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					      CONSUMBE BEHAVIOR
                       CONTENT   PART2   中文


  Part 2 Consumer Decision Making

 Chapter 2 Complex Decision Making

 Chapter3 Brand Loyalty

 Chapter4 Low Involvement Decision
Making

 Chapter5 Situational Determinants of
Consumer Behavior
                 CONTENT   LAST CHAPTER   NEXT CHAPTER




   CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

 Part 2 Consumer Decision Making



Chapter 2 Complex Decision Making
             Part 2 Consumer Decision Making
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   Chapter 2 Complex Decision Making
 2.1Types of consumer decision

what is consumer decision
consumer decision is the activity when the consumer chooses one commodity from two
or more commodities.
Four factors we should master
A. The consumer must confront a problem that has to be settled.
B. There are many products to choose from. Different products stand for different brand,
and have different prices.
C. The consumer’s decision can not always solve the problem, that is to say, the decision
has risk.
D. There is only one feasible choice.

Types of consumer decision(Figure2.1)
Basic decision: buy or not.
Brand decision: single out the product which is more suitable.
Decision of purchasing channel, time, and who.
Decision of how to buy.
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              High involvement        Low involvement
              purchase decision       purchase decision

Decision      Complex decision          Variety seeking
making         (Chapter2)                (Chapter4)

                Brand loyalty                                      Figure 2.1 Consumer
Habit                                 Inertia (Chapter4)
                (Chapter3)                                         Decision Making


Theories about consumer decision
1.The theory of taking consumer as ‘economic person’.
  The consumer will acquaint himself or herself with some similar products and will
contrast them when buying, so as to gain the maximum advantage.
2.The theory of taking consumers as passive persons.
 The consumer always accept persuasion from enterprises, accordingly, he or she will
buy the products.
3.The theory of taking consumer as problem-solver.
  When buying, the consumer will search for some information about the product, at the
same time, he or she will evaluate it. So it is a process that the consumer actively solve
the problem.
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2.2High involvement decision

In complex decision making,the consumer evaluates brands in a more detailed and
comprehensive manner. More information is sought and more brands are evaluated.
Such a process is most likely for:
•High priced products
•Products associated with performance risks (medical products, automobiles)
•Complex products(stereo sets, home computers)
•Specially goods (sports equipment, furniture),and
•Products associated with one’s ego(clothing, cosmetics).


The process of high involvement decision making can be defined as following:
Need arousal. A consumer begins with a particular state of mind that represents his or
her perceptions of and attitude toward known brands.
Information processing. The immediate result of need arousal is a greater awareness
of information about the product.
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Brand evaluation. It takes place at the same time as information processing. The
consumer will establish certain criteria, and each brand is judged on the criteria.
Purchase. After evaluation, the consumer will purchase the product in accordance to
the criteria.
Postpurchase evaluation. After purchasing, the consumer will evaluate the brand’s
performance.


NEED                                                                  CONSUMER
AROUSAL                                                               INFORMATION
                                                                      PROCESSING

  Feedback

POSTPURCHASE                                                            BRAND
                                    PURCHASE                            EVALUATION
EVALUATION

                Figure2.2 A Basic Model of Complex Decision Making
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 NEED AROUSAL
INPUT VARIABLES
INTERNAL
Consumer’s Past Experiences
Consumer Characteristics
Demographics
Life-style
Personality
                              CONSUMER’S                          STIMULUS
Consumer Motivations
                              PSYCHOLOGICAL SET                   EXPOSURE
EXTERNAL                      Need Criteria
Environmental Influences
Face-to-face groups                                             Tension State
Situational determinants
Social class                 Brand Attitudes
Culture                                                     NEED
Marketing Stimuli             Beliefs about the brands      RECOGNITION
Product                                                     (initiation of
Price                        Brands evaluation             decision making)
Promotion
Store                        Tendency to act
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 CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESSING


