LANGUAGES URDU- NATIONAL LANGUAGE Introduction Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Languages bring closer each other and it creates a sense of harmony among the people. Urdu - National Language of Pakistan After independence Quaid-e-Azam said in clear cut words that the National Language of Pakistan would be Urdu. He said Let me make it clear that the National Language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Without one state language no nation can remain tied up solidly together. Evolution of Urdu Urdu evolved over a period of centuried by cultural between local people of north of Sub Continent and Muslims of Arabia, Iran and Turkey. The base of this language is Prakrit, an Aryan language. The script of Urdu is modified form of Persian. Urdu is a word of Turkish language and its literal meaning is camp. Progress of Urdu Language Due to the efforts of poets and writers during different periods of history. Urdu progressed well and reached almost all parts of the sub-continent in the 16th Century. The Muslims, from time to time, brought about changes and amendments in it to make it more simple and easy to understand according to their needs and requirements. After the emergence of Pakistan, a great deal of work has been done for the progress of Urdu language. The Urdu language has crossed its evolutionary stages after the Independence and is now on its way to the road of progress and development. Each Pakistani feels proud of speaking, reading and writing Urdu. Most of our national leaders, while visiting other countries, deliver their speeches in Urdu language which enhances its prestige on the International level. Several Committees have been formed for the level. Being the national language of the country, it is the binding force between different parts of Pakistan. Qualities of Urdu 1. Great Power of Assimilation The splendour of Urdu is Turkish and its charm is Persian in its base. The vitality of Urdu lies in its ability to adopt words from other languages in such a way as if they originally belonged to it. The chief reason for its country wide popularity was its power of Assimilation. According to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Still now Urdu has great affinity for many other words and ideas which increases its beauty. 2. Source of National Identity National language is the identity of a nation. When we are abroad we are identified as Pakistani because of our national language. That is why, every nation gives out respect and importance to national language. Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry The Urdu language possesses a very valuable treasure of poetry and prose. The poets and writers have contributed their most in its development. Maulana Shibli Nomani, Maulana Hali, Deputy Nazir Ahmed, Mirza Ghalib, Amir Khusro and many others adopted this language in their poetry and writings. Sir Syed wrote for the re-awakening of the Muslims of Sub Continent. According to Abdul Haque It is Sir Syed due to whom Urdu has made such a great progress within a period of only one century. Urdu - An Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage Urdu grew in popularity and by the later Mughal Period and the advent of the British, it had been adopted by the Muslims and the Hindus alike. It would not be wrong to say if it is said that: Urdu is a part of our Cultural Heritage Importance of Urdu in National Life Certain points which express the importance of Urdu in national life are given below: 1. Means of Brotherhood and Unity People of Pakistan are one nation, therefore their thinking, aims and objectives are common. Their progress and prosperity depends upon their unity and brotherhood. An important factor for achieving this unity and brotherhood is Urdu. 2. Source of Expression Urdu has become a source of expression, feeling, thoughts and aspiration. People of two different areas can easily understood each other ideas and thoughts by Urdu. 3. Means of Communication and Co-ordination Urdu serves as a means of communication and is a binding force between all the four province of Pakistan. People living in different provinces realize that in spite of speaking different languages, they are joined together by one national language which is the heritage of all. 4. Medium of Instruction Urdu language is the medium of instruction in most of the educational instituations of Pakistan. History, Islamic Studies, Political Science and other subjects are taught upto M.A level in Urdu. Lectures on Islamic education and religion are also delivered in Urdu throughout Pakistan. Conclusion Being the national language of the country it is the binding force in different parts of Pakistan. The officers have adopted Urdu language in their official work and the Government has published