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India Study Tour Report 2009 _final_00003

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India Study Tour Report 2009 _final_00003 Powered By Docstoc
					     Student Experience and Widening Participation


     Contact hours                                      Open and Distance                                      further assistance. There is no admission
                                                                                                               test for the Mumbai distance learning                                                                                                                                     two
                                                        education                                                                                                                                                                                    Mumbai University (MU) has
                                                                                                               programmes, just a minimum high school                                                                                                                          sub-centre at
     The amount of contact time can be                                                                                                                                                                                                               campuses in Mumbai, a
                                                                                                               mark and only nominal fees are charged                                                                                                                                        637
     intense. For example at the IIM Bangalore          We saw an impressive example of open                                                                                                                                                         Ratnagiri (325km to the south) and
                                                                                                               to students.
     students have classes Monday to Saturday           and distance learning at Mumbai                                                                                                                                                              affiliated colleges, and through this network is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the state.
     for at least 6 hours a day. Attendance is          University where they recruit a large and                                                                                                                                                    able to reach out to most parts of
                                                                                                               Further examples of open and distance                                                                                                                                         ation to
     monitored closely, with students being             growing number of students, with 75,000                                                                                                                                                      As a State University it has an oblig
                                                                                                               learning include the Centre for Distance                                                                                                                                     consistent
     allocated a specific seat in each class and        students registered in 2009, up from                                                                                                                                                          provide high volume, low cost and
                                                                                                               Engineering Programme (C-DEEP) at the                                                                                                                                      area,
     no students being admitted to the class            69,000 in 2008, studying at 60 centres                                                                                                                                                        quality over a wide geographical
                                                                                                               IIT Bombay and the Directorate of Open                                                                                                                                It has an
     once the session has begun. We observed            across the state of Maharashtra. The                                                                                                                                                          reaching all parts of society.
                                                                                                               and Distance Learning at the Tamil Nadu                                                                                                                                        a further
     the familiar mixture of large lecture classes      programmes are seen as a way of                                                                                                                                                               astonishing 650,000 students, with
     and smaller practical and seminar sessions.                                                               Agricultural University (TNAU). Some                                                                                                                         distance learning. The
                                                        reaching rural areas. The curricula for                                                                                                                                                       75,000 studying via
                                                                                                               institutions have also developed blended                                                                                                                                   entrance
                                                        these programmes are exactly the same                                                                                                                                                         central hub in Mumbai oversees
                                                                                                               learning, for example at TNAU where in
     Government-funded universities and                 for students in attendance at the                                                                                                                                                              criteria and prescribes all curricula to ensure
     colleges have to operate with compulsory                                                                  addition to lectures and hard copy
                                                        University; however, the amount of                                                                                                                                                             consistency.
     quotas which determine class sizes –                                                                      materials all students are expected to
                                                        contact time required is higher than                   have a laptop so that they can access an                                                                                                                                     tance
     for HR College, which is a teaching                expected from a UK perspective especially                                                                                                                                                        The University has a special assis
                                                                                                               open source website with over 800 hours                                                                                                                              ents to help with
     institution affiliated to the University of        at the beginning of the programme when,                                                                                                                                                          scheme for Chemistry stud
                                                                                                               of streamed lectures. Amrita University
     Pune, this means classes of 125. A typical         for the first three months, students attend                                                                                                                                                      the purchase of equipment.
                                                                                                               delivers a distance learning programme                                                                                    mbai
     teaching load in a teaching-only college is                                                                                                                                                                          Juhu beach, Mu
                                                        lectures as part of what is called the                 online across its campuses using its
     17 hours per week.                                 Personal Contact Programme. After this                 EduSat system.
                                                        time students have access to an academic
                                                        counselling service if they require any                                                                                                           At the HR College of Commerce and
                                                                                                                                                            Curriculum development                                                                          Student representation
