted by a factor 4)
      2.Source of income(weighted by a factor3)
      3.House type(weighted by a factor 3)
      4.Dwelling area(weighted by a factor 2)

   Coleman-Rainwater Social Standing Hierarchy
      1.The Upper Upper Class(0.3% of the population)
      2.The Lower Upper Class(1.2% of the population)
      3.The Upper Middle Class(12.5% of the population)
      4.The Lower Middle Class(32% of the population)
      5.The Upper Lower Class(38% of the population)
      6.The Lower Lower Class(16% of the population)


12.4 The Limitation of Social Class As A Determinant of
                 Consumer Behavior

What is the advantage of using a composite social class index over a simper one-
dimensional classification such as occupation or income?
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    What happen if there is social class incongruence (e.g., an individual is high in
     one component of the social class index and low in the other, such as high
     occupation and low education)?

    Are there significant difference in socioeconomic status within a social class ?

    Is consumer behavior likely to be influence by one’s social class as a child as
     well as by one’s current social class?

    Are social classes merging into one giant middle class? If so, what is the point of
     emphasizing social class if it is unlikely to differentiate consumer behavior?


12.5 Differences in behavior between classes.

    Purchasing behavior                     Pricing behavior
    Shopping behavior
                                             Information search behavior
    Media behavior

    Communication behavior
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Choices

1.The most important distinction between social classes is that they are likely to have
different
A:life-style B:brand perceptions C:patterns of group influence
D*:value systems E:personality characteristics

2.The group that is most likely to engage in impulse purchasing is the
A:upper-upper class B:lower-upper class C:upper-middle class
D*:lower-middle class E*:upper-lower class F*:lower-lower class

3. The group that is most likely to emphasize quality and value in purchasing is the
A*:upper-upper class B*:lower-upper class C*:upper-middle class
D:lower-middle class E:upper-lower class F:lower-lower class

4.The reason that upper and upper-middle class consumers tend to engage in more active
leisure activities than lower-class consumers is
A:to make up for less activity in their occupations
B*:as a means of self-ecpression
C:because of more disposable income
D:to spend more time with their families
E:because they are more achievement oriented
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True-False Questions

1.Income is the best criterion of social stratification in Chinese society.

2.Lower class consumers tend to be more oriented to traditional values.

3.Social classes are face to face groups that exert direct influence on the individual
consumer.
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CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

       Part4 Environmental
     Influences on Consumer


Chapter13 Cultural Influences
   and Consumer Values
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           Chapter13 Cultural Influences and
                  Consumer Values
   Culture refers to the norm, beliefs, and customs that are learned from the society and
lead to common patterns of behavior. As in the study of consumer behavior, it refers to the
complex of values, ideas, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that serve humans to
communicate, interpret, and evaluate as members of society.

   13.1 The Nature of Culture

    Cultural values

       Rokeach defines cultural values as beliefs that some general state of existence
     is personally and socially worth striving for.

    Characteristics of cultural values

   1.Cultural values are learned.
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• 2.Cultural values are guides to behavior.

    3.Cultural values are both permanent and dynamic

    4.Cultural values are socially shared.

Traditional cultural values in American society
    1.Materialism

    2.Individualism

    3.Youthfulness

    4.Informality

    5.Other values :process, freedom, activity and personal achievement
•
Measurement of cultural values
    1.Ethnographic study
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    2.Cultural value inventories
    3.The Monitor Service , VALS(Value and Life-Style)
    4.Content analysis


Subcultural and Cross-Cultural Influences
   Features of subculture

     A subculture may be defined as a subdivision of national culture, based on
   some unifying characteristic, such as social status or nationality. Some
   characteristics are: race, region, age, sex, etc. By region, consumers could be
   identified as subcultures because of differences in tastes and behavior. Eastern,
   western, and southern consumers differ in consumption habits. The subculture
   is a very important criterion for dividing different markets.

