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A REALISTIC ESTIMATION OF ENERGY SAVING WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DOMESTIC SECTOR

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A REALISTIC ESTIMATION OF ENERGY SAVING WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DOMESTIC SECTOR Powered By Docstoc
					 International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME
                            & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)
ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 124-130
                                                                           IJEET
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI)               ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




          A REALISTIC ESTIMATION OF ENERGY SAVING WITH
         RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DOMESTIC SECTOR

               A.Srinivasa Rao1, S.V. L. Narasimham2 and B.Suresh Kumar3
   1
    Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-
                                          530045, India
      2
        Department of Information Technology, JNT University, Hyderabad-500085, India
   3
    Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-
                                          530045, India


  ABSTRACT

          Electrical energy is the unchallenged prime mover of the modern human life. The
  demand for the energy is constantly increasing in developing countries like India, where the
  generation of power is predominantly by fossil fuels. Because of the various disadvantages
  associated with fossil fuels besides the economic constraints, it is becoming mandatory to
  switch to alternative sources for energy. In this paper an attempt has been made to use non
  conventional energy sources at the domestic level that supplements the regular power supply.
  The houses are trifurcated into low, middle and high income groups based on energy
  consumption. Solar and wind energies are considered as they are available in plenty in most
  of the regions in India, and can be installed easily at the consumer’s premises.

  Key words: renewable energy, photo voltaic energy, wind energy, Micro Power Generation

  1. INTRODUCTION

         India stands fifth in the world with respect to energy consumption with an installed
  capacity of about 210.936GW [1]. This is still far behind relative to the developed countries
  around the globe. The demand/supply gap is around 8.2% in India [2], which is hampering
  the growth of industrial sector and becoming an impediment to the progress of economy.
  India heavily depends on the import of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas which results in
  heavy loss of foreign exchange. These sources are fast depleting and hence the prices are

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shooting up affecting the country’s economy adversely. Hence it is essential to vet alternate
energy technologies to tackle the energy crisis. Kennedy et al [4] gave a generic approach to
calculate long term costs and benefits of renewable energy generation. However this limits to
impact on two different units rather than system as a whole. Bergmann et al [5] estimated the
costs of renewable technologies and no approach was made to quantify the costs G. Young et al
[6] indicated that photovoltaic generation is cost effective if we wish to power a home which is
more than 2 miles from nearest power line. This literature survey prompted the authors to think
about effective generation for domestic applications using renewable energy sources. The Indian
Renewable Energy Program is well established under the Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy (MNRE) [3] which is promoting R&D, demonstration projects, subsidy programs etc. in
the area of renewable energy sources along with Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency
(IREDA).
    The key factors that force usage of renewable energy are:
        • Demand- supply gap
        • Economic and environment and energy security concerns
        • Huge untapped potential of renewable energy and reducing cost of generation
        • Feasibility particularly for domestic and rural electrification
   This paper addresses the need for usage of available renewable energy sources at the
   domestic level and associated savings achieved.
2. MICRO GENERATION
       Micro generation refers to the production of low carbon electrical power by domestic
consumers to meet their own requirements. Micro generation technologies include solar based
photovoltaic systems and small wind turbines which can be installed easily at the premises of the
consumer to supplement the regular grid supply.
3. FOCUS ON SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY
        India receives a good amount of solar radiation as it is located between the equator and
tropic of cancer in the Northern hemisphere. The daily incident solar energy ranges from 4 to 7
kWh/m2 based on location with about 1500 to 2000 sunshine hours per year [7]. Wind energy
depends indirectly on solar radiation as the circulation of air is caused by non uniform heating of
earth’s surface.
4. PROBLEM FORMULATION
        In the present paper a case study is presented to exploit and effectively utilize the
renewable energy sources at domestic level to reduce the energy demand from grid, which in turn
minimizes the adverse environmental impact. The houses are classified into three types namely
lower class(class A), middle class(class B) and higher class( class C) taking the average
consumption into account and load tables are prepared which are shown in Appendix A. The
hours of usage is estimated based on the sample survey on one feeder in Visakhapatnam. The
monthly and hourly solar and wind energy data is also shown in appendix B which is taken from
[8]. Depending on month and time the consumer should connect his loads to the available solar
panel and/or wind generator and remaining loads will be connected to the grid. The bill has been
calculated when loads are connected to renewable energy sources (solar and wind). The bill when
loads are connected to renewable energy sources is savings obtained in the month. The savings
are calculated for the three classes individually.

