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					                               CHAPTER ONE

      Introduction
1.1   Background to the Study
      Democracy is described variously as the rule of the people, for and by
the people. It refers to a regime where the rule of law enacted by the people
prevails; where none is above the law (Swant, 2000:24) however highly
placed individuals may be. Democracy is a government by debate and
discussion of the people as against rule by arbitrary will or dictate of an
individual or few individuals. A common denominator here is that the people
constitute the foundation of the democratic space; in other words,
democracy has to run according to the wishes, directions and decisions of
the people.
      The three essential requisites of democracy are: a well-informed
citizenry, freedom to participation in the decision-making process and
accountability to the citizens by those who on their behalf exercise power.
Any governing and governed environment that encourages and enables the
above can be described as the ‘sustenance of democracy’.
      Nigeria has had a chequered political history and has undergone a
number of democratic dispensations. This is because previous democratic
governments have not been allowed to serve their full term and have
therefore been ousted through sometimes very bloody coup d’états and in
their place military dictatorial governments took up the administration of
the state.


1.2   Statement of the Problem
              The researcher will like this research to tackle the following
      problems;
                                      1
      Reasons why mass media is important in the sustenance of
       democracy.
      The major functions of the mass media during the regime of Olusegun
       Obasanjo.
      The ways which mass media has to affect the sustenance of
       democracy.
      How the media have been able to maintain the sustenance of
       democracy.

1.3    Objectives of the Study
       Nwaorgu (1991) says objective of the study contain major things the
researcher intends to do towards providing solution to the problem identified
in the statement of the problem. The objectives of this study are as follows:
    To find out the essential roles of mass media during the democratic
       government of President Olusegun Obasanjo’s regime.
    To find out and highlight the major functions of mass media during
       democracy.
    To find out the merits and demerits of the ways of operation of the mass
       media during democracy.
    The ways which the media have been able to maintain the sustenance of of
       democracy.

1.4    Research Questions
       Nwaorgu (1991), research questions are these questions posed by the
researcher, seeking answers to which would lead to the solution of the
problem. Research questions have to provide focus and direct attention to
the major issues in the study.
   1. What are the essential roles of mass media during the democratic
       government of President Olusegun Obasanjo’s regime?

                                       2
   2. What are the major functions of mass media during democracy?
   3. What are the merits and demerits of the ways of operation of the mass
      media during democracy?
   4. Is mass media able to maintain the sustenance of democracy?

1.5   Significance of the Study
      Chukwuemeka (2002), contributed that the significance of the study
contains the benefits or values of the study contains the benefits, or values
of the various groups that would come into contact with it.
      This research will allow the majority to know the various roles of mass
media in the sustenance of democracy. How higher the rates of the
consequences.
      Students, the media, researchers, scholars, audience, government and
the general public stand to benefit a lot from these findings of this study.


1.6   Scope of the Study
      Nwaorgu (1991) said that the scope of study refers to all those aspects
of the study the researcher deliberately eliminated off the study due to
certain reasons. It has to do with the content areas of the study, not the
geographical areas coverage. This researcher sets out to know the roles of
the mass media in the sustenance of democracy using President Olusegun
Obasanjo’s regime of government as a case study. This researcher also
choose this scope in order to allow the researcher do an in depth research in
an aspect of the various roles of the mass media which is the sustenance of
democracy.




                                       3
1.7   Definition of Terms

IMPACT: Measure of the tangible and intangible effects (consequences) of
one thing's or entity's action or influence upon another.
SUSTENANCE: The maintaining of someone or something in life or
existence: "the sustenance of democracy".
MASS MEDIA: A means of public communication reaching a large audience.
DEMOCRACY: A system of government by the whole population or all the
eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
REGIME: A form of government




                                       4
                              CHAPTER TWO

2.0   Review of Literature

2.1   Definitions of Mass Media

      According to Wikipedia; A medium is a ‘channel of communication’ - a

means through which people send and receive information. The printed

word, for example, is a medium; when we read a newspaper or magazine,

something is communicated to us in some way. Similarly, electronic forms of

communication - television, telephones, film and such like - are media (the

plural of medium). Mass, as you probably realize, means ‘many’ and what

we are interested in here is how and why different forms of media are used

to transmit to – and be received by – large numbers of people (the audience).

      Mc Graw (Hill 2009) also stated that Mass Media, therefore, refer to

channels of communication that involve transmitting information in some

way, shape or form to large numbers of people (although the question of

exactly how many a “large number” has to be to qualify as a “mass” is

something that’s generally left undefined - it’s one of those things that we

know when we see it.

      According to Dutton et al (2010) he defined mass media as; the

various means by which information reaches large numbers of people, such

as television, radio, movies, newspapers, and the Internet. Sociologists study



                                      5
mass media especially to see how it shapes people's values, beliefs,

perceptions, and behavior. For example, mass media contributes to

socialization, including gender socialization, as when movies implicitly teach

young people that it is wrong for females to have many sexual partners.

Mass media also affects social movements; for example, news coverage of the

U.S.-Vietnam War helped spark the 1960s anti-war movement. Another

topic is the relation between media and social power. For example, if mass

media powerfully influences beliefs and behavior, and it is controlled by

relatively few individuals, those individuals have significant power even in

democratic societies.

      In general, "media" refers to various means of communication. For

example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media.

The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news

reporting agencies. In the computer world, "media" is also used as a

collective noun, but refers to different types of data storage options.

Different Types of Media are –

Advertising Media: various media, content, buying and placement for

advertising.

Electronic     Media:   communications       delivered    via   electronic   or

electromechanical energy.



                                       6
Digital Media: electronic media used to store, transmit, and receive digitized

information.

Electronic     Business    Media:     digital   media       for   electronic   business

Hypermedia, media with hyperlinks.

Multimedia: communications that incorporate multiple forms of information

content and processing.

Print media: communications delivered via paper or canvas.

Published media: any media made available to the public.

Mass media: all means of mass communication.

Broadcast      media:     communications        delivered     over   mass      electronic

communication networks.

News    media:      mass      media     focused      on       communicating        news.

New media: media that can only be created or used with the aid of modern

computer processing power.

Recording media: devices used to store information

Social media: media disseminated through social interaction

FUNCTIONS OF THE MASS MEDIA

Advocacy: both for business and social concerns. This can include

advertising, marketing, propaganda, public relations, and political

communication.



