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Warm-Up EOC Prep

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					              Warm-Up / EOC Prep
1. Which question would ecologists most
   likely research?
A.   How do point mutations effect protein synthesis?
B.   How do aquatic plants react to pesticides?
C.   What is the chemical structure of sucrose?
D.   How does color in petunias pass from parent to
     offspring?

2. All of these characterize most laboratory
   accidents except-
A. Carelessness                B. lack of attention
C. Inappropriate behavior      D. reduced risk-taking
                     Agenda
•   Warm Up
•   Ecology Quiz 2
•   Notes
•   Practice Multiple Choice Questions 1
•   Ecology Review Worksheet
•   Clean-Up
•   Cool-down
Review for Ecology Exam 1

      Guided Notes 12
          Types of organisms
Two main types:
1. Autotroph (producer)-makes its own food
   must rely on itself to get energy
2. Heterotroph (consumer)-cannot makes its
   own food must rely on other organisms for
   energy
           Types of Organisms
• Heterotrophs
1. Herbivore-eats plants Ex: deer
2. Carnivore-eats meat Ex: wolf
3. Omnivore-eats both plants and meat Ex:
   humans
4. Decomposer-breaks down organic material to
   get energy Ex: Fungi
5. Scavenger-eats organisms that are already dead
   Ex: vulture
             Nutrient Cycles
• Carbon Cycle
Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and energy
  to produce oxygen
Cellular Respiration uses oxygen and energy to
  produce carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is also released while burning
  fossil fuels and in factories
            Nutrient Cycles
• Water Cycle
PrecipitationEvaporationTranspiration
Condensation
              Nutrient Cycles
• Nitrogen cycle
Bacteria can “fix” nitrogen, meaning they can
  bring it out of the air into a form the plants
  can use
Nodules on plant roots contain this nitrogen
  fixing bacteria
The bacteria on the roots get nourishment and
  the plants get nitrogen (MUTUALISM)
                         Food Chains
• Grass             Rabbit           Snake  Hawk
 Producer     Primary Consumer Secondary ConsumerTertiary Consumer
 Autotroph        Herbivore         Carnivore       Carnivore
 Autotroph        Heterotroph       Heterotroph  Heterotroph
              Energy pyramid
• Only 10% of the energy
  is passed between each
  trophic level
• Therefore much more
  energy is found at the
  bottom than at the top
       Ecological Niche/Habitat
• Ecological Niche-an organism’s role in the
  environment (birds on different parts of the
  tree)
• Habitat-physical location (an organism’s
  home)
                Mutualism
• Symbiotic relationship in which both
  organisms benefit
• ++       Win-Win!
• Examples: Flowers and bees (bees get food
  and the flowers get to reproduce)
             Commensalism
• Symbiotic relationship in which one organism
  benefits and the other is unaffected
• +0       Win-unaffected
• Examples: Barnacles on whale (the barnacles
  get food and the whale does not know they
  are there)
                Parasitism
• Symbiotic relationship in which an organism
  feeds off a host
• +-        Win-lose
• Examples: Tapeworm, tick, hookworm, leech
                Reminders

• Biome Brochure Friday. (Feb. 18rd)
                    Warm-Up / EOC Prep
1. Which statement best describes an activity that will
   contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in an
   organism?
A. A desert rattlesnake enters an underground burrow on a hot
   summer day.
B. A shark swims toward a highly polluted region of the ocean.
C. Roots of a willow tree grow away from a moisture rich region
   of the soil.
D. A polar bear sheds most of its fur during the coldest months
   of winter.
2. Which of the following would be the niche of
   decomposers in an ecosystem?
A.   Break down nitrogen and oxygen
B.   Break down waste and dead matter
C.   Provide nutrients for carnivores to make energy
D.   Provide nutrients for omnivores to make energy
                     Agenda
•   Warm Up
•   Ecology flip-flop
•   Notes
•   Practice Multiple Choice Questions 2
•   Ecology Poster
•   Clean Up
•   Cool-Down
Review for Ecology Exam 2

      Guided Notes 13
Levels of Organization
        Organism

        Population

       Community

        Ecosystem

         Biome

        Biosphere
        Levels of Organization
• Population-same species, same place Ex:
  group of bears in my backyard
• Community-different species, same place Ex:
  group of bears, beavers, and deer in my
  backyard
         Levels of Organization
• Ecosystem-different species + abiotic factors in
  the same place Ex: group of bears, beavers,
  and deer in my backyard and the sunlight and
  wind
• Biome-similar climate conditions and
  characteristic plants and animals Ex: desert
• Biosphere-basically the entire planet
                Succession
• Succession-series of changes made to a
  community after a disruption
• Two types:
1. Primary-starts from scratch
Caused by: volcanoes and glaciers
2. Secondary-starts from existing community
Caused by: forest fires and hurricanes
           Population Growth
• Exponential Growth      • Logistic Growth
• (J-shape)- the          • (S-shape)- growth slows
  individuals in a          or stops following a
  population reproduce at   period of exponential
  a constant rate           growth
          Population Growth
• Human population shows exponential growth
  because of improved medicine, sanitation,
  and health care
• Limiting factor-something that causes
  population size to decrease
• Two types: Density-dependent and density-
  independent
     Density-Dependent Factors
• Depends on population size
• Gets worse as population becomes more dense
• Examples:
1. Competition
2. Disease
3. Predation
4. Parasitism
REMEMBER: Cats Don’t Pet Piranhas
    Density-Independent Factors
• Does NOT depend on population size
• It does not matter how big the population is
Examples:
1. Human Activities
2. Seasonal Cycles
3. Unusual Weather
4. Natural Disasters
REMEMBER: Hot SUN
              Predator-Prey
• Predator-prey populations mirror each other
• Predator-eater
• Prey-organism being eaten
               Competition
• Competition-Occurs when two organisms
  want the same resource at the same time
• Example: Two lions fighting over a zebra
Reminders
                Ecology Poster
• Divide your paper into 4.
• In each square, draw
  1. A logistic graph (labeling axes with units and
     carrying capacity)
  2. An exponential graph (labeling axes with units)
  3. A food chain with pictures (labeling a producer,
     primary co., secondary co., and tertiary co.)
  4. An ecological pyramid (labeling a producer,
     primary co., secondary co., and tertiary co. and
     starting with 5000 joules of energy at the
     bottom)
                  Warm-Up / EOC Prep

