Docstoc

Languages

Document Sample
Languages Powered By Docstoc
					LANGUAGES
                              URDU- NATIONAL LANGUAGE

Introduction

Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a
vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Languages bring
closer each other and it creates a sense of harmony among the people.


Urdu - National Language of Pakistan

After independence Quaid-e-Azam said in clear cut words that the National Language of
Pakistan would be Urdu. He said

Let me make it clear that the National Language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no
other language. Without one state language no nation can remain tied up solidly
together.


Evolution of Urdu

Urdu evolved over a period of centuried by cultural between local people of north of
Sub Continent and Muslims of Arabia, Iran and Turkey. The base of this language is
Prakrit, an Aryan language. The script of Urdu is modified form of Persian. Urdu is a
word of Turkish language and its literal meaning is camp.


Progress of Urdu Language

Due to the efforts of poets and writers during different periods of history. Urdu
progressed well and reached almost all parts of the sub-continent in the 16th Century.
The Muslims, from time to time, brought about changes and amendments in it to make
it more simple and easy to understand according to their needs and requirements.

After the emergence of Pakistan, a great deal of work has been done for the progress
of Urdu language. The Urdu language has crossed its evolutionary stages after the
Independence and is now on its way to the road of progress and development. Each
Pakistani feels proud of speaking, reading and writing Urdu. Most of our national
leaders, while visiting other countries, deliver their speeches in Urdu language which
enhances its prestige on the International level. Several Committees have been formed
for the level. Being the national language of the country, it is the binding force between
different parts of Pakistan.
Qualities of Urdu

1. Great Power of Assimilation

The splendour of Urdu is Turkish and its charm is Persian in its base. The vitality of Urdu
lies in its ability to adopt words from other languages in such a way as if they originally
belonged to it. The chief reason for its country wide popularity was its power of
Assimilation. According to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Still now Urdu has great affinity for many other words and ideas which increases its
beauty.


2. Source of National Identity

National language is the identity of a nation. When we are abroad we are identified as
Pakistani because of our national language. That is why, every nation gives out respect
and importance to national language.


Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry

The Urdu language possesses a very valuable treasure of poetry and prose. The poets
and writers have contributed their most in its development. Maulana Shibli Nomani,
Maulana Hali, Deputy Nazir Ahmed, Mirza Ghalib, Amir Khusro and many others
adopted this language in their poetry and writings. Sir Syed wrote for the re-awakening
of the Muslims of Sub Continent. According to Abdul Haque

It is Sir Syed due to whom Urdu has made such a great progress within a period of only
one century.


Urdu - An Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage

Urdu grew in popularity and by the later Mughal Period and the advent of the British, it
had been adopted by the Muslims and the Hindus alike. It would not be wrong to say if
it is said that:

Urdu is a part of our Cultural Heritage


Importance of Urdu in National Life
Certain points which express the importance of Urdu in national life are given below:

1. Means of Brotherhood and Unity

People of Pakistan are one nation, therefore their thinking, aims and objectives are
common. Their progress and prosperity depends upon their unity and brotherhood. An
important factor for achieving this unity and brotherhood is Urdu.


2. Source of Expression

Urdu has become a source of expression, feeling, thoughts and aspiration. People of two
different areas can easily understood each other ideas and thoughts by Urdu.


3. Means of Communication and Co-ordination

Urdu serves as a means of communication and is a binding force between all the four
province of Pakistan. People living in different provinces realize that in spite of speaking
different languages, they are joined together by one national language which is the
heritage of all.


4. Medium of Instruction

Urdu language is the medium of instruction in most of the educational instituations of
Pakistan. History, Islamic Studies, Political Science and other subjects are taught upto
M.A level in Urdu. Lectures on Islamic education and religion are also delivered in Urdu
throughout Pakistan.


Conclusion

Being the national language of the country it is the binding force in different parts of
Pakistan. The officers have adopted Urdu language in their official work and the
Government has published a dictionary contained Urdu terms for the office work. The
Urdu Development Board and "Anjuman-e-Taraqi-e-Urdu" are trying to give Urdu a
place in society and it is hope that Urdu would find its place in society within short
period of time.
                          REGIONAL LANGUAGES OF PAKISTAN

Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. No less than twenty-four languages and dialects are
spoken by the people of Pakistan, but mainly include five regional languages Punjabi,
Sindhi, Balochi, Pushto, Brahvi and Kashmiri. These languages are rich in literature,
poetry, folksongs and spiritual sayings of their respective saints and contribute greatly
to the culture of Pakistan.