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Economics examples of assessment
                                                                                                                                                            The curricula for affiliated colleges such    include group presentations as well as            Each of the institutions collects students’
                                                                                                                                                            as the HR College of Commerce and             essays, written exams and a research              feedback in one form or another and has
                                                                                                                                                            Economics and Ferguson College are set        element in the final year, thus following         student representative bodies, such as a
                                                                                                                                                            by the main university (in these cases the    the UK trend for a range of assessment.           student council and student elections. IIM
                                                                                                                                                            Universities of Mumbai and Pune               The external examiner system is modelled          Bangalore has a student website to which
                                                                                                                                                            respectively). However, both colleges were    on the UK and work is assessed by                 issues or problems of any kind can be
                                                                                                                                                            seeking autonomy at the time of our visit,    internal markers with an external                 posted, then fed into the main institution
                                                                                                                                                            to enable them to propose and develop         examiner appointed to review a selection          website making senior management
                                                                                                                                                            their own degree programmes.                  of work. Assessment at federal universities       aware of any problems. At the University
                                                                                                                                                                                                          is managed centrally and marking and              of Mumbai a Student Council, chaired by
                                                                                                                                                            At the University of Mumbai each Faculty      handling the volume of scripts presents           the Chancellor and organised by the
                                                                                                                                                            has a Board of Studies which oversees         a huge logistical task.                           Department of Student Welfare, has
                                                                                                                                                            curriculum development. As well as                                                              around 15 members from different castes,
                                                                                                                                                            academic staff this Board has at least two    At all the institutions we visited                tribes and groups plus class and college
                                                                                                                                                            members from industry to ensure the           expectations with regards to referencing          representatives. The Student Council has
                                                                                                                                                            curriculum is relevant. At the Tamil Nadu     are similar to the UK. Additionally, in           a General Secretary who sits on several
                                                                                                                                                            Agricultural University the syllabus is       common with the UK plagiarism is                  boards and committees, including Senate,
                                                                                                                                                            revised every 4 years to ensure it keeps      considered an assessment offence and              to represent the views of students. Care is
                                                                                                                                                            up with developments in industry.             institutions use plagiarism detection             needed to avoid academic issues being
                                                                                                                                                                                                          software such as Turnitin or an equivalent.       influenced by political affiliations – this is
                                                                                                                                                            Assessment and Quality                                                                          particularly important in State Universities
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Learning resources                                where the boundary with state politics can
                                                                                                                                                            Assurance                                                                                       be rather slim.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          The institutions we visited all have library
                                                                                                                                                            At the sector level oversight of quality      facilities and provide access to some form        Teaching staff are required to take a
                                                                                                                                                            of provision and of quality assurance         of electronic resources. The best example         refresher course every 10-15 years in
                                                                                                                                                            procedures is maintained by the National      of online access we saw was the Indian            order to maintain their skills as a lecturer
                                                                                                                                                            Assessment and Accreditation Council          National Digital Library for Engineering          and to qualify for pay increments. The
                                                                                                                                                            (NAAC). Affiliate Colleges such as the        Sciences and Technology, whereby access           course is completed in the lecturers’ own
                                                                                                                                                            HR College of Commerce and Economics          to a range of electronic journals for a           time and lasts about 15-20 days, at the
                                                                                                                                                            are inspected every five years. These         number of institutions such as the IITs           end of which they are assessed primarily
                                                                                                                                                            inspections involve member of the NAAC        and IIMs is paid for centrally by the             through a 100 page research project and
                                                                                                                                                            spending 3-4 days at the college,             Ministry for Human Resources.                     not peer observation.
                                                                                                                                                            meeting staff, students, visiting any class
                                                                                                                                                            they choose and conducting a general
                                                                                                                                                            audit of record keeping to verify student
                                                                                                                                                            numbers etc.
                                                   Students Fergusson College, Pune
                                                                                    where there was considerable intere
                                                                                                                       st in student and faculty exchange
12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           13
         Student Experience and Widening Participation