                                           7
Entertainment: traditionally through performances of acting, music, sports,

and TV shows along with light reading; since the late 20th century also

through video and computer games.

Public service announcements and emergency alerts (that can be used as

political device to communicate propaganda to the public).

2.1   What Does the Press Encompasses?

      It became clear, early in the Dialogue, that the label “the Press” was

too restrictive. It was therefore replaced with the broader label “mass

media”. An operational definition of the mass media was attempted which

yielded the following as actual organs that would fall under the label:

newspaper; journals/magazines; radio; television; music; drama; town crier;

news agencies. Based on this outline, and on further discussion, a

constitutive definition of mass media emerged as follows: “The Mass media

refers to any agency, modern or traditional, that operates for the articulation

and dissemination of ideas and information, generally with intent to

influence or control an audience or the institutions that constitute legalized

power and authority”. The Dialogue believes that the media’s contribution is

paramount with regard to the following essential elements of democracy

identified by the preceding Dialogue on the Democratic Process in Multi-

nationality (Dialogue 14):



                                      8
1. Free choice – ensuring that the proper atmosphere exists for fostering

free choice of societal leaders through elections and the expression of

individual’s ideas and beliefs.

2. Respect for the rule of law and for equality before the law in practice.

3. Defence of human rights under the law.

4.    Sustaining political communication to promote trust and confidence

amongst the rulers and the ruled.

2.2    The Evolution of the Mass Media in Nigeria

       The Dialogue noted that efforts to disseminate ideas and information

to exert influence in the African context were probably as old as formal

society. In the old Yoruba Kingdoms, for example, rulers, on many occasions

had been overthrown by the collective actions of the people mobilized by

drummers and town criers. Also, in the northern parts of the country,

Arabic writing had existed long before the British colonialists came.

However, the first recorded effort to formally use the mass media to

influence society in the enclave that later metamorphosed into Nigeria was

by Rev. Henry Townsend in 1859 when he began the publication of the Iwe

Irohin, the first newspaper in the country.




                                      9
2.3   The Print Media

      The Dialogue noted other landmarks and highlights of the evolution of

newspaper publications in Nigeria:

a. The Iwe Irohin was published by missionaries who had at least two

objectives namely, to influence the traditional government they found in

Egbaland whose mode of operation did not conform to their idea of “good”

governance; and to further educate their Nigerian converts who had been

taught to read and write as a means of promoting the assimilation of

religions information.

b. With the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorate in

1914, colonial governance of Nigeria was affected from Sierra-Leone. Anti-

colonial crusading Sierra Leoneans, such as Richard Blaise, came into the

country with their own notions of how to use the newspaper to mobilize the

population against colonial rule. Because these men were returnees or off

spring of men who had been freed from slavery and were now returning to

their erstwhile homeland, their mode of journalism was generally adversarial

against the Crown. This was the beginning of the ADVERSARIAL,

NATIONALIST press in Nigeria.

c. Herbert Macaulay started the first true Nigerian popular newspaper. His

Daily News articulated clear Nigerian positions on many issues and was



                                     10
read by the literate minority of the elite in Lagos and its environs. Macaulay,

of course, was from the beginning a committed politician. His paper

naturally became a major weapon in the nationalist struggle. Nonetheless, it

should be mentioned here that, although the Daily Times, founded in 1926,

was also active during this period, it did not operate as a crusading

newspaper and therefore could not be classified as a Nigerian newspaper in

the true sense of the word.

d. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe must be credited with starting the first popular

indigenous Nigerian newspapers with readership of a national scope. Fresh

from his training in the United States, Zik, as he came to be popularly

known, founded from the 1930s onward a chain of newspapers that helped

to cover a wide segment of the country. The “West African Pilot, founded in

1937, was the first mass circulation newspaper devoted to promoting

serious broad-based anti-colonial mobilization in the country. It was later to

serve as the mouthpiece of the National Council for Nigeria and the

Cameroons (NCNC), a national political party that Zik led for over two

decades.

e. The nationalist struggle gathered further impetus with the return of

Nigerian soldiers who had served in the Second World War. They had seen

the defects in the operation of Western democracy in the colonies but were



                                      11
galvanized for action by the Freedom Charter launched during the war.

Many of these demobilized soldiers, who came back with a determination to

release their own people from colonial bondage, found, in the West African

Pilot, a valuable medium for airing their dissenting views.

f. The convenient marriage of press and politics under Zik and his fellow

nationalist fighters broke down in 1951. With the division of Nigeria into

regions in that year and the consequent outmaneuvering of Zik and the

NCNC in the Western Region, the seed was sown for the sectional (in

contrast to the national) use of the Press in Nigeria. The Nigerian Tribune

was founded in Ibadan in 1949 to champion the cause of the Egbe Omo

Oduduwa and later the Action Group, and the welfaristic doctrine of its

leader, Chief Obafemi Awolowo. The Gaskiya Ta fi Kwabo had been set up in

Zaria in the 1930s by the Colonial Development Corporation as a

“vernacular” newspaper to serve the needs of the Hausa- speaking groups in

Northern Nigeria. The “Nigerian Citizen” came in the 1940s while the New

Nigerian emerged in Kaduna in 1966 as a newspaper owned by the Northern

Nigerian government with a clear mandate to promote “northern” interests.

Zik’s West Africa Pilot itself shed its national toga and fully embraced the

promotion of “Eastern” Nigerian interests even as Zik himself emerged in the

1950’s primarily as the Premier of the Eastern Region under an NCNC



                                      12
government. The divisive cry of “To Thy Tents, Oh, Israel”, sounded in 1951,

has essentially remained with the Nigerian Press till today. Ownership

became a crucial factor in determining the nationalist orientation of

newspapers.

g. The civil war briefly re-united the press in a “nationalist mobilization” of a

sort, but introduced some other disturbing dimensions, notably the

perception and use of the media as a propaganda instrument. The

government became more conscious of the need to mobilize the masses and

carry them with it in the war effort. Understandably, with the success of this

propaganda drive, especially in Biafra, successive governments had

continued to view and to attempt to use the media for propaganda to

support government NO MATTER WHAT. The media, on its part, at least the

print media, continued to exercise its “watchdog” function over the

government. This has formed the basis of the perennial conflict in MEDIA-

GOVERNMENT RELATIONS.

h. The coming of private newspaper with no clear political leanings, starting

with the founding of The Punch in the early 70’s, helped somewhat to

moderate the destabilizing impact of the adversarial role of those

newspapers either affiliated to political parties or owned by government.