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                                                      Appendix A

                                        CLASS WISE LOAD TABLES

                                                      CLASS A

                               TIME        LABLE        WATTAGE        MONTH
                                18-22        L1            40            1-12
                                18-24         F1           60            1-12
                                 1-6          F1           60            1-12
                                10-12        TV            100           1-12
                                17-21        TV            100           1-12
                                18-24        BL1           10            1-12
                                 1-6         BL1           10            1-12
                                18-21        L2            40            1-12
                                18-22        L3            40            1-12

                                                       CLASS B

                    ROOM                 TIME                LABLE    WATTAGE    MONTH
                   Bed room              18-21                 L1        40       1-12
                                       18-24,1-6               F1        60       1-12
                                       22-24,1-6              BL1        10       1-12
                      Hall            10-13,16-22              TV       100       1-12
                                      10-13,16-22              F2        60       1-12
                                         18-22                 L2        40       1-12
                    Kitchen         6-9,12-13,18-21            L3        40       1-12
                                    8-9,12-13,20-21            F3        60       1-12
                                          7-8                 MIX       450       1-12
                     Motor             6-7,16-17               M        750       1-12
                   Bath Room           6-8,18-22               L4        40       1-12
                  Surroundings           18-22                 L5        40       1-12
                                       22-24,1-6              BL2        10       1-12

                                                      CLASS C

                     ROOM                 TIME              LABLE    WATTAGE    MONTH
                    Bed Room1              18-21              L1        40       1-12
                                           18-22              L2        40       1-12
                                         18-24.1-6            F1        60       1-12
                                         18-24,1-6           BL1        10       1-12
                    Bed Room2              18-22              L3        40       1-12
                                         18-24,1-6            F3        60       1-12
                                        14-15,20-24          AC1       2400      1-12
                                            1-4              AC1       2400      1-12
                                         18-24,1-6           BL2        10       1-12
                     Verandah            18-24,1-6            L4        40       1-12
                    Guest Room             16-21              F4        60       1-12
                                           16-21              L5        40       1-12
                                           18-21              L6        40       1-12
                        Hall            10-13,16-22           F5        60       1-12
                                           18-22              L7        40       1-12
                                           18-22              L8        40       1-12
                                        12-14,18-22          TV         100      1-12
                      Kitchen            8-9,20-22            F6        60       1-12
                                         7-8,18-22            L9        40       1-12
                                            7-8              MIX       450       1-12
                                           1-24               Fr       1000      1-12

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                                                 Appendix B
WIND TABLE
      Month       Jan   Feb    March      Apr    May    June   July   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
   Wattage/Hour   207   230     227       165    348    563    668    461   358   185   282   340

SUN TABLE: Wattage available
   Month/Time      6     7     8      9     10    11      12    13    14     15    16   17    18
   January         0    25    75    225    300    350    400   375    350   275   125   25     0
   February        0    25    75    225    300    350    400   375    350   275   125   25     0
   March           0    25    75    225    300    350    400   375    350   275   125   25     0
   April          25    50    125   275    375    450    500   450    400   350   250   100   25
   May            25    50    125   275    375    450    500   450    400   350   250   100   25
   June           25    50    125   275    375    450    500   450    400   350   250   100   25
   July            0    25    75    225    300    350    400   375    350   275   125   25     0
   August          0    25    75    225    300    350    400   375    350   275   125   25    0
   September       0    25    75    225    300    350    400   375    350   275   125   25     0
   October         0    15    25     75    150    250    350   300    250   200   100   50     0
   November        0    15    25    75     150    250    350   300    250   200   100   50     0
   December        0    15    25     75    150    250    350   300    250   200   100   50     0

