Data DAN Teknologi Multi Media by hcj

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									Hari Soetanto
     2010       1
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• Secara teknis data adalah, fakta yang masih mentah atau suatu
    gambaran, seperti pembayaran dan pemesanan, yang diproses
    menjadi informasi, seperti saldo dan kwantitas dalam
    persediaan.

• Pada penggunaan secara umum pemakaian istilah informasi
    dan data digunakan secara bersinonim.


•   Any form of information whether in paper or electronic form. In
    electronic form, data refers to files and databases, text documents,
    images and digitally-encoded voice and video.


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•   Penyebaran informasi kedalam lebih dari satu format. Meliputi
    penggunaan teks, audio, grafik, grafik yang bergerak dan full-
    motion video. Program Multimedia seperti game, encyclopedia dan
    training courses pada CD-ROM. Setiap aplikasi dibuat dengan
    Video dan/atau suara dapat disebut suatu program multimedia.
               – (Computer Desktop Encyclopedia 1999)



•   Suatu Presentasi komputer yang Interaktif yang meliputi sedikitnya
    dua elemen berikut: teks, suara, grafik, grafik yang bergerak, dan
    animasi.
                   » (Robert S.Tannembaum, 1999)



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• Interaktif


• Integrasi 2 atau lebih media
   – Text, audio, video, image, ……



• Komputer sebagai media
   – Media media lain ( HP )

• Komunikasi dengan Manusia (human
  communication)
                                     5
• Digunakan untuk membuat presentasi multimedia
  interaktif
• Pages are linked by buttons, story boards show
  logic, flow and structure.
• Authoring programs adalah program yang
  digunakan untuk membuat presentasi interaktif
  (multi media software)

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Pembuatan Presentasi
Multimedia

Tahap-tahap
• Rencana dan Analisa

• Merancang

• Pembuatan

• Dukungan Bantuan (support)


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Rencana dan analisa

  • Tentukan Sasaran proyek secara Menyeluruh

  • Sumberdaya yang diperlukan

  • Orang atau team yang nantinya bekerja pada
    proyek tersebut




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Merancang

• Pembuatan alur cerita adalah penting untuk membangun suatu
  proyek
• Alur cerita adalah alat bantu dalam merancang yang digunakan
  untuk merekam secara keseluruhan logika, alur dan struktur dari
  multimedia
• Individual Storyboard menentukan isi, gaya dan rancangan
  masing-masing tampilan, dihubungkan ke video, audio, grafik,
  teks ataupun media lain
• --- cth—company profile

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Pembuatan


• A multi media authoring program adalah; digunakan
  untuk membuat presentasi multimedia yang interaktif,
  penggunaan element yang berbeda diterapkan pada
  alur cerita seperti graphics, sound, dan video


• Program pembuatan Multimedia; macromedia director,
  authorware and toolboox

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Dukungan Bantuan (support)


• Setelah multimedia presentasi sudah jadi lengkap. Harus sudah
  dapat digunakan

• Setiap kesalahan yang diketemukan perlu untuk dibetulkan.

• Presentasi dievaluasi ke-efektivitasan-nya agar seperti yang
  diinginkan (tujuan)

• Rencana kedepan untuk perbaikan dan revisi yang
  diperlukan, dimana terdapat saat proses pengembangan
  dimulai lagi (rekayasa perangkat lunak)

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 Graphics & Multimedia Software


Application software          Popular program
Computer_Aided Design (CAD)   •Autodesk ( autocad2000 )
                              •Microsoft (Visio )
Desktop Publishing            •Adobe (Indesign)
                              •Adobe (Pagemaker)
                              •Corel (Ventura)
Paint/ Image Editing          •Adobe illustrator
                              •Adobe Photoshop
                              •Corel coreldraw
                              •Macromedia freeHand
Multimedia Authoring          •Suntotalsystem (Toolbook Instructor)
                              •Macromedia (Director, Authorware)
WebPage Authoring             •Adobe (Golive)
                              •Macromedia (Dreamweaver, Flash,
                              fireworks)
                              •Microsoft FrontPage
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Web Authoring



• Membuat Web sites disebut juga dengan web authoring.

• Pemetaan secara grafik -- memperlihatkan rancangan site
  secara keseluruhan

• program Web authoring mendukung rancangan dan HTML
  coding

• Authoring tool adalah aplikasi software yang digunakan
  untuk membuat isi dari multimedia, umumnya untuk WWW
  (world wide web)

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Web authoring programs


• Umumnya digunakan untuk membuat site comersial yang
  bagus (sophisticated commercial site).