                                       13
i. With the 1980’s came other kinds of print media: the newsmagazines, and

the soft-sell magazines, referred to by some as the “junk” press. Each of

these kinds of media had different implications for the evolution of the mass

media in Nigeria. The news magazines (such as Afriscope, Newbreed, and

Newswatch) reflected the growing sophistication of the Nigerian readership.

They were more analytical than reportorial, relying on research to promote

investigative journalism. Specialized magazines filled specific readership

demand vacuum for information of a particular type e.g. financial, health,

and politics and so on. Finally, the soft-sell, general entertainment media,

even while they may be chastised for some of their excesses, were also

satisfying some exigent social need. An interesting aspect of the operations

of the soft-sell magazines noted by the Dialogue was their “irreverence” to

authority-figures. Just about anyone is fair game to these magazines. The

Dialogue suggested that in exercising their boldness, these and similar

general interest magazines should show more respect for facts and for the

fairness in the slant they give to their reporting.



2.4   The Electronic Media

      The Dialogue noted that the evolution of the electronic media took off

on an entirely different direction. From the late 40’s when Redifussion



                                       14
Services were first introduced into Lagos, radio, and later television, were

under the sole ownership and control of government. It was clear that

Government, colonial or post-colonial, saw the electronic media essentially

as a propaganda (and entertainment) instrument that had to be closely

monitored and controlled. From a propaganda standpoint, the electronic

media, with their immediacy of impact, their potentially wider reach, and in

particular, their ability to transcend the barriers of literacy and education,

were probably perceived as being more crucial to national stability than the

print media.



2.5   The News Agency

      The first attempt at setting up an organization for collecting

information for dissemination to other media houses, which is the kernel of

the work of a news agency, occurred in the 1940’s when Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe

established the “African News Agency”. Zik’s agency, however, concentrated

on servicing his string of newspapers across the country and was in that

sense somewhat limited in scope. The first and still the only news agency in

Nigeria in the true sense of the word is the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN).

NAN was clearly a product of the Nigerian Civil War, which had intensified

the realization of the need for amachinery for collecting, and spreading



                                     15
information within and outside the country from positions considered

positive to, and supportive of, Nigeria’s national interest. The Dialogue noted

the following as some of the positive contributions of NAN to the evolution of

the Nigerian media:

a. NAN widened the horizon of the Nigerian press. With its widely dispersed

network of correspondents than any other medium, NAN brought to media

houses information from areas they themselves could otherwise not have

covered.

b. It enhanced the reporting of world events to Nigeria and of Nigerian

developments to the world at large particularly stressing an Afrocentric

perspective in doing so.

c. NAN had correspondents in key world cities bringing the first set of world

reports to the Nigerian media written from a Nigerian or an African position.

d. NAN’s contribution to the Pan African News Agency (PANA) and OPEC

News Agency (OPECNA) introduced the Nigerian slant to stories from or

about Nigeria.

      The ownership of NAN, from its inception, was governmental. The

Dialogue felt it was unfortunate that NAN’s fortunes have declined in recent

days with the downturn in the Nigerian economy.




                                      16
2.6   The Issue of Mass Media Ownership

      The Dialogue recalled the critical role, for good and ill, which

ownership had played in the evolution of the Nigerian media. With the 1951

political debacle, ownership had exacerbated the sectional, divisive role of

the print media, which had started out as coherent, national organs for the

anti-colonial struggle. Except, perhaps, for the DAILY TIMES, every

newspaper, from this point promoted interests that could not even remotely

be described as national. It took the coming of the private non-political

newspapers such as the Guardian to restore some measure of confidence

and national credibility to the print media, especially in the handling of

political stories. The Dialogue was firm in its belief that even though

economic gains might have motivated individuals who set out to publish

newspapers or magazines, the pervasive impact of the mass media and their

ability to influence the minds of others demands that the society, and not

just the State, take special interest in their performance. Ownership of

media, therefore, must be seen and accepted as a PUBLIC TRUST and must

not be compared with the ownership of a car or of a house.




                                    17
2.7   The Legal Framework within Which the Mass Media Operate

      During the colonial era, Sec. 51 of the Criminal Code, which dealt with

sedition, was the only law that restricted media performance. The Dialogue

saw it as a great irony that an avalanche of laws restricting press freedom

came only after the country attained political independence. Some of these

laws were in fact enacted by persons who had vigorously used the media to

oppose colonial rule during the nationalist struggle. The Dialogue warned

that media organizations must not relent in their opposition to all the laws

presently existing, even if dormant, whose aim is to restrict the media in the

performance of their watchdog function. On enforcing adequate standards

through statutes, the Dialogue accepted the need for setting out and

enforcing certain forms of training and norms of performance. It insisted,

however, that the monitoring and enforcement of these standards must be

internally carried out within the journalism profession itself. On the side of

the policy-makers, the right of the citizen to public information and his

unrestricted access to such information should be taken more seriously as a

constitutional directive.




                                     18
2.8   The Role of the Mass Media in Democracy in a Developing Polity

      At a general level, the Dialogue felt that the role of the mass media in

a democracy must include the following:

i. To convey information to the people with a view to letting them know how

the mandate they gave their representatives is being discharged;

ii. To provide a forum through which the governed could then react to

government policies and activities;

iii. To provide such analysis as would enable the people to secure an

adequate understanding and background to events;

iv. To assist in the articulation and pursuit of the national interest;

v. To help strengthen the economic, social and political fabric of the nation;

vi. To provide informed criticism and viable alternatives to public policies;

vii. To monitor the performance of government with a view to preventing

their deviation from clearly stated objectives;

viii. To provide the medium for transmitting knowledge and for educating

the populace;

ix. To function as an agent of modernization; and

x. To assist in setting an agenda of priorities in the social, cultural, political

and economic development of the nation.




                                       19
      To achieve these ends, the media must be seen, and must it perform

as an agent of development and nation-building. Where necessary, they

must be supported through subsidies or left free to pursue their goals

through exploring and exploiting appropriate commercial or investment

opportunities.