UNIT COST TABLE

                                    Units per month     Unit cost
                                                         (Rs)
                                         0-50            1.45
                                        51-100           2.80
                                       101-200           3.60
                                       201-300           5.75
                                       301-500           6.75
                                         >500            7.25

   The algorithm for proposed method:
   1. Input choice of Class of Load.
   2. Input Load data, Wind energy data, solar energy data and cost per unit.
   3. Calculate Gi= Wi + Si
        Where Gi = Renewable energy generation at ith hour,
        Wi = Wind energy generation at ith hour,
        Si = Solar energy generation at ith hour.
   4. If Li < Gi , Energy saving is Li kwh.
        Where Li = Load at ith hour.
   5. Calculate Cost of Energy saving
        Ci = Li * (Cost/unit)
         Where Ci = Cost of Energy saving at ith hour.
   6. If Gi < Li , Energy saving is Gi kwh.
   7. Calculate Cost of Energy saving
        Ci = Gi * (Cost/unit).
   8. Plot graph for Load curve, Energy savings in Kwh and Cost of Energy savings in Rs.

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5. RESULTS

        A software has been developed using MATLAB for calculating the savings obtained
by use of renewable energy sources in a given month. The load curves are plotted based on
the classification of houses. Table 1 gives the energy savings estimated with the use of
renewable energy. Graphs are also plotted for every month with respect to savings in KWH
and saving in INR for each classification. Figure 1, 2 and 3 presents the typical load curve,
energy and cost savings of class A, B and C houses respectively. The accuracy of the
estimation solely depends on the data assumed and hence the method is highly flexible and
can be tailored to suit any local conditions.

                      Table 1: Energy savings with renewable generation

         Type of        Energy         Energy            % Energy     Cost saving
         House          consumption    generated by      Saving
                        per year       renewable
                        (KWH)          sources                        (INR)
                                       (KWH)
         Class A        686.2          645.8470          94.11        1010.2
         Class B        1974.7         1392.9            70.53        3276.4
         Class C        18721          3873.5            20.69        20032




                            Figure 1: Load and saving of Class A house



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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –
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                     Figure 2: Load and saving of Class B house




                           Figure 3: Load and saving of Class C house


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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –
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6. CONCLUSION

        It is observed that the percentage energy savings with the available solar and wind
powers is 94.11, 70.53 and 20.69 in the case of Class A, class B and Class C houses
respectively. The authors feel that by shifting partially to renewable energy sources will make
India to attract foreign investments to herald green energy revolution in India.

REFERENCES

1.      Electricity sector in India: Wikipedia
2.      A report by central electricity authority, India in April 2012
3.      www.mnre.gov.in
4.      Kennedy,2005, wind power planning: assessing long term costs and benefits, energy
        policy 33, 1661-1675
5.      Bergmann, A., Hanley, N., Wright, R., 2006. Valuing the attributes of renewable
       energy investments. Energy Policy 34, 1004–1014.
6.      G.Young et.al “Cost effectiveness of photovoltaics” renewable electricity solutions.
        www. Renewable electricity.com
7.      Solar power in India: Wikipedia
8.      Surface meteorology and Solar Energy, A renewable energy resource web site
      (release 6.0) sponsored by NASA
9.      Avneet Hira, Vandana Kansal, TK Jindal, Jimmy Kansal and Ashwagosha Ganju,
        “Harnessing Wind Energy In Cryospheric Regions” International Journal of Electrical
        Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 313 - 319,
        Published by IAEME.
10.     Mr. Laith O. Maheemed, D.S. Bankar and Dr. D.B. Talange, “Power Quality
        Improvement Of Wind Energy Conversion System Using Unified Power Quality
        Conditioner” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET),
        Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 288 - 302, Published by IAEME.
11.     Dr.S.M.Ali, K.K.Rout and Bijayini Mohanty , “Application Of Renewable Energy
        Sources For Effective Energy Management” International Journal of Electrical
        Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 18 - 31, Published
        by IAEME.




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