         Accommodation                                    Student activities                              Student placements                               At the end of the programme, the group
                                                                                                                                                           (6-8 students per placement) must present
         At most of the institutions we visited           With so many students staying on                As you might expect, an institution such as      their findings and include practical solutions
         a large proportion of students were              campus, hostel based extra-curricular           the IIM Bangalore has a employment               to the problems that they encountered. MU
         accommodated on site. For example at             activities are seen as important. The range     placement rate of 100%, with students            has a placement centre in each faculty,
         Amrita University up to 80% of students          of facilities and the extent to which the       placed with a company before they even           with close involvement of employers.
         stay on campus whilst at IIT Bombay              activities were organised by the institution    graduate in a week-long event held at the
         nearly all students live on campus. One          varied, but students at each of the             institution. However, it is striking that a      Graduate employability
         striking aspect of the Indian system is that     universities had the opportunity to take        private ‘deemed university’ such as Amrita
         a high proportion of teaching staff also         part in sporting and social activities. There   also takes the placement of its students         All the institutions we visited take the
         have accommodation on site and it is not         are also several examples of subject            very seriously. Preparing students for the       employability of their students seriously,
         something just for the Vice-Chancellor.          specific events such as the Tech Fest at        work place is integrated into the degree         and in general universities seem to take
         The student accommodation is ordinarily          the IIT Bombay where students manage            programmes with students taking around           greater responsibility for the placement
         referred to                                      and contribute to an exhibition-cum-            250 hours of soft skills training during their   of students after they graduate than is
         as hostels and each of these hostels tends       competition exploring the impact of             2nd, 3rd and 4th years of study. The training    usual in the UK.
         to have a students’ representative of some       technology on society.                          programme covers topics such as group
         description to ensure the any issues are                                                         work, interview skills, corporate etiquette      The issue of the standard of graduates,
         reported. The standard of on campus              We did not see a single student bar during      and verbal and written communication             particularly in subjects such as
         accommodation we saw was basic in                our tour and it was very striking that on-      skills. Amrita has a Centre for Corporate        engineering, was raised in the media when
         comparison to what you might find at             campus social life does not involve the         Relations, a team of people with the             we visited. Newspapers were reporting a
         a western university.                            sort of late night party culture we are         specific remit of maintaining links with over    study by the trade body of India’s IT
                                                          used to and, in some cases, actively            200 companies to ensure that graduates           industry (NASSCOM) which observed that
                                                          promote, in the UK.                             are able to find work more easily.               engineering graduates were unfit for jobs.
                                                                                                                                                           We visited one of India’s most successful
                                                                                                          Work experience                                  companies, Infosys, where it was remarked
                                                                                                                                                           that whilst Indian software engineering
                                                                                                          Institutions have built work experience          graduates have a general perspective on
                                                                                                          schemes into the curriculum to aid               the subject, a graduate from say the US
                                                                                                          employability. A good example was the            will tend to have more in-depth
                                                                                                          Rural Agricultural Work Experience               knowledge. Infosys develops the skills of
                                                                                                          Programme (RAWEP) at the Tamil Nadu              its recruits through its own training
                                                                                                          Agricultural University. This programme          programme and has a Foundation
                                                                                                          forms part of a BTech degree and involves        Programme for soft skills and intense
                                                                                                          a full semester of work experience               subject-specific training in order to bring
                                                                                                          whereby students as part of a group are          graduates up to the standard needed for
                                                                                                          directly involved in practical projects in       the workplace. Overall, both India and the
                                                                                                          rural areas.                                     UK are aware that far more needs to be                               The impressive Inf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  osys "campus" at
                                                                                                                                                           done to develop communication skills in                                                                 Electronic City, Ba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ngalore
                                                                                                                                                           graduates and that, for certain professions,
                                                                                                                                                           universities are not equipping students
                                                                                                                                                           with sufficient practical knowledge.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Inside Infy
                                                                                                                                                           Further study
                                                                                                                                                                                                            We were fortunate to visit Infosys, the only Indian company
                                                                                                                                                           Many students from India find studying in        listed on the US stock exchange and a beacon for India’s
                                                                                                                                                           the UK too expensive, both the tuition fees      rapid economic rise. Infosys has an impressive university
                                                                                                                                                           and the living costs. From our visit, it         liaison programme called Campus Connect, which provides
                                                                                                                                                           appeared that for postgraduate study             courseware, problem-solving, exposure to software testing
                                                                                                                                                           students often preferred to go to the US,        and webinars, reaching 40,000 students and staff. The
                                                                                                                                                           even though this can be more expensive           company has representation on educational bodies, works
                         es at IIMB
            outdoor spac                                                                                                                                   than the UK, especially when the longer
Well tended                                                                                                                                                                                                 with technical universities and funds research at IITs. It hires
                                                                                                                                                           course duration is taken into account.
                                                                                                                                                           The availability of scholarships and tutor
                                                                                                                                                                                                            20,000 students per year, mostly straight from placement.
                                                                                                                                                           recommendation play a key role. MBA
                                                                                                                                                           programmes are very popular as a route to        Infy staff voluntarily give up their Saturdays to run Spark, an
                                                                                                                                                           well-paid employment, with most students         aspiration-raising programme which gives school children
                                                                                                                                                           working for a few years after graduation         experience of a day at Infosys and helps to set their sights on
                                                                                                                                                           before further study.                            education as a route to a role in a world-class company.