    Types of Subculture
       Age      1.YA(Young Adult)
                  2.New generation
                  3.“Baby Boom”generation
                  4.Elder
Geography
Religion
Nontraditional Subculture: Homosexual Group
Ethnic


Difference of Cross-culture
  Cross-cultural influences are crucial to international marketers. The
  greater the difference is, the more different the marketing strategy is.

   Some factors to be considered are:
      Difference in   language.
      Difference in   consuming style.
      Difference in   the using of products.
      Difference in   family decision.
      Difference in   dividing potential markets.
      Difference in   the meaning of symbolization.
      Difference in   the economic environment.
13.2 Cultural Values and Consumer Behavior

Means-end   chain
                                  Values




                     Attributes              Consequences
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   Ladder links

      Ladder links contains a series of visit to consumer,by which to determine the links of
attributes, consequences and values.

     Marketers can make use of the ladder links in the means-end chain to develop marketing
strategy

                            1.Information element

               2.Consumers’ benefit


  13.3 Culture and Product
          3.Leverage point


   the role of product symbolic system

            1.to convey social position

      2.to express themselves

      3.to share life experiences

      4.sense of material comfort

      5.has commemoration significance which remind consumers their old memory
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Connect product with fiction and dream

13.4     Culture and Consumption

       Routine consumption

         The routine behavior is a series of symbolic movement which is frequently
       redundant according to certain order. There are three characteristics:

            1. Often appears in the form of consumption products including some routine products

            2. Often defined why, who and how to use the products

            3. Requires the role function has stipulated to certain people

      Scared consumption and real consumption

    Scared consumption expenses commodity that can promote the cooperation, be
     advantageous in nature protecting and make business affairs better.
    Real consumption expenses commodity that can promote the technological
     development, conquer the nature and strengthen the competition.
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13.5 Changes in Cultural Values from The 1990s
   New reality
   Young and youth
   More strong traditional significance
   Emphasis on self-realization(self-fulfillment)
   New materialism
13.6 Influence of globalization on consumer behavior

       Global media
       Globalized young people
       Universal population trend
       Reduction of trade barriers
       Americanization of consumer values
13.7 Application in marketing strategy

  Market segmentation. Value orientation is closely associated with consumer
  needs. The me-oriented self-enhancement segment wants product performance,
  the we-oriented wants prestige and style.

  Product positioning. Study demonstrates that car positioned to the me-
  segment must emphasize performance and quality; car positioned to the we-
  segment must emphasize style and size.

  Promotional strategy. Ad aimed at the me-segment should emphasize the
  utilitarian aspects, ad for the we-segment should appeal to prestige, luxury.
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Choices

1.Cultural values have not been widely used in marketing because
A:they are not related to consumption behavior
B:they have not been adequately identified by social researchers
C:empirical measures of cultural values cannot be developed
D:cultural values deal with broad purchasing patterns and most marketing studies deal
with specific brands
E:all of the above

2.Which of the following is a key cultural value in the United States
A:hedonism B:tradition C:conformity D:formality E:youthfulness

3.An expression of a “me” orientation is
A:greater fashion consciousness
B:more concern for family norms
C:an emphasis on immediate gratification
D:an emphasis on the work ethic
E:a desire for more functional and less expensive products

4.Because of changes in cultural values, advertising is unlikely to increase the demand
for
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A:diet drinks B:headache remedies           C:sterling silverware
D:bicycle E:computerized games

True-False Questions

1.Cultural values are guides to behavior.

2.The trend to voluntary simplicity reflects a reaction against material possessions.

3.Cultural values can be used to segment markets

4.Cultural values are product specific.

5.The proper role of advertising is to appeal to existing cultural values rather than attempt
to change them.

Answer

1D2E3C4C
1T2T3T4F5T
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                                                                 LAST CHAPTER   NEXT CHAPTER


Choices

1.There are significant differences between blacks and whites in
A:shopping behavior B:brands purchased C:media behavior               D:pricing behavior
E:all of the above

2.The danger of using a universal appeal in various foreign markets is that
A:consumers in neighboring countries might get confused
B:consumers might get bored with the campaign
C:the campaign is less likely to be changed
D:the campaign is less likely to meet local needs and to conform to local customs

3.The danger of using a localized appeal in various markets is that
A:consumers in neighboring countries might get confused
B:consumers might get bored with the campaign
C:the campaign is less likely to be changed
D:none of the above

True-False Questions

1.Subcultures are segment of society whose consumers have common norms and
characteristics that differ from society as a whole.
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2.American businesses are more sensitive to the needs of foreign markets than
foreign businesses are sensitive to the needs of the American market.