      One major dimension of the role of the media in nation-building is

through its promotion of the positive aspects of our culture. The media must

recognize that for them to win and retain the confidence of the people, they

must remain credible in the manner in which they present and use

information.

      Another issue that attracted much attention was the extent to which

the mass media could be partisan in its operations. The Dialogue noted that,

given the reality that all media organs operate with a view to achieving goals

that are of interest to their proprietors in the first place, they can be

expected to hold understandable positions on critical issues of State. But

such partisanship should be restricted to their editorial opinion and must

not be allowed to taint the presentation of news. In this regard, it was noted

that the electronic media have long standing guidelines to follow. It is

however doubtful whether such guidelines exist for the print media or if they

exist, whether they are seriously adhered to.



                                     20
      The Dialogue noted a number of issues and problems relevant to the

faithful discharge by the media of the roles listed above. These include:

a. Mutual distrust between government and the press;

b. A tendency on the part of the media to react to, rather than initiate or

motivate, information and change especially on matters of public policy. In

this regard, the Dialogue sadly observed that there was too little effort made

to probe government actions or hold policy-makers truly accountable for

their policies.

c. Reluctance on the part of policy-makers to divulge information even on

matters already in the domain of public knowledge and concerning public

interest. The Dialogue suggested the following as some ways of coping with

the above problem:

a. Neither the mass media nor the government should behave as if it has a

monopoly of understanding and in protecting the national interest. Both

government officials and media practitioners are bound by the constitution

to protect the interest of the nation and both should work together in this

regard.

b. Media practitioners should be more constructive in their critical appraisal

of actions taken by individuals or groups, including government officials,




                                      21
especially when such actions are presumed to be in the national or public

interest.

c. Government officials should take top media practitioners into confidence

on the official positions on matters regarded as vital to Nigeria’s national

interest.

The media, on its part, must respect such confidence.



2.9   DEMOCRACY

      Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have

an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows

eligible citizens to participate equally either directly or through elected

representatives in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It

encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free

and equal practice of political self-determination.



2.9.1 Types of Democracy

Direct democracy

      Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in

the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or

representatives. The supporters of direct democracy argue that democracy is



                                      22
more than merely a procedural issue. A direct democracy gives the voting

population the power to:

  -    Change constitutional laws,

  -    Put forth initiatives, referendums and suggestions for laws,

  -    Give binding orders to elective officials, such as revoking them before the end

       of their elected term, or initiating a lawsuit for breaking a campaign promise.


        Of the three measures mentioned, most operate in developed

democracies today. This is part of a gradual shift towards direct

democracies. Elements of direct democracy exist on a local level in many

countries,     though     these   systems        often   coexist   with   representative

assemblies. Usually, this includes equal (and more or less direct)

participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into

law.

Representative democracy

        Representative democracy involves the selection of government

officials by the people being represented. If the head of state is also

democratically elected then it is called a democratic republic. The most

common mechanisms involve election of the candidate with a majority or a

plurality of the votes.




                                            23
      Representatives may be elected or become diplomatic representatives

by a particular district (or constituency), or represent the entire electorate

through proportional systems, with some using a combination of the two.

Some representative democracies also incorporate elements of direct

democracy, such as referendums. A characteristic of representative

democracy is that while the representatives are elected by the people to act

in the people's interest, they retain the freedom to exercise their own

judgment as how best to do so.

Parliamentary


      Parliamentary   democracy    is    a   representative   democracy   where

government is appointed by representatives as opposed to a 'presidential

rule' wherein the President is both head of state and the head of government

and is elected by the voters. Under a parliamentary democracy, government

is exercised by delegation to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing

review, checks and balances by the legislative parliament elected by the

people.


      Parliamentary systems have the right to dismiss a Prime Minister at

any point in time that they feel he or she is not doing their job to the

expectations of the legislature. This is done through a Vote of No Confidence

where the legislature decides whether or not to remove the Prime Minister

                                        24
from office by a majority support for his or her dismissal. In some countries,

the Prime Minister can also call an election whenever he or she so chooses,

and typically the Prime Minister will hold an election when he or she knows

that they are in good favor with the public as to get re-elected. In other

parliamentary democracies extra elections are virtually never held, a

minority government being preferred until the next ordinary elections.


Presidential


      Presidential Democracy is a system where the public elects the

president through free and fair elections. The president serves as both the

head of state and head of government controlling most of the executive

powers. The president serves for a specific term and cannot exceed that

amount of time. Elections typically have a fixed date and aren’t easily

changed. The president has direct control over the cabinet, the members of

which are specifically appointed by the president himself.


      The president cannot be easily removed from office by the legislature,

but he or she cannot remove members of the legislative branch any more

easily. This provides some measure of separation of powers. In consequence

however, the president and the legislature may end up in the control of

separate parties, allowing one to block the other and thereby interfere with


                                     25
the orderly operation of the state. This may be the reason why presidential

democracy is not very common outside the Americas.


      A semi-presidential system is a system of democracy in which the

government includes both a prime minister and a president. The particular

powers held by the prime minister and presidents vary by country.


Constitutional


      A constitutional democracy is a representative democracy in which the

ability of the elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is

subject to the rule of law, and usually moderated by a constitution that

emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals, and

which places constraints on the leaders and on the extent to which the will

of the majority can be exercised against the rights of minorities.


      In a constitutional democracy, it is possible for some large-scale

decisions to emerge from the many individual decisions that citizens are free

to make. In other words, citizens can "vote with their feet" or "vote with their

dollars", resulting in significant informal government-by-the-masses that

exercises many "powers" associated with formal government elsewhere.




                                      26
Hybrid


      Some modern democracies that are predominately representative in

nature also heavily rely upon forms of political action that are directly

democratic. These democracies, which combine elements of representative

democracy and direct democracy, are termed hybrid democracies or semi-

direct democracies. Examples include Switzerland and some U.S. states,

where frequent use is made of referendums and initiatives.


      Although managed by a representative legislative body, Switzerland

allows for initiatives and referendums at both the local and federal levels. In

the past 120 years less than 250 initiatives have been put to referendum.

The populace has been conservative, approving only about 10% of the

initiatives put before them; in addition, they have often opted for a version of

the initiative rewritten by government.