1. Which of these statements is NOT true?
A. The process of succession resulting in a climax
   community always happens within one year.
B. Secondary succession happens in areas where
   organisms previously lived.
C. Primary succession occurs when communities
   populate barren land.
D. Ecological change does not always equate with
   destruction.

2. The carrying capacity of a given environment is
    least dependent upon
A. Recycling of materials      B. The availability of energy
C. Availability of food     D. Daily temperature fluctuations
                    Agenda
•   Warm Up
•   Ecology Word Scramble
•   Notes
•   Ecology “Quiz”
•   Finish Ecology Poster
•   Practice Questions
•   Clean-Up
•   Cool-down
• Metabolism
• Homeostasis
Review for Ecology Exam 3

      Guided Notes 14
                Biodiversity
• Variety = Diversity
• Biodiversity-the total of the genetically based
  variety of all organisms in the biosphere
                Biodiversity
• Human activity can reduce biodiversity by
  causing the following:
1.Habitat Destruction
2. Wildlife Products Demand
3. Pollution (DDT)
4. Invasive species
Michael Barron of the National Park Service took this
 picture of a carcass of an alligator as it protrudes out
 from the body of a dead Burmese python in Everglades
 National Park, Florida. The Burmese python is an
 invasive species -- 144,000 have been imported to the
 U.S. in the past five years for the pet trade.
                Biodiversity
• Extinction-when a species disappears from all
  or part of its range
• Endangered species-a species whose
  population size places it in danger of
  extinction
• Conservation -the wise management of
  natural resources including the preservation
  of habitats and wildlife
             Climate Change
• Ozone Layer-the atmosphere between 20-50
  km above Earth’s surface and protects the
  Earth from harmful UV radiation
• UV radiation causes sunburn and cancer
• Holes in the Ozone layer have been discovered
  above Antarctica. These holes were caused by
  CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons found in aerosol
  cans and refrigerators
               Climate Change
• Greenhouse effect-where radiation produced
  by the atmosphere warms earth
• Global warming-the increase the average
  temperature of the biosphere
Evidence: 1. melting polar ice 2. increased
  carbon dioxide levels due to burning fossil
  fuels
Effects: 1. rise in sea levels (flooding) 2. increase
  in global temperature 3. Organisms go extinct
Review
• 1.What processes get water from the earth
  into the air?
• Transpiration and Evaporation
2. GrassRabbitHawk
Which is the primary consumer?
• Rabbit
• GrassRabbitHawk
• Which is the autotroph?
• Grass
• 4. Carbon from the air is made into organic
  compounds through which process?
• Photosynthesis
• The increase in the overall global temperature
  is called what?
• Global Warming
                 Reminders

• Study hard and smart tonight!



   If there is no struggle, there is no progress.
                  (Who said that??)


           EMBRACE THE STRUGGLE!
                     Warm-Up / EOC Prep
1. An epidemic of black plague hit Europe in the 17th century
    and killed many people in the urban areas but not as many in
    rural areas. What type of limiting factor is this?
A. Density independent B. density dependent
C. Competition             D. predation

2. The bottom layer of the pyramid can be described as:
A. heterotrophs, producers, smallest amount of energy, largest
   number of organisms
B. autotrophs, producers, largest amount of energy, smallest
   number of organisms
C. autotrophs, consumers, largest amount of energy, largest
   number of organisms
D. autotrophs, producers, largest amount of energy, largest
   number of organisms
                     Agenda
•   Warm Up
•   Review time
•   Ecology Exam
•   Article 4 Worktime
•   Clean Up
•   Cool-Down
              Warm-Up / EOC Prep
1. Which sentence best states the importance of using
   control groups?
A. Control groups provide a method by which statistical
   variability can be reduced.
B. Control groups allow comparison between subjects
   receiving a treatment and those receiving no treatment.
C. Control groups eliminate the need for statistical tests and
   simplify calculations.
D. Control groups eliminate the need for large sample sizes,
   reducing the number of measurements needed.

2. A country that has a stable population is characterized by
    an age structure that is____?
A. Largest among post-reproductive years
B. About the same among all groups
C. Largest among pre-reproductive years
D. Largest among reproductive years
                     Agenda
•   Warm Up
•   Journey to Planet Earth Video
•   DDT Letter to Obama
•   Clean Up
•   Raffle

				
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