CASH FLOW OBJECTIVES Understanding the fundamentals of your cash flow statement Determine how your cash flow relates to the remainder of your Business Plan Complete a 12 month cash flow for a new business Why is it important? Determines whether or not your business is viable Determines if you can make enough money in this business for your personal needs, run the business and make a profit? To assist in making good business decisions Your cash flow helps you: Determine when you can afford to take a draw out of the business. Determine whether or not you can pay your bills each month. Determine how much financing you need to run your business properly. Determine when you can afford to grow your business through hiring staff, expanding your location or by purchasing capital equipment. Determines how much money you have in the bank at the end of each month, it is not your profit. Cash Flow Forecasting: … simply taking the words of the business plan and translating them into numbers. Actual money that is collected from sales and actual money that is paid out for expenses on a monthly basis. The Cash Flow Statement There are three main sections in a cash flow statement: 1. Sources of Cash (Cash Receipts/Revenues) • Cash revenues • Loans • Equity Investment (Personal or Outside Source) 2. Use of Cash (Expenses or Disbursements) • Actual Expenses that will be paid in that month • Start-up Costs 3. Monthly Balance • You can calculate how much cash you have left at the end of each month • Revenue – Disbursements = Cash balance (monthly) • Add your month end cash balances together to get a cumulative monthly total How to Complete a Cash Flow Statement: Use a software spreadsheet (I.e. - excel) Do the Disbursement (expense) Section First (Start-up costs + Projected Monthly Expenses) Sales Projections This is a projection of the amount of money you will bring into the business each month – this is not a guess! Justification of your Revenue & Expenses Projections How did you come up with the numbers Include a page of assumptions/footnotes Be able to explain each account line in your cash flow Get a second opinion START-UP CHECK LIST Advertising Bank fees/service charges Building Equipment Furniture & Fixtures Gas/Hydro hook up fees Insurance Installation fees Inventory Land Leasehold improvements Lease payments License & Fees Office Supplies Payroll expenses Permits Personal Contributions Professional fees (legal & accounting) Repairs & Maintenance Rent Security deposits Signage Telephone Travel Training Vehicle Wages Projecting Disbursements Your disbursements are your monthly expenses. Consider the following factors when you are compiling your numbers: Include all your start-up costs Promotional Mix – will cause changes in your monthly expenses and sales. Straight line approach – Your busy or slow periods should be reflected in your increasing or decreasing costs for those periods: avoid straight line/flat line of your expenses. Most of your costs are rarely the same every month. Projecting Disbursements Anticipate problems. Ensure that your estimates are current market value figures. Fixed expenses – expenses remain the same even if your business activity changes. Eg. Rent, administrative wages, etc. Your variable expenses (those costs that are associated with your sales volume) should reflect increases and decreases in your sales. Usually, these include inventory, labour, and selling expenses. PROJECTING YOUR REVENUE Your revenue projections are probably the most critical, yet difficult, aspects of completing an accurate cash flow statement. Consider the following factors when putting your numbers together: If you have a sales history, go back and use those figures to help guide your projections. Your promotional mix activities can have a direct impact on your revenues Seasonality factors may influence the increase or decrease of revenues. Your sales strategy, regarding volume/discount selling or penetration pricing can change your revenues. Ensure that your projected growth rate is realistic for a new business entering the market place. Monitor the competition- your revenues maybe influenced by their activity. Continuously monitor current market conditions so you may react to changes in the industry. Market Research (Trends, Gaps/Needs, Product/service, Target market, competition, Promotional mix) Other factors: EXTERNAL • Seasons • Holidays • Special Events • Competition, direct • Competition, indirect • Populations changes • Consumer earnings • Family formations • Fashions or styles • Political events INTERNAL • Product changes, style, quality • Service changes, type, quality • Shortages, production • Promotional efforts • Sales motivation plans • Price changes • Shortages, inventory • Shortages/working capital • Distribution methods used • Credit policy changes • Labour problems CALCULATING YOUR REVENUES Generally, revenue projections are calculated from sourcing information from many places. Consider the following methods: q q q q Market Research Maximum Sales Industry Projections Historical Plus Projections – Monthly basis FACTORS INFLUENCING YOUR REVENUE COLLECTION q What percentage of your sales will be cash? q What percentage of your sales will be by credit? You must age your receivables to reflect when you actually get your money. q Will you take deposits on orders? Customer Credit Rating New customers must make a deposit Amount ($) of the order Customers payment history with my company Methods of Revenue Collection Cash/Interac Credit cards Deposits/Retainers Credit issued to customers CASH FLOW EXERCISE Cash in bank - $3,790 Received loan - $5,000 Computer Purchase/lease? No monthly deficit Highest REALISTIC cash balance wins!