      In the United States, no mechanisms of direct democracy exists at the

federal level, but over half of the states and many localities provide for

citizen-sponsored ballot initiatives (also called "ballot measures", "ballot

questions" or "propositions"), and the vast majority of states allow for

referendums. Examples include the extensive use of referendums in the US

state of California, which is a state that has more than 20 million voters.


                                      27
      In New England Town meetings are often used, especially in rural

areas, to manage local government. This creates a hybrid form of

government, with a local direct democracy and a state government which is

representative. For example, most Vermont towns hold annual town

meetings in March in which town officers are elected, budgets for the town

and schools are voted on, and citizens have an opportunity to speak and by

heard on political matters.


2.10 Democratic Sustenance and Peace


      Democracy by its character helps society by putting institutions

together with the objective of giving it an acceptable and legal outlook in

order to demonstrate authority and power through the provision of logical

and well organized easy to understand and clear response to the need to

succeed in reaching the goal of attaining a change in the society without

recourse to any form of violence as well as control those who occupy

positions of power in such a way that will reassure everybody that they will

not resort to abusing the power that has been entrusted into their hands

through established systems of checks and balances, and in so doing,

making it possible for all the citizens to have a voice that will go a long way

in strengthening the established institutions (Dahrendorf 2003: 101). These

are all aimed at regulating society to make all feel inclusive in the

                                      28
management of affairs thereby ensuring that there is tranquillity. Even

though differences may occur, this may translate into progress in the form

of fine-tuning rules and systems just to make society work better. This is in

consonance with that goal of the liberal ideal for handling of disputes as well

as ensuring that accountability flows from government to the citizenry and

vice versa through established institutions of which all are partakers.


2.11 Perception on Media Contribution to Democratic Sustenance


      In an effort to find out whether the media has made any contributions

to the sustenance of democracy in Nigeria, the response was that, indeed

the media has contributed enormously to make democracy a sustainable

part of Nigeria’s politics. Apart from their commercial interest, the media has

tried as much as it could to educate the public as to why Nigerians must

fully embrace democracy because apart from making each and every

individual   have   a voice,   it facilitates   development. Before   Nigeria’s

presidential and parliamentary elections, the media was able to encourage

many to register and go to the polls on Election Day of which many

responded positively. On the day of election itself the media was on the

ground with many of its reporters who were giving first hand account of

what was happening. The electronic media did a live report throughout the

period and made sure anomalies in various polling stations were made

                                       29
public and in response, security and electoral officers acted proactively to

forestall any outbreak of conflict.


      In contrast with the above, others had a contrary view. To them, the

contribution of the media has not done so much to sustain democracy.

However, credit could be given to it for some contribution.


2.12 Perception on the Media’s Contribution to Democratic Peace


      Peace constitutes an imperative component of every democratic state.

In that regard the media cannot be left out in contributing to the peace of

the state at least for its own survival. The survey revealed that, the people

sampled overwhelmingly believe the media has made tremendous strides in

contributing to the peace of the nation. “In many instances I have read

articles in the newspapers, watched documentaries on TV as well as heard

on radio programmes that significantly educates and admonish all of us to

coexist peacefully”, a respondent indicated.


      Others did not subscribe to the idea that the media contributed much

to the peace democracy brings. A description by respondent was to the effect

that people tend to use derogatory and insulting language against their

opponents sometimes on live radio and television as well as in the

newspapers. This behaviour could be a possible recipe for chaos and


                                      30
therefore must be eschewed.        A round table discussion on the recent

presidential and parliamentary elections held in Nigeria on December 7,

2008 accused some journalist as unprofessional and some media houses as

bias, partisan and influenced by politicians. Indeed they were blamed for

putting news items out there which were based on rumours to incite the

public (Daily Graphic 2009: 16).




                                      31
                             CHAPTER THREE

      Research Methodology


      For the purpose of the study both primary and secondary sources of

was used.

      The methodology that was employed in this study will be administered

on the citizens of Osun state in some selected area.



3.1   Research Design

      The researcher made use of questionnaire as a means of measuring

instrument. The questionnaire was administered to the respondents in their

various homes or places of work to ensure error free and high morality rate

of the questionnaire.



3.2   Sampling or Sample Size

      The sampling size consist 150 respondents of the study area which is

Osun state.



3.3   Sampling Technique

      Sampling enables us to be cost-effective and cost efficient in our

research that is spend less in terms of time, money, energy and other

                                     32
resources (Nnayelugo: 2001). Simple random sampling technique will be

used in different strata to select the actual respondents. And this is to

enable every member of the community to have equal chance of being

selected.

        The sampling sizes of one hundred and fifty (150) was used, fifty

students and one hundred external publics were selected, representing

100% (one hundred percent) of the total population.



3.4     Data collection instrument

        The   research   instrument   that   was   used   for   this   study   is

questionnaire which consists of 10 questions that will be administered to

the sampled respondents.



3.5     Data Collection Process

        The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents which are the

citizens of the state. All these questionnaires will be explained clearly to

them.

        This system was time consuming and expensive but all the effort was

not waste because all the questions given out complete and returned.




                                      33
      A questionnaire is a series of relevant questions which are usually

used to elicit information (OPTIONS) from respondents who are normally

drawn from the target population of a given study. (Adeyemo S.A 2011)

      In order to source for necessary information, questions were prepared

and distributed to the people to supply answers which made this project

worth while.



3.6   Validity and Reliability of Collection Instrument

      The research instrument that was used in this project work measured

what it supposed to measure and the research questionnaires actually

address the topic of this project work.

      If those questions in the questionnaire are asked repeatedly under the

same condition, the same result would be arrived at.

In order to have proper representation, respondents were carefully selected.



3.7   Data Analysis Procedure

      The data were analyzed according to the OPTIONS of the respondents

through the use of frequency and percentage method. It was illustrated in

the table format and analyzed.




                                      34
                               CHAPTER FOUR
4:1   Data Analysis and Interpretation
      In this chapter, the data analyzed and the results arrived at, were
presented. A total of 120 copies of the questionnaires were distributed and
encouragingly, all were completed and returned. This shows 100% response,
which is highly appreciated.
      Meanwhile, this was as a result of the receptive nature of the
respondents as well as personal approach which the researcher adopted in
administering the questionnaire.
Table 1
Age Distribution of Respondents
       OPTIONS                  FREQUENCY              PERCENTAGE
      15-20 years                   10                     8.33%
      21-25 years                   65                     54.17%
      26-30 years                   25                     20.83%
      31 and above                  15                     12.5%
          Total                    120                      100%
      The above table shows that 10 respondents represents 8.33% were
between the age range of 15-20 years, 65 respondents represents 54.17%
were between the age range of 21-25 years, 25 respondents represents
20.83% were between the age range of 26 and 30 years while 15
respondents represents (12.5%) were between the age range of 31 and
above. This shows that a greater number of the respondents fall within the
age range of 21-25.