• Dikenal sebagai Web page editors dan HTML (hyper text
  Markup Language) editors, program ini menyediakan fasilitas

  untuk merancang web site dan HTML coding

• Contoh program web authoring adalah macromedia
  Dream weaver, Netobjects Fusion dan microsoft front page

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Suggestion Creating Web site

 • Buat Rancangan dan motif yang umum

 • Penggunaan grafik dan animasi untuk menambah
   ketertarikan

 • Buat navigasi yang mudah pada web site

 • Rancang web-site dengan tampilan yang standard




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Rancangan dan motif yang umum

• Konsisten dalam penggunaan warna, font (huruf),
  rancangan background dan fitur-fitur navigasi
  membuat web-site serasa menyatu dan buatlah
  mudah digunakan




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              Penggunaan grafik dan animasi
                    Menambah ketertarikan
• Grafik dan animasi menambah minat dan
  memfokuskan perhatian user

• Dibutuhkan waktu untuk men- download, dan
  waktu menunggu itu membuat frustasi user

• Selektif dan batasi ukuran dari grafik

• Gunakan ‘reuse graphics’ dari satu page ke page
  yang lain


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• Ciptakan suatu metoda navigasi yang sederhana yang
  memudahkan para pemakai sampai kepada informasi
  diinginkan mereka secepat mungkin

• Jangan membuat isi informasi yang diinginkan lebih dari
  tiga ‘click’ dari home page

• Contoh:



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Rancang tampilan yang standard



  • Untuk memperkecil dampak dari site kita yang diakses
    oleh banyak user, rancangan sebaiknya sesuaikan dengan
    resolusi standard tampilan dari monitor 800 x 600
    (tergantung dari perkembangan teknologi yang ada)




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Teknologi yang support multi media

•   Processing Power ( DSP , CPU)
•   Compression technology
•   Graphical User Interface
•   High Capacity Storage System
•   Networking Technology



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MULTIMEDIA PERPECTIVE




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Multimedia Perpectives

                                      Artist/
                                     Content
                                    Specialist


        Manager
                       Multimedia
                                         Network
                                         Engineer



         Computer Science/
           Programmer




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How to utilize multimedia
technology for the benefit of the
organization ?


How multi media technology can
enhance the knowledge and skill
of employee?


How can multi media technology
provide a knowledge-base for
the enterprise

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Computer Scientist/Programmer



       New Algorithm for data
       compression

       Programming the interactivity for multi
       media software


       Programming logic for multi
       media simulation

       Designing algorithm for processing
       scientific data and visualize it with
       multimedia
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Creating “Killer Contents”

Accuracy & Information Value of
message

Transferring message efficient and
effectively through different media

Art & Human Communication
(social) Perspectives
                                      27
More speed, more ….

Designing Faster, Cheaper, Smaller, Better DSP Chip and
CPU

Larger Bandwidth for the fiber optic

Faster switching

Reliable infrastructure

Bigger and Faster Storage

Hardwiring the latest compression algorithm to make it faster
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•   Education / Training / Instruction
•   Information Retrieval / Digital encyclopedia
•   Human communication
•   Scientific data / Visualitation / Simulation
•   Business / Capital market / Money Market
•   Entertainment / Games
•   Fine Arts and Humanities
•   …




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Desktop Publishing / Pre-press
• Imaging
• Lay-out
Audio Production

Desktop Video
• Video Production / Post production
• 3D animation
• Multimedia integration / Programming
Portable


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ELEMENT MULTIMEDIA




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Elemen


    • Text

    • Audio,

    • Graphics,

    • Animated graphics

    • Full-motion video

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•   Bentuk paling dasar penyampaian informasi
•   Paling sederhana
•   Disimpan tidak membutuhkan ‘space’ yang
    besar
•   Di representasikan dalam bentuk FONT


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AUDIO




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• Audio diproses didalam komputer dengan
  mengubah signal analog ke dalam suatu kode
  digital dengan menggunakan berbagai teknik

• Dihasilkan dari pergetaran

• Kategori
  – Speech
  – Music
  – Efek suara


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• Sound cards play digital audio files and usually
  support MIDI.

• File audio digital berisikan
   – ‘soundwaves’ yang telah diubah jadi format digital.
   – Tanpa kompresi, file ini memakai penyimpanan
     yang pantas dipertimbangkan. (besar ukurannya)


• Format audio dari Windows adalah wave file
  (.WAV extension).

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• Contain the data to   • Contain notation
  reconstruct the         representation
  wave                  • Require a
• E.g. WAV, MP3,          synthesizer to build
  AIFF (apple),           the sound that will
  Real..                  play the note
                        Non Wave
Wave Sound
                        (e.g. Midi)
files
                        Sound files



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•   WAV = WAVe (gelombang)
•   Tidak ter-Compress
•   Ukuran Relatif besar
•   Kualitas Suara setara audio CD
•   Standard file pada PC
•   Diciptakan oleh microsoft
•   OS selain windows juga dapat menggunakan
    file jenis ini



                                               38
• WAV files use the .WAV extension and allow
  different sound qualities to be recorded.