The regional languages though distinct from one another in their forms, dialects and
expressions of thoughts have several common factors in them. They cultivate in them
love, respect and a firm adherence to the Pakistan Ideology. The regional languages of
Pakistan are:


1. Punjabi

Punjabi is the local language of the province of the Punjab which is the biggest province
of Pakistan with regard to population and development. It has its links with the Aryan
language Prakrit. Before partition it was spoken in Delhi, Dhirpur, Peshawar and Jammu
too. However as time rolled on the vocabulary of Punjabi language became a mixture of
Persian, Arabic and Turkish words. It has different dialects in different parts of Punjabi
like Saraiki and Potohari but the basic language remains the same.


Various Names

Punjabi is a very simple language and easy to understand. It was given various names
during different periods of history. Famous historian Masoodi called it Multani while Al-
Beruni used the name of Al-Hindi for it. The famous Sikh religious leader Baba Guru
Nanak gave it the name of Zaban-e-Jattan. In the NWFP it was known as Hindko. In the
NWFP it was known as Hindko. Hafiz Barkhurdar was the first person to use the name of
Punjabi for this language in the first half of 17th century in his book entitled Muftah-ul-
Fiqah. Maulvi Kamal-ud-Din also used this name for this language in his selected works.


Various forms of Lyric and Narrative Poetry

Punjabi is rich in mystical and romantic poetry. The highly imaginative
and artistic exquisite literature, mostly in verse has two forms one is "Lyric Poetry"
which includes Bait, Kafi, Si-harfi, Bara Mah and Satwara the other one i "Narrative
Poetry" which is composed of various rhythms and meters. Examples are Qissa Noor
Namah, Gulzar, Jang Nama and Vaar.


Famous Punjabi Poets

Some of the famous poets of Punjabi language are:

* Baba Farid Shakar Ganj Baksh

* Sheikh Ibrahim Farid Shani

* Madholal Hussein

* Sultan Bahu

* Bullay Shah

* Ali Haider

* Waris Shah
Progress of Punjabi Language

Before partition Punjabi was spoken and understood in the eastern part of the Punjab.
After Independence concrete steps were taken for the promotion and development of
this language which made it a popular language in other parts of the province. The
Government is still making efforts for the progress of Punjabi language and extending
support to those institutions which are striving for its development. A present the
Punjabi literature is taugth upto M.A. level in Pakistan.


2. Sindhi

Sindhi is one of the important regional languages of Pakistan. It appears that Sindhi was
spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. It is said that the language of the
people of Moen-jo-Daro contained elements of the present Sindhi language.

The origin of this language is not exactly known. However travelers like Al-Beruni have
told us about the original script of the language. "Chach Nama" being an authentic
document proves that the dialect of the Sindhi language was the same in the 12th
century, as it is today. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the Sub Continent
Sindhi changed its form and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and
Turkish.


Way of Writing

In the beginning Sindhi was written in "Marwari" and "Arz Nagari"' way of writing. With
the advent and influence of Arabs in the subcontinent this way of writing was
subsequently changed into Arabic and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of
Persian and Turkish.


Steps Taken to Develop Sindhi

Various steps have been taken to develop Urdu. Organizations like "Sindhi Literacy
Board" and "Bazm-e-Talib-ul-Maula" etc were set up. Several newspapers published in
Sindhi, such as Ibrat, Naw-i-Sind and Khadim-I-Watan besides a number of Weeklies.


Famous Sindhi Poets

Some of famous Sindhi Poets are
* Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai

* Sachal Sarmast

* Makhdoom Noor

* Shah Inayat

* Bedil

* Sabit Ali Shah

* Kazi Kazah


3. Balochi

Balochi is the regional language of Balochistan. It is the least developed of all the
regional languages. It was spread by Balochi tribal migrated from Iran.