                                    35
Table 2
Gender Distributions of the Respondents
          OPTIONS                FREQUENCY                PERCENTAGE
Male                                  70                      58.33
Female                                50                      41.67
Total                                120                       100
         The above table shows that 70 respondents’ represents 58.33%
respondents were male, 50 respondent’s represents 41.67% were female this
shows that most of the respondents were male.


Table 3
Marital Status distribution of the Respondents
          OPTIONS                FREQUENCY                PERCENTAGE
Single                                80                     66.67%
Married                               40                     33.33%
Total                                120                      100%
         In table 3, the data collected shows that out of the 120 respondents
that completed and returned their questionnaire, 80 respondents represents
66.67% were single, while 40 respondents represents 33.33% were married,
while none of the respondents were divorced; this shows that most of the
respondents were single.




                                       36
Table 4
Religion
         OPTIONS               FREQUENCY                   PERCENTAGE
Islam                               95                       79.17%


Christian                           20                       16.67%


Traditional                          5                       4.17%


Total                               120                      100%
        The above table shows that 95 respondents represents 79.17% were
Muslim, 20 respondents represents 16.67% were Christian, while 5
respondents represents 4.17% were Traditional. This means that most of the
respondents were literate. The researcher assisted the illiterate people by
reading out the questions of the questionnaire and indicating their
responses against the questions. The researcher did this in their local
language in order to enable them understand effectively.




                                     37
Table 5
Educational Qualifications of the Respondents
          OPTIONS             FREQUENCY               PERCENTAGE
SSCE/GCE/NECO                       19                    15.83%
OND/NCE                             30                     25%
HND/BSC                             48                     40%
MSC/MBA                             23                    19.17%
Total                              120                    100%
        Table 5 shows that none of the respondents have FLSC, 19
respondents represents 15.83% have SSCE/NABTEB, 30 respondents
represents 25% have OND/NCE, 48 respondents represents 40% have HND
/B.Sc. 23 respondents represents 19.17% has M.Sc./MBA. This indicates
that a greater number of the respondents have HND/BSC qualification.




                                    38
SECTION B
Table 6
  What are the essential roles of mass media during the democratic
government of President Olusegun Obasanjo’s regime?

          OPTIONS             RESPONDENTS             PERCENTAGE

          To inform                 56                   46.67%

      To advertize                  34                   28.33%

      To socialize                  10                    8.33%

            Total                   120                   100%

  From the above table, it is shown that out of the 120 respondents who
completed the questionnaires, 56 respondents represents 46.67% choose to
inform, 34 respondents represents 28.33% choose to advertise, while 10
respondents represents 8.33% choose to socialize.




                                    39
Table 7
  What are the major functions of mass media during democracy?


          OPTIONS            RESPONDENTS               PERCENTAGE

 To serve as watchdog               65                    54.17%

To serve as intermediary
between the government              35                    29.17%
    and the citizen
 To serve as source of
  information for the               20                    16.67%
           citizen

           Total                   120                     100%

  From the above table, it is shown that 65 respondents represents 65% of
the respondents choose to serve as watchdog, 35 respondents represents
35% choose to serve as intermediary between the government and the
citizen, while 20 respondents represents 16.67%. This shows that a lot of
the respondents choose to serve as watchdog.




                                    40
   Table 8
Does mass media have more merits more than demerits on the democracy?


          OPTIONS             RESPONDENTS                 PERCENTAGE

             Yes                     69                       57.5%

             No                      51                       42.2%

           Total                     120                      100%

   From the table above, it is shown that 69 respondents represents 57.5%
of the respondents choose the yes OPTIONS, while 51 respondents
represents 42.2% of them choose the no OPTIONS.


Table 9
Is mass media able to maintain the sustenance of democracy?

          OPTIONS             RESPONDENTS                 PERCENTAGE

             Yes                     90                        75%

             No                      30                        25%

           Total                     120                      100%

      From the above table it is shown that 90 respondents represents 75%
of the respondents choose Yes, while 30 respondents represents 25% choose
no. This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yea.




                                     41
Table 10
        Do people believe what they hear from the media during democracy?


         OPTIONS                 RESPONDENTS                     PERCENTAGE

            Yes                          98                        81.67%

               No                        22                        18.3%

           Total                         120                           100%


        From the above table it is shown that 98 respondents represents
81.67% of the respondents choose Yes, while 22 respondents represents
18.3% choose No. This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.


Table 11
How important is the role of mass media in the sustenance of democracy?
OPTIONS                             Frequency                    Percentage
Very important                           70                       58.33%
Important                                35                       29.17%
Not important                            15                        12.5%
Total                                    120                       100%
        With    above   aforementioned    table   shows   that    70    respondents
represents 58.33% respondents choose very important, 35 respondents
represents 29.17% choose Important, while 15 respondents represents
12.5% choose have Not Important. This shows that majority of the
respondents Very Important.




                                         42
Table 12
     Do the mass media perform their functions during President Olusegun
Obasanjo’s regime?

       OPTIONS           Frequency                  Percentage
           Yes           97                         80.83%
            No           23                         19.17%
           Total         120                        100%
     From the above table it is shown that 97 respondents represents

80.83% of the respondents choose Yes, while 23 respondents represents

19.17% choose No. This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.



Table 13

Does democracy influence the roles of mass media?

       OPTIONS           Frequency                  Percentage
           Yes           69                         57.5%
            No           51                         42.5%
           Total         120                        100%
     From the above table it is shown that 69 respondents represents
57.5% of the respondents choose Yes, while 51 respondents represents
42.5% choose No. This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.




                                     43
Table 14

Does the government contribute to the effectiveness of the mass media
during the democracy regime?

         OPTIONS            Frequency                     Percentage
            Yes             76                            63.33%
               No           44                            36.67%
           Total            120                           100%
        From the above table it is shown that 76 respondents represents
63.33% of the respondents choose Yes, while 44 respondents represents
36.67% choose No. This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.