Answer


1E2D3A
1T2F
                     CONTENT   LAST CHAPTER




CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

       Part4 Environmental
     Influences on Consumer


Chapter14 Communication and
  Public Opinion Leadership
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 Chapter14 Communication and Public
Opinion Leadership
14.1 The communication model

   Communication: it is the process in which the sender sends out information and
    the receiver receives the information.Communication includes communication
    within groups and communication across groups. The former refers to word-of-
    mouth communication, the latter refers to diffusion.

   Word-of-mouth communication between consumers is the most important
    source of information and influence in consumer behavior. The individual who
    influences the purchasing of another is the opinion leader, the consumer being
    influenced is the follower. It is more likely to be important when the product is
    visible, distinctive, and important to the belief system.

   Motives for transmitting word-of-mouth communication
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•   product involvement is likely to encourage a consumer to transmit information an
    influence.
•   Another motive is to erase any doubts about products any choice.
•   A third reason is involvement with the group. The greater the importance of the
    group, the greater the likelihood the consumer will seek to transmit information to it.



Motives for seeking word-of-mouth communication
•   one reason is that friends and relatives are a good source of product information.
•   The second is that information from personal source facilitates the purchase
    task.

Diffusion
•   Diffusion is the process by which the adoption of an innovation is spread by
    communication to members of a target market.
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   In marking, two types of communication are required: communication from
    marketers to consumers, and word-of-mouth communication between consumers .
    The advertisers should use an information campaign to attract those who are not
    familiar with the new product, and should try to stimulate favorable word-of-mouth
    communication to try to encourage adoption.


Model of communication
  Source                       channel             terminal




    Sender       coding        medium             receiver        decoding




                                   Feedback
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 14.2 Communication analysis

   receiver: all the receivers are individuals with their own characters, and they
    compose consumers.

    communication strategy in market dividing: some groups have similar characters, so
    we communicate with those groups in the same way.

Sender: It can be divided into individual source and non-individual source.
 •The credibility of the source has great influence on the effects of communication.
        Non-human communication has greater credibility than human communication.
         The influential factors are:
                The sender of the information.
                The medium. E.g. authority of ads’ medium.
                The representative.
        Experts have great credibility, but their influences have limits.
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14.3 Medium

   two factors which influence communication effects, they are:
          • The medium’s persuasive power and influence.
          • The medium’s relation with the receiver.
 If we want to choose effective mediums, we must take into account some factors.
         • medium can be overlapped( we can watch TV and listen to radio at
              same time), so we can increase ad’s frequency.
          •   Some products can only be advertised by certain mediums, so we
              must concede the characters of products.


 14.4 Message

   There are two ways we use to present messages, they are:
     • one-sided message. Only mention the essence of the message.
     • Two-sided message. Mention two sides of the message, with comparing, used in
        competitive products.
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In cases when the audience is unfriendly, when we knows that opposite arguments
exist, or when it is likely to hear arguments from the opposition, two-sided message may
be effective.

14.5 Public opinion directing process

Analysis of public opinion directing process
•   What is public opinion
      it is informal human influence that is acquired by informal human communication.
       it includes the director and the follower.

•   Characters

        It happens between two or among many persons, it represents certain
         business departments, and not for the purpose of selling.
        It has some relation with commodity exchanging.
        Two-sides: the influenced and the follower influence each other.
        It happens frequently, about one-third of consumers can serves as directors
         in one area.
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•   Model of opinion leadership

        public opinion directing model


        public medium                    the director               the receiver




•   Environment

        Public opinion take place between individuals who use same or similar
         commodities, one of them serves as the follower, and the other as the director,
         and always they live nearly.