                   SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION




INPUT        CONSUMER’S        STIMULUS                       PERCEPTION
VARIABLES    PSYCHOLOGICAL     EXPOSURE      Selectivity      OF STIMULI
             SET                                              Attention

                                                              Comprehension

                                                              Retention
                              NEED
                              RECOGNITION


                                    MEMORY
                                    Past information
                                    New information
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Perception of stimuli
Stimuli are more likely to be perceived when they:
•conform to consumer’s past experiences,
•conform to consumer’s current beliefs about a brand,
•are not too complex,
•are believable,
•relate to a set of current needs,and
•do not produce excessive fears and anxieties.
Search for additional information
Such a search is most likely when the consumer:
•feels that alternative brands being considered are inadequate,
•has insufficient information about the brands under consideration,
•receives information from friends or media sources that conflicts with past experience
and current information,or
•is close to deciding on a particular brand and would like to confirm expectations
regarding its performance.
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BRAND EVALUATION           SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION




INPUT             CONSUMER’S        STIMULUS                     PERCEPTION
VARIABLES         PSYCHOLOGICAL     EXPOSURE       Selectivity   OF STIMULI
                  SET

                                  NEED
                                  RECOGNITION

  EXPECTED                   NEED                  CHANGES IN
  SATISFACTION               ASSOCIATION           CONSUMER’S
                                                   PSYCHOLOGICAL SET
   Arrive at expected         Define needs
   satisfaction for each      Establish priority      Changes in need criteria
   brand based on need        of needs
   association                Evaluate each
                              brand by using:         Changes in brand attitudes
                              Compensatory
                               decision rules
                              Noncompensatory
                               decision rules
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PURCHASE AND POSTPURCHASE EVALUATION

                                   SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


INPUT              CONSUMER’S               STIMULUS                      PERCEPTION
VARIABLES          PSYCHOLOGICAL            EXPOSURE        Selectivity   OF STIMULI
                   SET
                                            Tension State
    Feedback                               NEED                  CHANGES IN
                                           RECOGNITION           CONSUMER’S
 POST-
 PURCHASE                                                        PSYCHOLOGICAL SET
 EVALUATION
            Instrumental Actions
 PURCHASE                    INTENTION             EXPECTED               NEED
                             TO BUY                SATISFACTION           ASSOCIATION

                           Outside Constraints


 NO PURCHASE
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Choice Questions

1.Which of the following is a proper function for a consumer model :
A to provide an integrative view of consumer behavior
B to provide detailed guidelines for the development of media and advertising strategies
C to identify new product characteristics to meet consumer needs
D to provide a basis for organizing marketing activities
2.It is generally easier to organize information by:
A attribute      B brand       C neither       D both
3.Stimuli are more likely to be perceived when they:
A conform to cultural norms                              B are complex
C deal with information about existing brands            D relate to consumer needs

True-False Questions

1.A model of consumer behavior is equally relevant for all product categories.
2.A model of consumer behavior should provide detailed guidance in establishing criteria
by which to position a product.
3.A consumer’s action tendency toward a brand is represented by whether it was the
brand last purchased.
4.Consumer information processing always requires interpretation and comprehension of
a stimulus.
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5.Generally, consumer like to use as few need criteria as possible in evaluating brands,
consistent with choosing a satisfactory rather than an optimal product.
ANSWER 1 A 2 A 3 D 1 F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5 T

Questions

A large auto manufacturer conducted a survey of recent car purchasers to determine
their needs in buying a new car and their perceptions of the company’s makes so as to
evaluate possible new product offerings. Information collected by the company can be
classified into information dealing with each of the four stages of the decision-making
model,namely:
A,Need arousal
1)consumer thought variables
2)consumer characteristics
B,Information processing
1)exposure to marketing stimuli
2)perceptions of marketing stimuli
C,Evaluation of alternative brands of cars
D,Purchase and postpurchase evaluation
Specify the types of information the auto manufacturer might collect from consumers for
each of the four stages described above,
Specify the strategic applications of such information.
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  CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Part 2 Consumer Decision Making