• Either 8-bit or 16-bit samples can be taken at
  rates of 11025 Hz, 22050 Hz and 44100 Hz.

• The highest quality (16-bit samples at 44100 Hz)
  uses 88KB of storage per second.

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• (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) A standard protocol
  for the interchange of musical information between musical
  instruments, synthesizers and computers.
• It defines the codes for a musical event, which includes the
  start of a note, its pitch, length, volume and musical
  attributes
• Set of cables, data structures & protocol for inter device
  communication for playing digital sound & music
• Midi Enable different musical instrument from different
  manufacturer & computer to communicate each other

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                            MIDI (lanj)
• Begin in late 70’s – early 80’s, many synthesizer
  keyboard product appear in the market

• Compatibility problem, unable to co-orperate each
  other

• 1983 group founded by Roland, Yamaha, KORG,
  Sequential, Oberheim & Kawai to define standard called
  MIDI

• Today, Supported by major music manufacturer and
  music company

• http://www.midi.org/


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 MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3)
• An audio compression technology that is part of the MPEG-1 and MPEG-
  2 specifications.

• Developed in Germany in 1991 by the Fraunhofer Institute, MP3
  compresses CD-quality sound by a factor of 12, while providing almost
  the same high fidelity.

• Greater compression ratios are also obtainable that provide reasonable
  sound quality.

• MP3 music files are played via software or a handheld device.

• MP3 has made it feasible to download quality audio from the Web very
  quickly, causing it to become a worldwide auditioning system for new
  musicians and labels.




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                   MP3

Dikenalkan tahun 1992


File sudah terkompresi (bisa sekitar 12 : 1) dg
cara menghilangkan bagian-bagian suara yang
tidak dapat didengar oleh telinga manusia



Ukuran relatif kecil




Kualitas suara cukup bagus



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              MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3)
• Copyrighted material is also offered for a fee, or sometimes for free,
  creating a major legal issue.

• Enthusiasts feel MP3 will revolutionize music distribution via the Web,
  since an entire audio CD (an hour of music) can be downloaded in five
  minutes.

• Major music publishers are trying to cope with this new phenomenon by
  introducing a system for copyright protection (see SDMI and Windows
  Media Rights Manager).

• There are numerous MP3 "rippers" and encoders on the market that pull
  out raw audio data from a music CD and encode it into the MP3 format.

• www.mp3.com.




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•   AA       = Audible Audio (e-books)
•   AAC      = Advanced Audio Coding
•   AIFF     = Audio Interchange File Format
•   ASF      = Advanced Streaming Format
•   MP3      = Moving Pictures Expert Group Audio Layer 3
•   WAV      = Windows Waveform
•   WMA      = Windows Media Audio
•   RA = RealAudio sound file
•   QT = QuickTime audio



                             www.fileinfo.net               46
Streaming
• Some applications on the Web using streaming audio

• Streaming is the process of transferring data in a continous and
   even flow

• Streaming allows users to access and use a file while it is
   transmitting

• For example, Streaming audio enables to listen the music as it
   downloads to computer

• Accepted standards supported by most web browsers for
   transmitting streaming audio data on the internet are MP3,
   QuickTime, Windows Media Format and RealAudio

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How Streaming Media Works
• Step 1      When you first click on a link to a media clip,
  your web browser requests the clip from a media server on
  the Internet.

• Step 2     The server returns the data to your computer in
  a continuous stream.




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How Streaming Media Works
• Step 3 Your computer launches a media player.

• Step 4 The streaming data is stored in a buffer.

• Step 5 Once enough data has been received, the clip
  begins to play.




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Real-time Streaming Vs Progressive Download

• Progressive download allows users to watch or listen to
  media as it is being downloaded from a standard web
  server (such as Apache,) to their hard drive.

• This method works best for short-form media where file size
  is limited.

• Progressive download ensures high-quality playback
  regardless of users' Internet connection speed, although users
  with slower connections will wait longer before media starts
  to play.




                                                                   50
Real-time Streaming Vs Progressive Download

• Real-time streaming using Streaming Server delivers media in real
  time over the Internet, from modem to broadband rates.

• With the open standard Real-Time Transport Protocol/Real-Time
  Streaming Protocol (RTP/RTSP), no file is ever downloaded to a
  viewer's hard drive.

• Media is played, but not stored, by the client software as it is
  delivered.

• Real-time streaming is often preferable to progressive download for
  webcasts of live events, delivery of long-form video, and 24/7 Internet
  radio and TV channels.