Table 15

        To what extent do you rate the effectiveness of mass media during the
democracy regime?

OPTIONS                            Frequency                      Percentage
Very important                           70                        58.33%
Important                                30                            25%
Not important                            20                        16.67%
Total                                    120                        100%
        With    above   aforementioned    table   shows    that   70    respondents
represents 58.33% respondents choose very important, 3 respondents
represents 25% choose Important, while 20 respondents represents 16.67%
choose Not Important. This shows that majority of the respondents Very
Important.


                                         44
4.2   Answers to research questions
Question 1

   What are the essential roles of mass media during the democratic

government of President Olusegun Obasanjo’s regime?

   According to table 6 56 respondents represents 46.67% believed that the role

of mass media during democratic government is to inform, 34 respondents

represents 28.33% believed that the role of mass media during democratic

government is to advertise, while 10 respondents represents 8.33% believed that

the role of mass media during a democratic government is to socialize.

Question 2

   What are the major functions of mass media during democracy?

   According to table 7; 65 respondents represents 65% of the respondents

believed that it serves as watchdog for the society, 35 respondents

represents 35% believed that it serves as intermediary between the

government and the citizen, while 20 respondents represents 16.67%

believed that it serves as source of information for the citizen. This shows

that a lot of the respondents believed that it serves as watchdog in the

society.




                                        45
Question 3

Does mass media have more merits more than demerits on the democracy?

      According to table 8, it is shows that 69 respondents represents
57.5% of the respondents believed that the mass media have more merits
more than demerits on democracy, while 51 respondents represents 42.2%
of them did not believe that mass media has more merits more than
demerits.


Question 4

Is mass media able to maintain the sustenance of democracy?
      According to able 9, it is shown that 90 respondents represents 75%
of the respondents believed that mass media is able to maintain the
sustenance of democracy, while 30 respondents represents 25% did not
believe that mass media is able to maintain the sustenance of democracy.
This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.


4.3   Discussion of Findings
      Table 1 shows that 10 respondents represents 8.33% were between
the age range of 15-20 years, 65 respondents represents 54.17% were
between the age range of 21-25 years, 25 respondents represents 20.83%
were between the age range of 26 and 30 years while 15 respondents
represents 12.5% were between the age range of 31 and above. This shows
that a greater number of the respondents fall within the age range of 21-25.
      Table 2 shows that 70 respondents represents 58.33% respondents
were male, 50 respondents represents 41.67% were female this shows that
most of the respondents were male.

                                     46
      Table 3, the data collected shows that out of the 120 respondents that
completed and returned their questionnaire, 80 respondents represents
66.67% were single, while 40 respondents represents 33.33% were married,
while none of the respondents were divorced; this shows that most of the
respondents were single.
   Table 4 shows that 95 respondents represents 79.17% were Muslim, 20
respondents represents 16.67% were Christian, while 5 respondents
represents 4.17% were Traditional worshipers. This means that most of the
respondents were literate. The researcher assisted the illiterate people by
reading out the questions of the questionnaire and indicating their
responses against the questions. The researcher did this in their local
language in order to enable them understand effectively.
      Table 5 shows that none of the respondents have FLSC, 19
respondents represents 15.83% have SSCE/NABTEB, 30 respondents
represents 25% have OND/NCE, 48 respondents represents 40% have HND
/B.Sc. 23 respondents represents 19.17% has M.Sc./MBA. This indicates
that a greater number of the respondents have HND/BSC qualification.
      Table 6 show that out of the 120 respondents who completed the
questionnaires, 56 respondents represents 46.67% choose to inform, 34
respondents represents 28.33% choose to advertise, while 10 respondents
represents 8.33% choose to socialize
   Table 7 shows that 65 respondents represents 65% of the respondents
choose to serve as watchdog, 35 respondents represents 35% choose to
serve as intermediary between the government and the citizen, while 20
respondents represents 16.67%. This shows that a lot of the respondents
choose to serve as watchdog.



                                       47
      Table 8 show that 69 respondents represents 57.5% of the
respondents choose the yes OPTION, while 51 respondents represents
42.2% of them choose the no OPTION.
      Table 9 shows that 90 respondents represents 75% of the respondents
choose Yes, while 30 respondents represents 25% choose no. This shows
that majority of the respondents choose Yes.
      Table 10 show that 98 respondents represents 81.67% of the
respondents choose Yes, while 22 respondents represents 18.3% choose No.
This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.
      Table 11 shows that 70 respondents represents 58.33% respondents
choose   very   important,   35   respondents   represents    29.17%   choose
Important, while 15 respondents represents 12.5% choose have Not
Important. This shows that majority of the respondents Very Important.
      Table 12 shows that 97 respondents represents 80.83% of the
respondents choose Yes, while 23 respondents represents 19.17% choose
No. This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.
      Table 13 shows that 69 respondents represents 57.5% of the
respondents choose Yes, while 51 respondents represents 42.5% choose No.
This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.
      Table 14 shows that 76 respondents represents 63.33% of the
respondents choose Yes, while 44 respondents represents 36.67% choose
No. This shows that majority of the respondents choose Yes.
      Table 15 shows that 70 respondents represents 58.33% respondents
choose very important, 3 respondents represents 25% choose Important,
while 20 respondents represents 16.67% choose have Not Important. This
shows that majority of the respondents Very Important.



                                     48
                            CHAPTER FIVE
                  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1   Summary

      The outcome of this study revealed a good number of the subjects
sampled to be very interested in the political and democratic development of
Nigeria. However their conception of politics vary, while some have the
believe that politics is something that involves all and sundry, and that once
an individual finds himself as a citizen of a state, matters that have to do
with governance of that country must be of concern to that individual since
it has the ability to affect all aspects of human life. On that score, it was
shown that democracy as it pertains to the country is very illuminating.
      This has simply led to many people dedicating some of their time to
follow or monitor unfolding events that politics and democracy brings.
However, others also think it is a business that concerns only those in
authority and that it even serves as a platform for conflict.


5.2   Conclusion

      Nigeria’s political and media development has gone through a lot of
ups and downs from the colonial period through the days of coup d‟états
until recently when the country has become stable with democracy. As
noted earlier, Nigeria has experienced four democratic dispensations with
the last one being the most stable. Freedom of expression has been a
prominent feature of the current fourth republic and this has been able to
serve as part of the foundations of the progress of the democratic process.