 Chapter 3 Learning,Habit and
         Brand Loyalty
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Chapter3 Brand Loyalty
3.1 Consumer learning
3.1.1 Fundamental     theories of learning

1)Conditioning theories
  Classic conditioning explains behavior based on repetitive stimuli and the
establishment of a close association (contiguity) between a secondary stimulus (picture
of cowboy in a Marboro ad) and the primary stimulus (need for a cigarette).Figure3.1
  Instrumental conditioning views behavior as a function of the consumer’s assessment of
the degree of satisfaction obtained from the action. Satisfaction leads to reinforcement
and to an increase in the probability of repurchasing. Figure3.2

2). Cognitive learning theory
   Cognitive psychologists view learning as a problem-solving process rather than the
stimulus and response. Learning is a cognitive process of perceiving stimuli,
associatingstimuli to needs, evaluating alternative brands, and assessing whether
expectations have been met. Learning is equated to a process of complex decision
making because of the emphasis on problem solving.
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 Cognitive theory emphasizes the thought process involved in consumer learning;
classic and instrumental conditioning emphasize the result based on the stimulus
association. Figure 3.3



                         Classic conditioning


        Unconditioned               response          Figure 3.1 Classic conditioning
           stimulus




          conditioned
            stimulus


    emphasis : association through reception and contiguity
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                     instrumental conditioning


behavior                    increase or decrease in
                            probability of response


reward or
punishment


emphasis : reinforcement; dependence of outcome on learner’s action.

               Figure3.2 Instrumental conditioning

                      Cognitive learning theory


     Goal       purposive         insight        goal
                behavior                       achievement

             emphasis: problem solving,understanding relationships

               Figure3.3 Cognitive learning theroy
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3). Learning curve
 In general, learning of all but the simplest tasks appears to follow a rather common
pattern which has become known as a learning curve.
        Amount learnt




                                                    Figure 3.4 A typical learning curve




                                                         material retained
                                                         Percentage of
                        Number of practice trials
                                                                                         Recognition
4).Forgetting curve
                                                                                         Recall



                               Figure 3.5 Forgetting curve                   Hour since learning
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3.1.2 Consumer learning and purchasing
1). Enlarge consumer’s knowledge of products and enrich their purchasing
experience.
2). Help to promote consumer’s repurchasing.

3.1.3 Consumer’s learning methods
1)try and error
2)comparison: get a better knowledge comparing
3)imitation: imitation can be intentional or unintentional
4)discovery: get a better knowledge through information search
3.2Habit

3.2.1 A model of habitual purchasing behavior -Figure3.6
3.2.2 The functions of habit
   Purchasing by habit provides two important benefits to the consumer.First,it reduces
risk. Second,it facilitates decision making.

3.2.3 Habit versus Complex decision making –Table 3.1
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Figure 5.6 A model of habitual purchasing behavior
                                             Selectivity
   CONSUMER’S                      STIMULUS           PERCEPTION        NEED
   PSYCHOLOGICAL SET               EXPOSURE           OF STIMULI        ASSOCIATION


                                Tension State
              Feedback




                                NEED
                                RECOGNITION



                                POSTCHASE                               INTENTION
                                                    PURCHASE
                                EVALUATION                              TO BUY

                                Satisfaction and Reinforcement
                                Dissatisfaction and Extinction
                                                                       OUTSIDE
                                                                       CONSTRAINTS
                              REVERET TO COMPLEX
                              DECISION MAKING
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                    Table 3.1 Habit versus Complex decision making

                    Habit                         Complex Decision Making
    Limited informational search         Extensive informational search
    High frequency of purchase           Low frequency of purchase
    Low price                            High price
    Low involvement                      High involvement
    Intensive distribution               Selective distribution
    Less need for service                More need for service
    People promotion is important        People promotion is not important
    Promotion is important               Promotion is not important
    Advertising is for reminding         Advertising is for providing informations
    High sensibility of price            Low sensibility of price

3.2.4Inducing a switch from habit to decision making
  Generally, the market leader in a category is more likely to be purchased by habit.
Various marketing strategies can induce consumers who buy by habit to consider other
brands by:
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3.3Brand loyalty
   There is a close link between habit ,learning,and brand loyalty. Brand loyalty
 represents a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over
 time.