•   Information in public opinion directing

     The information is very reliable, because the director is reliable and the director
    doesn’t gain any profits.
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       The reliability is reinforced by two-sided information.
       Information and suggestion. Not only do People want to receive information, but
        also they want to gain suggestions.
       Characters of directors

           They show great interest in certain commodities and have abundant relevant
            knowledge.
           They are renovators.
           They are self-reliance, open-headed, sensitive,and their emotions are stable.
           They are in good terms with some mediums.
           They are in the same social class with receivers.

•   Effects of the message

       One-side or two-side message.
       Comparative ads. It is a kind of ad in which a competitor is named.
       Humor in ads. Humorous messages are used as a means of attracting attention
        and because advertisers believe that humor can be persuasive.
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 •   Source effects

        Source credibility has great influence, some ads does not exert as much
        influence on the consumer as personal sources is that consumers are more
        likely to believe messages from friends.

 •   Media effects

        Ad must ensure the message reaches the intended target, so we should
        select the media that can best reach them.


Strategy of opinion leadership
 • Identify opinion leaders directly. Opinion leaders can be identified through company
 purchase records. Because of the close relationship between opinion leadership and
 new product adoption, it is possible to identify consumers who use the product first.


 • Creating opinion leaders. It is possible to create opinion leaders for a particular
 product.
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   •   Simulating opinion leadership. Ad can simulate opinion leadership by portraying
       conversations between typical consumers.

   •   Stimulation. Ad can try to encourage consumers to talk about the product, one
       strategy is to generate curiosity


Measuring opinion leadership
   •  The sociometric technique. Members are asked whom they would go to for advice
   and information.

   •   The key informant method. Key informants in a social system are asked to
       identify opinion leaders.

   •   The self-designating technique. Consumers are asked to determine the degree
       to which they as an opinion leaders.
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 Choice

1). An individual who is both an opinion leader and an information seeker is referred to
as a
A.socially itergrated consumer          B. Socially independent consumer
C. socially isolate consumer            D. Innovative communicator

2). An individual who is an opinion leader but not an information seeker is referred to as
a
A.socially itergrated consumer           B. Socially independent consumer
C. socially isolate consumer            D. Innovative communicator

3). Opinion leaders are most likely to be distinguished from followers by the fact they
tend to be more-----.
 A. compulsive B. Self-confident in purchasing the product C. Dogmatic D. Inner-
directed.

4). Which of the following would be the most difficult strategy to implement-----.
A.identify opinion leaders                              B. Create opinion leaders
C. Stimulate the process of opinion leadership in ads. D. all are equally hard.

5). Which of the following would be the easiest strategy to implement-----.
A.identify opinion leaders                             B. Create opinion leaders
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6). When a researcher seeks to identify opinion leaders among a broad and diverse
group of consumers, the best technique to use is the------.
A.sociometric technique                  B. Key informant method
C. Psychometric technique                D. Self-designating technique


7). The sociometric technique can best be used in which of the following situations----.
A.identifying opinion leaders for designer jeans among college students.
B. Identifying opinion leaders for selection of business periodicals among businessmen.
C. Identifying opinion leaders for enlistments among Army recruits.
D. identifying opinion leaders for the selection of a mew salt-free diet food among
residents of a local retirement community.



Questions
1) It was suggested that an alternative categorization to an opinion leader is a social
communicator since individuals most likely to transmit information on a product are also
more likely to receive such leader and a social communicator in terms of
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 the nature of influence?
 the role of the influencer?
 possible characteristics of the influencer?


2) Marketing studies have not identified any distinctive characteristics of opinion
leaders. Given the difficulty in identifying opinion leaders, can the concept of opinion
leadership be used for purposes of market segmentation?


3) Is it feasible to attempt to ‘create’ opinion leaders? If so, for what types of product
categoties?


4) Would you recommend a sociometric technique to measure opinion leadership in
evaluating patterns of influence in the
   Adoption of a new product in a retirement community?
   Purchase if a new line of high-styled jeans?

Answer
1A2B3 B4B5 D6 D7D

				
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