                                                   Typical student res
                                                                      idences
14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                                                                                  Influences and Drivers                        for campuses established by overseas        efficiently and serve national goals is one

     Governance and Management                                                                                                                    The Changing Policy Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                providers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Observing that higher education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            transparent and rational regulatory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            system. The need to relax India’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            regulatory environment and to give
                                                                                                                                                  India operates a planned economy which
                                                                                                                                                                                                worldwide was in a state of flux, the       universities more freedom from central

     of Indian HEIs                                                                                                                               is now in its 11th Plan (each has a five
                                                                                                                                                  year duration). The Government outlines
                                                                                                                                                  its priorities for HE to 2012 within this
                                                                                                                                                                                                Indian Minister for Human Resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                Development, Kapil Sibal, has said “most
                                                                                                                                                                                                of our (Indian) universities need vital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and state government was strongly felt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            among the institutions we visited.
                                                                                                                                                  overarching framework, including skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                changes in teaching and in contributing     At present, there are numerous regulatory
                                                                                                                                                  development and training, innovation and
                                                                                                                                                                                                to local, regional and global economies….   agencies and professional councils
                                                                                                                                                  technology, environment and climate
                                                                                                                                                                                                We must ensure that the universities have   overseeing HE, including the University
                                                                                                                                                  change. It has a national target to
                                                                                                                                                                                                the independence to teach what they wish    Grants Commission (UGC) and the All-
                                                                                                                                                  increase the percentage of the population
                                                                                                                                                                                                to and not be controlled by government.”    India Council for Technical Education
                                                                                                                                                  going into HE from 10% to 30% and
                                                                                                                                                                                                He added that 1 lakh (100,000) students     (AICTE). The recent Yashpal reportii
                                                                                                                                                  identifies Rs 4,800 crore ($1.2bn) for 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                from India go to the USA every year for     recommended one overarching regulatory
                                                                                                                                                  new HEIs (1 crore = 10 million). This
                                                                                                                                                                                                further studies and such a bill would be    body subsuming all other bodies:
                                                                                                                                                  target underpins the Government’s new
                                                                                                                                                                                                a “win-win situation for us”.               a National Commission for HE and
                                                                                                                                                  drive to encourage more foreign providers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research as an advisory body responsible
                                                                                                                                                  to India. A new education bill is in
                                                                                                                                                                                                The Indian HE sector is huge and diverse,   for continuous reforms in HE. The new
                                                                                                                                                  passage which seeks to relax the
                                                                                                                                                                                                consisting of different types of HEI,       advisory body would be ‘insulated from
                                                                                                                                                  regulatory constraints on Indian
                                                                                                                                                                                                including state-run, private and those      political and other external interferences
                                                                                                                                                  universities, open up the sector to
                                                                                                                                                                                                established through public-private          [by] the government of the day’ and
                                                                                                                                                  overseas providers and establish 14 new
                                                                                                                                                                                                partnerships. It has been argued that       would report to the Indian Parliament.
                                                                                                                                                  world-class universitiesi. This may include
                                                                                                                                                                                                what is needed to make all of them work
                                                                                                                                                  the granting of deemed university status




                                             is one of India's oldest
                       Mumbai University. MU
Gothic architecture at                                     tnerships
                                research and teaching par
         and has well developed




                                                                        Centralised exam
                                                                                         setting and marki                                                                                                                                                           Mountain scenery, Tamil Nadu
                                                                                                          ng creates a huge
                                                                                                                            administrative loa
                                                                                                                                              d
16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17

				
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