   Two approaches to the study of brand loyalty have dominated marketing literature.
 The first ,an instrumental conditioning approach,views consistent purchasing of one
 brand over time as an indication of brand loyalty. The second approach to the study of
 brand loyalty is based on cognitive theories. Loyalty implies a commitment to a brand
 that may not be reflect by just measuring continuous behavior.

   Despite the product-specific nature of brand loyalty, some generalizations can be
 made about those who tend to be brand loyal. These findings can be summarized as
 follows:
 •Brand-loyalty consumers are more likely to be influenced by reference groups.
 •The brand-loyalty consumer tends to be more self-confident in his or her choice.
 •The brand-loyalty consumer tends to be in the higher income group.
 •Brand-loyalty consumers are more likely to perceive a higher level of risk in the
 purchase.
 •The brand-loyalty consumer is more likely to be store-loyal.
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Choice Questions

 1.Habit is a means of :
 A choosing and processing marketing information in an efficient
 B insuring satisfaction based on past experience
 C assessing the positive and negative attributes of a brand
 D considering alternative brands and choosing the best one.
 2.Brand loyalty is a result of :
 A a favorable attitude towards the brand
 B repurchasing the brand over time
 C reinforcement
 D all of the above
 3.Purchasing by habit tends to :
 A increase risk
 B decrease brand involvement
 C reduce shopping time
 D increase price sensitivity
 4.Which of following concept is associated with classical conditioning:
 A repetition B reinforcement C forgetting D satisfaction E all of the above
 5.Which of following concept is associated with instrumental conditioning:
 A contiguity B reinforcement C problem solving           D information processing
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6.Cognitive theory describes learning as a:
A stochastic process      B repetitive process     C process of problem solving
D behavioral process E all of above
7.Brand loyal consumers are more likely to be :
A opinion leaders       B younger         C self-confident in brand choice D innovators
8.Brand loyalty is more likely to occur when the brand is:
A well-known            B a private brand        C a durable       D not seen as risky good

True-False Question

1.Boredom with the existing brand might be a sufficient reason to cause a consumer to
switch from habit to decision-making.
2.Widespread distribution provides an important reminder effect when consumers
purchase by habit.
3.Cognitive learning theory is more relevant in understanding complex decision-making
than habit.
4.Consumers who buy a brand regularly but are not strongly committed to it are brand
loyal.
ANSWER 1 B 2 D 3 C 4 A 5 B 6 C 7 C 8 A 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 F
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Questions

This chapter suggests that boredom and desire for variety may result in a change from
habit to decision making.
Is this more likely for certain product categories than others?
Is this more likely for certain consumers than others? That is, is there a “stick with it ”
type as opposed to a “novelty seeker type”?
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  CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Part 2 Consumer Decision Making



   Chapter 4 Low Involvement
       Decision Making
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Chapter4 Low Involvement Decision Making
   A low involvement purchase is one where the consumer does not consider the
 product sufficiently important to his or her belief system and does not strongly identify
 with the product.

  4.1 The important of a low involvement perspective

 4.1.1 Involvement and the hierarchy of effects
 If low involvement characterizes so much of purchasing, why have marketers focused on
 complex decision making and brand loyalty? There are two reasons.
 (1)it is easier to influence the consumer when the marketer assumes there is a cognitive
 process of brand evaluation.
 (2)complex decision making assumes a sequence or hierarchy of effects that stipulates
 that consumers think before they act.