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Popular Plug-in application
• QuickTime
   – View animation, music, audio, video, and VR panoramas an objects directly
     in the Web page
   – www.apple.com

• RealOne Player
   – Listen to live and on-demand near CD-quality audio and newscast-quality
     video; stream audio and video content for faster viewing; play MP3 files;
     Create music CDs
   – www.real.com

• Windows Media Player
   – Listen to live and on-demand audio; play or edit WMA and MP3 Files; Burn
     CDs; Watch DVD movies
   – www.microsoft.com




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• Vector Graphics and Bitmapped Graphics

• Two methods are used for storing and maintaining pictures in
  a computer.

• The first method, called vector graphics, maintains the image
  as a series of points, lines, arcs and other geometric shapes.

• The second method, called bitmapped graphics and also
  known as raster graphics, resembles television, where the
  picture image is made up of dots. Understanding these two
  methods and how they intertwine is essential.


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Graphics ( vector)
  Representasi spatial dari obyek

  Disusun dari bangun-bangun grafis seperti garis, persegi
  panjang, bulat, dsb yang ditempatkan secara matematis
  dengan koordinat, ukuran, ketebalan sisi dan pola pengisian
  pada bidang

  Dibuat dengan menggunakan ‘draw’ (misal: Coreldraw,
  Adobe Illustrator)

  Gambar-gambar yang bukan foto-realistik

  Ukuran relatif kecil

  Resolution independent

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Graphics ( raster)

 •   Representasi dari obyek
 •   Disusun secara matriks nilai numerik yang
     merepresentasikan setiap titik /pixel
 •   Dibuat dengan menggunakan paint/image editing
     (Misal :Photoshop, Corel Photopaint)
 •    Foto
 •   Gambar-gambar yang rumit yang membutuhkan
     rincian halus
 •   Ukuran relatif lebih besar (dibandingkan dengan
     vektor)



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• 2 D graphics
  – Bitmap (raster) based graph
  – Vector based graphics
  – Metafile (contain both)

• Metafile
  – A file that contains other files.
  – It generally refers to graphics files that can hold vector
    drawings and bitmaps.
  – For example, a Windows Metafile (WMF) can store
    pictures in vector graphics and bitmap formats as well
    as text.
  – A Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) also stores both
    types of graphics.


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• What is 3D computer graphics?

  – Computer based system to construct image from object
    based on vector

  – The object, also called wire frame, “wrapped” with
    digital texture and rendered to create photo realistic
    images

  – This images usually called CGI – computer Generated
    Images




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• Application of 3D computer Graphics


  –   Illustration & graphic art
  –   Broadcast & film
  –   Games
  –   Simulation & Visualization
  –   CAD/CAM – Engineering
  –   Architecture & Virtual Reality
  –   Presentation Graphics




                                        59
               Summary of graphics program
                  Type                  Purpose
Analytical graphics       Analyze and graph data
Presentation Graphics     Created professional-looking
                          presentation
Desktop publishing        Mix text and graphics to create
                          professional-looking publications


Image editor              Created and modify bitmap image


Illustration Programs     Create and edit vector images


Graphics Suites           Combine separate graphics programs


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•   Moving diagrams or cartoons that are made up of a
    sequence of images displayed one after the other.

•   Animation files take up much less disk space than a
    true video sequence.

•   Kumpulan dari gambar-gambar

•   Gabungan dari frame-frame gambar secara cepat
    untuk menghasilkan suatu gerakan




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                                                      BMP file
• (BitMaP file) Also known as a "bump" file, it is a Windows
  and OS/2 bitmapped graphics file format.

• It is the Windows native bitmap format, and every
  Windows application has access to the BMP software
  routines in Windows that support it.

• BMP files provide formats for 2, 16, 256 or 16 million colors
  (1-bit, 4-bit, 8-bit and 24-bit color). BMP files use the .BMP
  or .DIB extensions (DIB stands for Device-Independent
  Bitmap).




                                                                   62
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
• Pronounced "jay-peg."
• An ISO/ITU standard for compressing still images that is
  becoming very popular due to its high compression capability.

• Using discrete cosine transform, it provides lossy compression
  (you lose some data from the original image) with ratios up to
  100:1 and higher.

• It depends on the image, but ratios of 10:1 to 20:1 may provide
  little noticeable loss. The more the loss can be tolerated, the
  more the image can be compressed. Compression is achieved by
  dividing the picture into tiny pixel blocks, which are halved over
  and over until the ratio is achieved.

• JPEG uses the JPEG File Interchange Format, or JFIF. File
  extensions are .JPG or .JFF. M-JPEG and MPEG are variations of
  JPEG used for full-motion digital video.

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Graphics Format Used on the
Web

 •   BMP    = Bit Map
 •   GIF    = Graphics Interchange Format
 •   JPEG   = Joint Photographic Experts Group
 •   PNG    = Portable Network Graphics
 •   TIFF   = Tagged Image File Format




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