                                       49
      The media has duly played its role as an information provider, and in
the process, conscientizing and sensitizing the citizens. This means the
media is needed by the citizens to inform them about current developments
in order to form their views on those developments as well as debating the
issues. This clearly gives the media that responsibility of being the mediators
of the democratic process and gatekeepers of the same (Jakubowicz in
Council of Europe 1998:17).

5.3   Recommendations

      Again, both print and electronic media practitioners should be fair as
much as possible in their presentation of the issues and to allow equal
excess by both incumbent and opposition parties, irrespective of the policy
direction of the media house. This way the citizenry will be fully aware of the
issues on both side of the divide in order to make a good judgment for the
formation of fair opinion. It is obvious by the outcome of this research that
the media in Nigeria are in a position that could be described as strategic to
the political and democratic agenda of the state. It is therefore significant in
my view to give the media all the necessary encouragement to play their role
as the fourth estate of the realm even more effectively through policies that
will strengthen them and straighten any rough edges that may be found
among them.

5.4   Recommendation for further Studies

      I found this topic an interesting and educating one and hereby
recommend it for further studies, so that much information would be get on
The Roles of Mass Media in the Sustenance of Democracy.



                                      50
                                  BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ansu-Kyeremeh, K. and Karikari, K. (1998): Media Ghana: Ghanaian Media
     Overview, Practitioners and Institutions. Accra; School of
     Communication Studies, University of Ghana.

Cummings, M.C. and Wise, D. (1977) Democracy Under Pressure:
    AnIntroduction to the American Political System. New York; Harcourt
    Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Dowse, R.E. and Hughes, J.A. (1972) Political Sociology. London; John Wiley
     and Sons.

Ansah-Koi, K. The Security Agencies and National Security in a decade of
     Liberalism. In Boafo-Arthur, K. (2007) (ed.) Ghana: One decade of
     Liberal State. Dakar: CODESRIA Books.

Ayiteyvie, A.O., (1996): “Revisiting Radio EYE: Breaking Into Controlled
      Territories”. In Media Monitor No. 3, Issue 1 April-June 1996.

Benhabib, S. Towards a Deliberative Model of Democratic Legitimacy. In
     Benhabib, S., (1996): (ed.) Democracy and Difference: Contesting the
     Boundaries of the Political. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blankson, I.A. (2002): “Re-examining Civil Society in Emerging Sub Sahara
     African Democracies: The State, the Media, and the Public in Ghana”.
     Global Media Journal; Vol. 1 (1).

Boateng, E.A. (1996) Government and the People: Outlook for Democracy in
     Ghana. Institute of Economic Affair. Accra; Buck Press.

Coronel, S.S. (2004) “The Role of the Media in Deepening Democracy”. United
     Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance. ( 2007,
     December 28) [Online].
     URL:http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un
     pan010194.pdf

Dotse, D. (1996) “Surfing the Airwaves: A Look at Ghana‟s New Radio
      Stations”. In Media Monitor No. 3, Issue 1 April-June 1996.

Dzorgbo, D.S. (2001) Ghana in Search of Development: The Challenge of
     Governance, Economic Management and Institution Building. Aldershot:
     Ashgate.

                                      51
Gargarella, R. The Majoritarian Reading of the rule of Law. In Maravall María,
     J. and Przeworski.

A. (2003) (eds.) Democracy and the Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge
      University Press.

Gunther R. and Mugban A. (2000) Democracy and the Media: A Comparative
    Perspective. Cambridge University Press.

Gutmann, A. and Thompson, D. (1996) Democracy and Disagreement: Why
    Moral Conflict Cannot be Avoided in Politics and What Should be Done
    About it. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University
    Press.




                                      52
                                 QUESTIONNAIRE


                                                MASS COMMUNICATION
                                                DEPARTMENT,
                                                OSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC,
                                                PMB 301,
                                                IREE.
Dear Respondents,
      I, Taiwo Charles A. with matriculation number 10/DMCN/1094 of the
above Department and Institution, is presently conducting an academic
research on “THE ROLES OF MASS MEDIA IN THE SUSTENANCE OF
DEMOCRACY” a case study of Olusegun Obasanjo Regime.
      You are kindly requested to answer the entire questionnaire as
contained in the questionnaire by ticking appropriate box. All the
information given therein shall be treated with utmost confidence.
      Thanks for your co-operation.
                                                           Yours faithfully,
                                                           Taiwo Charles A.
   (SECTION A)

   1. AGE
      (a)15-20 [ ] (b) 21-25[ ] (c) 26-30[ ] (d) 31 and above [ ]
   2. SEX
      (a) Male [ ] (b)Female [     ]

   3. MARITAL STATUS
      (a) Single [   ] (b) Married [   ]
   4. RELIGION

                                           53
  (a) Islam [ ] (b) Christian [ ] (c) Traditional [ ]
5. EDUCATION
  (a) SSCE/GCE/NECO [          ] (b) OND/NCE [        ] (c) HND/BSC [   ] (d)
      MSC/MBA [ ]

(SECTION B)
6. Does mass media play any role in the democratic government of
  President Olusegun Obasanjo’s regime?
  (a) Yes [   ] (b) No [ ]
7. How effective is the function of mass media during democracy?
  (a) Very effective [ ] (b) Effective [ ] (c) Not effective [ ]
8. Does mass media have more merits more than demerits on the
  democracy?
  (a) Yes [   ] (c) No [   ]
9. Is mass media able to maintain the sustenance of democracy?
  (a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]
10. Do people believe what they hear from the media during democracy?
  (a)Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]
11. How important is the role of mass media in the sustenance of
  democracy?
  (a) Very important [ ] (b)Important [ ] (c) Not important [ ]
12.   Do the mass media perform their functions during President
  Olusegun Obasanjo’s regime?
  (a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]
13. Does democracy influence the roles of mass media?
  (a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]
14.   Does the government contribute to the effectiveness of the mass
  media during the democracy regime?

                                    54
   (a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]
15.   To what extent do you rate the effectiveness of mass media during
   the democracy regime?
(a) Very high [ ] (b) High [ ] (c) Low [ ]




                                   55

				
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