 4.1.2 The low involvement hierarchy
 The low involvement hierarchy stipulates that consumers may act without thinking.
 Rather than searching for information, the consumer will receive information passively.
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                    Table 4.1 Low versus high involvement hierarchy

Low involvement hierarchy                   High involvement hierarchy
Brand beliefs are formed first by passive   Brand beliefs are formed first by active
learning                                    learning
A purchase decision is then made            Brands are then evaluated
The brand may or may not be evaluated       A purchase decision is made
afterwards


   4.2 The four type of behavior summarized

 Figure 4.1 summarizes the four types of behavior. In each case the behavioral
model,the underlying theory, and the decision process are listed.

  4.3 Theories of low involvement consumer behavior

  KRUGMAN’S THEORY OF PASSIVE LEARNING
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                    HIGH INVOLVEMENT                     LOW INVOLVEMENT
              MODEL
                                                      MODEL
SIGNIFICANT
              Beliefs
                                                      Beliefs
DIFFERENCE    Evaluation
                                                      Behavior
S BETWEEN     Behavior
BRANDS                                                Evaluation
              THEORY
                                                      THEORY
              Cognitive learning
                                                      Low Involvement Decision Making
              DECISION PROCESS
                                                      DECISION PROCESS
              Complex Decision Making or Brand
                                                      Variety Seeking
              Loyalty
              MODEL
                                                      MODEL
FEW
              Behavior
                                                      Beliefs
DIFFERENCES   Beliefs
BETWEEN                                               Behavior
              Evaluation
BRANDS                                                THEORY
              THEORY
                                                      Low Involvement Decision Making
              Dissonance or Attribution Theory
                                                      DECISION PROCESS
              DECISION PROCESS
                                                      Inertia
              Dissonance Reduction or Attribution

                    Figure 4.1 A Classification of Four Types of Consumer Behavior
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  Much of the work on low involvement consumer behavior is based on Krugman’s
perspective of television as an uninvolving medium. Krugman predicts that television
would be more effective for low involvement cases and print advertising for high
involvement cases. Krugman’s view of a passive consumer has stood many of the
traditional behavioral concepts in marketing on their head. Table 4.2

SHERIF’S SOCIAL JUDGMENT THEORY

  A second theory that sheds additional light on the uninvolved consumer is Sherif’s
theory of social judgment. Sherif describes an individual’s position on an issue according
to that individual’s involvement with the issue. Sherif then operationalizes this concept of
involvement by identifying a latitude of acceptance (the positions the individual accepts),a
latitude of rejection(positions the incivudual rejects), and a latitude of noncommitment
(positions toward which the individual is neutral). A highly involved individual having a
definite opinion about the issue would accept very few positions and reject a wide
number of positions (narrow latitude of acceptance and wide latitude of rejection). An
uninvolved individual would find more positions acceptable (wide latitude of acceptance)
or would have no opinion about the issue (wide latitude of noncommitment). Figure 4.2
describe applications of Sherif’s theory to marketing.
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  Table 4.2 The High Involvement, Active Consumer Versus the Low Involvement, Passive Consumer

Traditional, High Involvement View of an         Newer, Low Involvement View of a Passive
Active Consumer                                  Consumer
Consumers are information processors.            Consumers learn information at random.
Consumers are information seekers.               Consumers are information gathers.
Consumers represent an active audience for       Consumers represent a passive audience for
advertising. As a result, the effect of          advertising. As a result, the effect of advertising on
advertising on the consumer is weak.             the consumer is strong.
Consumers evaluate brands before buying.         Consumers buy first. If they do evaluate brands, it is
                                                 done after the purchase.
Consumers seek to maximize expected              Consumers seek some acceptable level of
satisfaction. As a result, consumers compare     satisfaction. As a result, consumers buy the brand
brands to see which provide the most benefits    least likely to give them problems and buy based on a
related to needs and buy based on                few attributes. Familiarity is the key.
multiattribute comparisons of brands.
Personality and life-style characteristics are   Personality and life-style characteristics are not
related to consumer behavior because the         related to consumer behavior because the product is
product is closely tied to the consumer’s        not closely tied to the consumer’s identity and belief
identity and belief system.                      system.
Reference groups influence consumer              Reference groups exert little influence on product
behavior because of the importance of the        choice because products are unlikely to be related to
product to group norms and values.               group norms and values.
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                                  Low                   High