The history of Balochi literature may be divided into four periods:

1. Early Medieval Period - 1430 to 1600

2. Later Medieval Period - 1600 to 1850

3. Modern Period - 1850 to 1930

4. Contemporary Period - 1930 up to date

Literature produced by earlier poets has no record as it is preserved traditionally in the
memories of the people. No newspapers or books were published in Balochi up till 1940.
After partition, however Balochi literature received a little boost due to the efforts
made by many associations and by the establishment of T.V stations. At present, Balochi
literature is on the road to development.


Types of Balochi

There are two types of Balochi namely:
1. Sulemani

2. Makrani


Famous Literacy Figures and Poets of Balochi

Some of the most literacy figures are:

* Azad Jamaldini

* Ulfat Naseem

* Abdul Qadir Shahwani

* Malik Mohammad Ramzan

* Mir Aaqil Maingal

Well known poets of Balochi language are

* Jam Darag

* Shah Murid

* Shahdad


Progress of Balochi Language

The Balochi literature was on the verge of decline before partition. After partition,
however it received little boost when Radio Pakistan, Karachi began its broadcast in
Balochi language. Balochi programmes were relayed from Radio Pakistan Karachi which
enhanced the developmental process of Balochi language.


Balochi Literary Association

The Balochi literary Association was set up which published many magazines and articles
in Balochi language. A weekly magazine known as "Nan Kessan" was published. A
monthly known as "Olassis" was also published.


Quetta Television Station
With the establishment of Quetta Television Station the Balochi language has received
great fillip. Atta Shah is a famous Balochi poet of Pakistan. Ishaq Shamim is another
famous poet of Balochi language whose poem "Dulhan" is very popular. The renowned
politician Gul Khan Naseer is also considered a good poet of Balochi language. Balochi
prose has also developed a great deal after partition. Translation of the Bible has also
been published in Balochi language.


4. Pushto

Pushto is the regional language of the N.W.F.P and tribal areas. It belongs to the East
Iranian group of languages and contains many Persian, Arabic, Greek and Pehlevi words.


Famous Pushto Poets

Some of the well known poets of Pushto language are:

* Amir Karoro

* Khushal Khan Khatak

* Rehman Baba

* Sher Shah Soori

* Saif ullah

* Kazim Kazim


Steps Taken to Develop Pushto

Although Pushto is an old language but its literature is comparatively new one. After
independence Pushto literature received a great boost.

The services rendered by the Pushto poets and writers in the freedom struggle, in fact
contributed a great deal towards the promotion of Pushto literature.

Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum worked very hard to create political awareness in the people
of N.W.F.P. The Islamic College, Peshawar which became the citadel of freedom
movement in N.W.F.P was established because of his dedicated services. Peshawar
University was established after three years of Independence.
An academy for the promotion of Pushto literature was set up under the supervision of
the Government. The Pushto academy was set up in 1954 and Maulana Abdul Qadir
(Alig) was appointed as its Director. This academy prepared Pushto dictionary.


5. Brahvi

Brahvi is the next spoken language of Balochistan. It fact it is said to be spoken by a
greater number of people than Balochi. The Brahvi language is said to be a member of
Dravidian family of languages. It has borrowed heavily from Sindhi, Persian, Arabic and
English but remains in an unexplained isolation among the Indo-Iran dialects.

Brahvi literature has a vast treasure of folklores. It's script has borrowed much from
Pushto script. Malik Dad was a great poet and learned person of Brahvi language.


6. Kashmiri

Kashmiri is the language of the people of inhabitting the occupied Kashmir and Azad
Kashmir. This language has been derived from Sanskrit. Kashmiri is generally spoken in
Muslim families of the valley. It contains many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words and is
written in the Persian Script.

Kashmiri like all the regional languages of Pakistan had its early literature flowered in
the form of poetry, which began with the composition of folk songs and ballads.


Kashmiri Literary Figures

Famous authors of Kashmiri language are:

* Sh. Nooruddin

* Khatoon Lillah Anifa

* Baba Nasiruddin

* Ghani


Conclusion

The regional languages of Pakistan - Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pushto, Brahvi are the most
modern Pakistani languages. The have several common feature and their literature
bears the same eternal message for mankind. Government has been doing its best to
develop the regional languages.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:2/24/2013
language:English
pages:12