# Critique Ways in Which Data is Presented by pptfiles

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 19

• pg 1
```									Main Resource: Statistics Canada
Website
 You  have probably heard of the term the
information age. It describes how modern
society depends on information as a
resource. People rely on information to make
decisions and recommendations in many
fields, including politics, economics,
environment and entertainment.
 Without reliable information, people can
make poor decisions that sometimes result in
serious consequences.
 Since the media plays an immense part in our
daily life and they are continually giving us
information (data).
 Data analysis is often used in advertising,
forecasting, and public policy. The media is full
of representations of data (i.e. Graphs or tables)
to support statistical claims.
 We need to be critical to:
 Know what is relevant
 Know what is important
 Know what is true
 Know what is biased
 Identify misinformation
 Etc.
A   graph is a visual representation of a
relationship between, but not restricted to,
two variables.
 Graphs are effective visual tools because
they present information quickly and easily.
It is not surprising then, that graphs are
commonly used by print and electronic
media.
 Circle graphs
 Line graphs
 Bar graphs
 Double bar graphs
 Pictographs
A circle graph displays data as a percentage
of the whole. Each pie section should have a
label and percentage. A total data number
should be included.
A line graph plots continuous data as points
and then joins them with a line. Multiple
data sets can be graphed together, but a key
must be used.
A bar graph displays discrete data in separate
columns. A double bar graph can be used to
compare two data sets. Categories are
considered unordered and can be rearranged
alphabetically, by size, etc.
A pictograph uses an icon to represent a
quantity of data values in order to decrease
the size of the graph. A key must be used to
explain the icon.
 Misinterpretation  is a common problem when
using statistical information. It may be
caused by a number of factors.
   Misunderstanding the data
   Using incomparable definitions
   Deliberately misinterpreting the information
 In groups of 2 or 3, come get a worksheet
 You will need to prepare a short presentation
to present to the class.
   Visually appealing
   Shows percent of total for each category
   No exact numerical data
   Hard to compare 2 data sets
   "Other" category can be a problem
   Total unknown unless specified
   Best for 3 to 7 categories
   Use only with discrete data
   Can compare multiple continuous data sets easily
   Interim data can be inferred from graph line
   Use only with continuous data
   Visually strong
   Can easily compare two or three data sets
   Graph categories can be reordered to emphasize
certain effects
   Use only with discrete data
   Visually appealing
   Handles large data sets easily using keyed icons
   Hard to quantify partial icons
   Icons must be of consistent size
   Best for only 2-6 categories
   Very simplistic
Look at the effect of not starting
the y-axis of 0.

It is important to start graphs at
0.
Look at this pictograph. It looks like there are more horses. It is
important that all the pictures are the same size.
Why does Graph A look different than Graph B? Both the
graphs represent the same data.
The graphs look different due to the
different vertical scales. Graph A appears
to show a more rapid decrease in sales
than graph B.

```
To top