     High                 Consider many brands
                            and use a smaller                     Low Involvement
                          number of attributes to     High Involvement
Latitude of Acceptance
                           evaluate each brand

     Low                 Few brands will be evaluated using many attributes


             Figure 4.2 Applications of Sherif’s Theory to Marketing.

     4.4 Strategic Issues in Low Involvement Decision Making
   4.4.1 Marketing strategy

   1.Advertising
   (1)Advertising should focus on a few key points rather than a broad-based information
   campaign.
   (2)Advertising dollars should be spent in a campaign of high repetition and should use
   short-duration messages.
   (3)There is considerable leeway in the advertising messages acceptable to the
   consumer.
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(4)Visual components are more important influencing behavior.
(5)Advertising should be the primary means of differentiating the product from
competition.
(6)Television rather than print media should be the primary vehicle for communication.
2. Product positioning
   Low involvement products are likely to be positioned to solve problems, while high
involvement products are more likely to be positioned to deliver benefits.
3.Price
  Low involvement products are purchased on the basis on price alone, so a decrease
in price may be enough to influence the consumer.
4.Sales promotions
  Sales incentives such as coupons, price deals, or free samples are likely to be more
important when the consumer is not involved.
5.In-store conditions
  When the consumer is not involved with the product, brand choice is frequently
made in the store. So in-store conditions become important for low involvement
products. The brand at eye level or the one with the largest space may be purchased
simply because of the reminder effect.
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6.Distribution.
  Widespread distribution is important for low involvement products, because the
consumer does not search for a brand.
4.4.2Strategic   Issues
1.Shift consumers from low to high involvement
(1)Linking the product to some involving issue.
(2)Linking the product to some involving personal situation.
(3)Linking the product to involving advertising.
(4)Changing the importance of product benefits
(5)Introducing an important characteristic in the product.
2.Shift consumers from inertia to variety seeking
If the brand is a market leader, it should encourage inertia; if it is a lesser known brand, it
should encourage variety seeking.
3.Should markets be segmented by degree of consumer involvement?
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Choices

1.A low involvement decision model also involves a sequence of three steps. Place a___
next to the first step, a ___ next to the second, and a ___ next to the third.
A beliefs B intentions C behavior D need-arousal E evaluation
2.Buying by inertia generally involves
A high involvement and significant differences between brands
B high involvement and few differences between brands
C low involvement and significant differences between brands
D low involvement and few differences between brands
E none of the above
3.High involvement purchasing behavior does not involve one of the following
A consumer involvement B cognitive evaluation C passive learning D post- purchase
evaluation E information processing
4.According to Krugman, television encourage passive learning because
A the advertising is active while the viewer is passive
B both the advertising and the viewer are passive
C the viewer can control the pace of viewing
D the viewer is active while the advertising is passive
5.According to Sherif’s theory of social judgement, a highly involved consumer would
have
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A a narrow latitude of rejection
B a narrow latitude of acceptance
C a wide latitude of acceptance
D a wide latitude of rejection
6.Advertising in a low involvement situation is not likely to
A increase brand awareness
B increase brand trial
C increase in-store brand recognition
D change brand attitudes

True-False Questions

1.Consumers are not highly involved with most products.
2.The primary basis for inducing trial under low involvement conditions is through price
and in-store promotional strategies.
3.Marketing strategies should be directed to minimizing consumer problems in the high
involvement case and to maximizing consumer benefits in the low involvement case.
4.The leading brand in a market should encourage variety-seeking behavior.