a dictionary contained Urdu terms for the office work. The Urdu Development Board and "Anjuman-e-Taraqi-e-Urdu" are trying to give Urdu a place in society and it is hope that Urdu would find its place in society within short period of time. REGIONAL LANGUAGES OF PAKISTAN Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. No less than twenty-four languages and dialects are spoken by the people of Pakistan, but mainly include five regional languages Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pushto, Brahvi and Kashmiri. These languages are rich in literature, poetry, folksongs and spiritual sayings of their respective saints and contribute greatly to the culture of Pakistan. The regional languages though distinct from one another in their forms, dialects and expressions of thoughts have several common factors in them. They cultivate in them love, respect and a firm adherence to the Pakistan Ideology. The regional languages of Pakistan are: 1. Punjabi Punjabi is the local language of the province of the Punjab which is the biggest province of Pakistan with regard to population and development. It has its links with the Aryan language Prakrit. Before partition it was spoken in Delhi, Dhirpur, Peshawar and Jammu too. However as time rolled on the vocabulary of Punjabi language became a mixture of Persian, Arabic and Turkish words. It has different dialects in different parts of Punjabi like Saraiki and Potohari but the basic language remains the same. Various Names Punjabi is a very simple language and easy to understand. It was given various names during different periods of history. Famous historian Masoodi called it Multani while Al- Beruni used the name of Al-Hindi for it. The famous Sikh religious leader Baba Guru Nanak gave it the name of Zaban-e-Jattan. In the NWFP it was known as Hindko. In the NWFP it was known as Hindko. Hafiz Barkhurdar was the first person to use the name of Punjabi for this language in the first half of 17th century in his book entitled Muftah-ul- Fiqah. Maulvi Kamal-ud-Din also used this name for this language in his selected works. Various forms of Lyric and Narrative Poetry Punjabi is rich in mystical and romantic poetry. The highly imaginative and artistic exquisite literature, mostly in verse has two forms one is "Lyric Poetry" which includes Bait, Kafi, Si-harfi, Bara Mah and Satwara the other one i "Narrative Poetry" which is composed of various rhythms and meters. Examples are Qissa Noor Namah, Gulzar, Jang Nama and Vaar. Famous Punjabi Poets Some of the famous poets of Punjabi language are: * Baba Farid Shakar Ganj Baksh * Sheikh Ibrahim Farid Shani * Madholal Hussein * Sultan Bahu * Bullay Shah * Ali Haider * Waris Shah Progress of Punjabi Language Before partition Punjabi was spoken and understood in the eastern part of the Punjab. After Independence concrete steps were taken for the promotion and development of this language which made it a popular language in other parts of the province. The Government is still making efforts for the progress of Punjabi language and extending support to those institutions which are striving for its development. A present the Punjabi literature is taugth upto M.A. level in Pakistan. 2. Sindhi Sindhi is one of the important regional languages of Pakistan. It appears that Sindhi was spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. It is said that the language of the people of Moen-jo-Daro contained elements of the present Sindhi language. The origin of this language is not exactly known. However travelers like Al-Beruni have told us about the original script of the language. "Chach Nama" being an authentic document proves that the dialect of the Sindhi language was the same in the 12th century, as it is today. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the Sub Continent Sindhi changed its form and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and Turkish. Way of Writing In the beginning Sindhi was written in "Marwari" and "Arz Nagari"' way of writing. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the subcontinent this way of writing was subsequently changed into Arabic and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and Turkish. Steps Taken to Develop Sindhi Various steps have been taken to develop Urdu. Organizations like "Sindhi Literacy Board" and "Bazm-e-Talib-ul-Maula" etc were set up. Several newspapers published in Sindhi, such as Ibrat, Naw-i-Sind and Khadim-I-Watan besides a number of Weeklies. Famous Sindhi Poets Some of famous Sindhi Poets are * Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai * Sachal Sarmast * Makhdoom Noor * Shah Inayat * Bedil * Sabit Ali Shah * Kazi Kazah 3. Balochi Balochi is the regional language of Balochistan. It is the least developed of all the regional