ANSWER
1 A C E 2 D 3 C 4 A 5 B 6 D 1T 2 T 3 F 4 F
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  CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Part 2 Consumer Decision Making


     Chapter 5 Situational
   Determinants of Consumer
           Behavior
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  Chapter 5 Situational Determinants of
          Consumer Behavior
5.1 The nature of situational variables

5.1.1 Type of situations

1.The Communications Situations

2.The Purchase Situation
(1)In-store situations
•Price promotions
•Free sample
•Displays
(2)Gift-giving situations
(3)Unanticipated purchase situations

3.The Consumption Situation
  The consumption situation is the anticipated usage situation for the brand.
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5.1.2 Characteristics of consumption situations
1.The physical surrounding. For example, a store’s decor and shelf layout; being
indoors or outside; being in a noisy room.
2.Social Surrounding. Whether guests are present, the social occasion, the
importance of friends and neighbors that are present.
3.Time. Breakfast, lunchtime, between meals; seasonal factors such as winter versus
summer relative to clothing; the time that has passed since the product was last
consumed.
4.Task definition. Shopping for oneself or for the family, shopping for a gift; cooking for
oneself, for the family or for guests.
5.Antecedent States. Momentary conditions such as shopping when tired or anxious,
buying a product on impulse because of an excess of cash on hand, using a product
when in an excited state.

 5.2 A model of situational determinants
           SITUATION

                                                                       PURCHASING
                             CONSUMER                Decision
                                                                        BEHAVIOR
                                                     Making
           PRODUCT                                 Figure 5.1 A model of situational
                                                   determinants of consumer behavior
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 The situation versus the product
 1.The greater the degree of brand loyalty, the less important are situational influence.
 2.The higher the level of product involvement, the less likely it is that situational factors
 will determine behavior.
 5.3 Use of situational variables in marketing strategy

 Situational variables have been used most frequently for positioning products and
 segmenting markets.Several studies will be cited to illustrate the use of situational
 factors for these strategic applications.

5.3.1 Induct the new condition
     Wansick and Ray had analyzed how the advertisement drive consumers introducing the product
into new condition by expansion strategy. They found that advertisement can effectively suggest the
consumer to induct the new condition when the new use-occasion consistent with the exist
conception of how to use the product.

5.3.2 Take extant use condition as target market
(1)Subdivide the user based on product use
(2)Develop new product to meet the special situation
(3)Position product in the use of a particular situation though advertising
(4)Distribute product to meet the needs of the situation
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 Choices
1.Which of the following is not a situational variable
A nutritional orientation       B a social occasion          C being in a store
D between meals                 E shopping for a gift
2.Which of the following situational influences is most likely to influence behavior
A the consumption situation       B the social situation
C the environment situation       D the in-store situation
3.Which of the following is not a characteristic of a usage or purchase situation
A time                    B social surrounding      C brand attitude
D antecedent states       E physical surroundings
4.The theory that best explain the relative influence of product versus situation on
consumer behavior is
A dissonance theory               B balance theory          C attribution theory
D learning theory                 E assimilation/contrast theory
5.The situation “eating a snack while working at home” is made up of which of the
following situational characteristics
A social surrounding              B task definition
C time                            D antecedent states
6.Price sensitive consumers are most likely to be influenced by
A the usage situations            B the purchase situation
C product attributes              D the communication situation
E peer group influences
           Part 2 Consumer Decision Making
                                                                      LAST CHAPTER   NEXT CHAPTER


True-False Questions

1. The assumption in most multiattribute models is that brand attitudes are the same,
regardless of usage situation.
2. The greater the degree of brand loyalty, the more important are situational influence.
3. If a situation is close to behavior in time, then it is more likely to influence behavior.
4. Purchase situation variables are most likely to be defined by in-store conditions.

ANSWER
1A2A3C4C5B6B1T2F3T4T

				
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