languages. It was spread by Balochi tribal migrated from Iran. The history of Balochi literature may be divided into four periods: 1. Early Medieval Period - 1430 to 1600 2. Later Medieval Period - 1600 to 1850 3. Modern Period - 1850 to 1930 4. Contemporary Period - 1930 up to date Literature produced by earlier poets has no record as it is preserved traditionally in the memories of the people. No newspapers or books were published in Balochi up till 1940. After partition, however Balochi literature received a little boost due to the efforts made by many associations and by the establishment of T.V stations. At present, Balochi literature is on the road to development. Types of Balochi There are two types of Balochi namely: 1. Sulemani 2. Makrani Famous Literacy Figures and Poets of Balochi Some of the most literacy figures are: * Azad Jamaldini * Ulfat Naseem * Abdul Qadir Shahwani * Malik Mohammad Ramzan * Mir Aaqil Maingal Well known poets of Balochi language are * Jam Darag * Shah Murid * Shahdad Progress of Balochi Language The Balochi literature was on the verge of decline before partition. After partition, however it received little boost when Radio Pakistan, Karachi began its broadcast in Balochi language. Balochi programmes were relayed from Radio Pakistan Karachi which enhanced the developmental process of Balochi language. Balochi Literary Association The Balochi literary Association was set up which published many magazines and articles in Balochi language. A weekly magazine known as "Nan Kessan" was published. A monthly known as "Olassis" was also published. Quetta Television Station With the establishment of Quetta Television Station the Balochi language has received great fillip. Atta Shah is a famous Balochi poet of Pakistan. Ishaq Shamim is another famous poet of Balochi language whose poem "Dulhan" is very popular. The renowned politician Gul Khan Naseer is also considered a good poet of Balochi language. Balochi prose has also developed a great deal after partition. Translation of the Bible has also been published in Balochi language. 4. Pushto Pushto is the regional language of the N.W.F.P and tribal areas. It belongs to the East Iranian group of languages and contains many Persian, Arabic, Greek and Pehlevi words. Famous Pushto Poets Some of the well known poets of Pushto language are: * Amir Karoro * Khushal Khan Khatak * Rehman Baba * Sher Shah Soori * Saif ullah * Kazim Kazim Steps Taken to Develop Pushto Although Pushto is an old language but its literature is comparatively new one. After independence Pushto literature received a great boost. The services rendered by the Pushto poets and writers in the freedom struggle, in fact contributed a great deal towards the promotion of Pushto literature. Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum worked very hard to create political awareness in the people of N.W.F.P. The Islamic College, Peshawar which became the citadel of freedom movement in N.W.F.P was established because of his dedicated services. Peshawar University was established after three years of Independence. An academy for the promotion of Pushto literature was set up under the supervision of the Government. The Pushto academy was set up in 1954 and Maulana Abdul Qadir (Alig) was appointed as its Director. This academy prepared Pushto dictionary. 5. Brahvi Brahvi is the next spoken language of Balochistan. It fact it is said to be spoken by a greater number of people than Balochi. The Brahvi language is said to be a member of Dravidian family of languages. It has borrowed heavily from Sindhi, Persian, Arabic and English but remains in an unexplained isolation among the Indo-Iran dialects. Brahvi literature has a vast treasure of folklores. It's script has borrowed much from Pushto script. Malik Dad was a great poet and learned person of Brahvi language. 6. Kashmiri Kashmiri is the language of the people of inhabitting the occupied Kashmir and Azad Kashmir. This language has been derived from Sanskrit. Kashmiri is generally spoken in Muslim families of the valley. It contains many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words and is written in the Persian Script. Kashmiri like all the regional languages of Pakistan had its early literature flowered in the form of poetry, which began with the composition of folk songs and ballads. Kashmiri Literary Figures Famous authors of Kashmiri language are: * Sh. Nooruddin * Khatoon Lillah Anifa * Baba Nasiruddin * Ghani Conclusion The regional languages of Pakistan - Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pushto, Brahvi are the most modern Pakistani languages. The have several common feature and their literature bears the same eternal message for mankind. Government has been doing its best to develop the regional languages.