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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDIA MANAGEMENT IN PRINT AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA FIND MEDIA MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA PRINT MEDIA AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDIA MANAGEMENT IN PRINT AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA FIND MEDIA MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA PRINT MEDIA AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA Powered By Docstoc
					                                  CHAPTER ONE


1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


      A multiplicity of media voices can be found in Nigeria largely because of

the diversity of the population of the country and the history preceding its

independence. The nation remains unsettled and its constitution is not

enforced in all regions equally. This has led to confusion, frustration, and

violence resulting in numerous deaths in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Reports of deaths from Islamic fundamentalists are commonplace in media

reports particularly in the northern states of Nigeria.

      The British reporter Flora Shaw coined the term "Nigeria" which was to

become the name of the country. In the 1890s she took the term from the Niger

River to apply it to the region during the era of colonial rule.

      Like other segments of society, media reflects the population of the

people. Nigeria has over 250 different ethnic groups. It is nearly twice the size

of California, and with a population of approximately 110 million, is the most

densely populated country in Africa. Other estimates have the population even

higher. One source reports that because tribalism is so sensitive an issue

population estimates based on pre-independence data are intentionally inexact

so as not to ignite controversy. Hundreds of thousands of Nigerians live in the

United States, and nearly 200,000 of them have attained U.S. citizenship.

English is the official language of Nigeria. Broadcast stations and print media

provide content to audiences in English. Other dominant languages spoken are
Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, and Fulani. Hausa and Fulani are primarily in the north.

Yoruba is in the southwest, while Ibos are located in the southeast.

      The country has had varying degrees of freedom of the press over its

tumultuous history. There has generally been a diversity of voices in the media;

however, as the government changed hands frequently and in violent

circumstances, the media voices that were in support of a leader would find

themselves without a voice as a replacement emerged. At some points,

newspapers and magazines were proscribed entirely due to their criticism of

government authorities.

      Examples of this form of silencing the press are found in the late 1970s

and mid 1980s. Although newspapers and magazines were privately owned, the

government prohibited them from expressing their editorial opinions. In 1977

Newbreed was closed down. In 1984 the government closed down the Tribune

and four years later in 1988 Newswatch was a victim of government

censorship. Also during this time period, government leaders harassed

individual journalists. In 1971 Minere Amakiri, a reporter for the Nigerian

Observer, was detained and had his hair shaved. Numerous other journalists

experienced similar assaults.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

      The researcher will like this research to tackle the following problems.

To know the effectiveness of both media i.e. print media and electronic media

in the media management.

To know which is most preferred by the audience out of the two media.
To determine which is most effective in information dissemination, whether the

print media or the electronic media.

To know which one do people believe out of the electronic media and the print

media?

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

      Nwaorgu (1991) says objective of the study contain major things the

researcher intends to do towards providing solution to the problem identified in

the statement of the problem. The objectives of this study are as follows:

To establish whether one of either electronic or print media has priority over

the other.


To find out which one is more preferred by the audience out of the two types of

media; electronic media and print media.


To establish whether the audience believe the print media more than the

electronic media and vice versa.


To find out the attitude of the audience towards both of the media, i.e print

media and electronic media.


1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


      Chukwuemeka (2002), contributed that the significance of the study

contains the benefits or values of the study contains the benefits, or values of

the various groups that would come into contact with it.
       This project will make a clear comparison between the print media and

the electronic media. It will enable the media owners and the government to

know how people perceive both media and know whether their aims are met.


1.5    RESEARCH QUESTIONS


       Nwaorgu (1991), research questions are these questions posed by the

researcher, seeking answers to which would lead to the solution of the

problem. Research questions have to provide focus and direct attention to the

major issues in the study.


      This study is therefore, guided by the following research questions.

      Which one do you prefer most out of print media and electronic media?
      Do you believe that print media produce more genuine information than
       the electronic media?
      Through visual sensitization in the electronics, many people prefer

       watching events from Nigeria TV or radio rather than reading from the

       print media.

      Does the ownership of the print media or the electronic media determines

       the news to be disseminated by the editorial board or not?


1.6    SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

       Nwaorgu (1991) said that the scope of study refers to all those aspects of

the study the researcher deliberately eliminated off the study due to certain

reasons. It has to do with the content areas coverage of the study, not the

geographical areas coverage. This researcher set out to compare and analyze

the media management in print and electronic media, basically in Nigeria. This
researcher chose this scope in order to allow the researcher do an in-depth

research in both types of media, i.e. print media and Electronic media.


1.7   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:


      According to Obasi Ferdinand (2008), these are intelligent guesses

regarding some pertinent variable, the research hypotheses are:-


HO: Electronic media is more effective than the print media.


HI: Electronic media is not effective than the print media.


HO: Electronic media or Print media owners determine the genuiness of

information disseminated


HI: Electronic media or Print media owners do not determine the genuiness of

information disseminated


1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS


COMPARATIVE: Relating to, based on, or involving comparison.


ANALYSIS: Detailed examination of the elements or structure of something,

typically as a basis for discussion or interpretation.


MEDIA MANAGEMENT: A media management is the individual in an

organization trusted with monitoring, contributing to, filtering, measuring and

otherwise guiding the social media.


PRINT MEDIA: a medium that disseminates printed matter. Medium - a means

or instrumentality for storing or communicating information.
ELECTRONIC MEDIA: Electronic media are media that use electronics or

electromechanical energy for the end user (audience) to access the content.
                                CHAPTER TWO


                            LITERATURE REVIEW


2. 1 SOURCES OF LITERATURE

      The literature review of this research came from various sources which
include   mass     communication   books,   English   literature,   language   and
linguistics books, e.t.c.

2. 2 REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE

      Lederach, J. P. (1995)    Mass communication takes place through so
many channels these varieties of channels are called the mass media are
simply put as the major gateway through which large number of people receive
information, entertainment simultaneously.

      Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically
envision and designed to reach a very large audience such as a population or a
nation or state.

      Hornby A.S. (5TH Edition) The radio is a piece of electronic equipment
which one may use to listen to programmes, news, entertainment or
programmes that are broadcasted on the radio. According to Nweke (2004:52),
is the means of communicating with a large number of people, mass media are
those technical devices or appliance of the print and electronic media as well as
the recent information technologies through which messages are transmitted
from a source to to the receiver. The media is able to reach a large number of
people simultaneously.

      The media comprises of magazines, Newspapers, Books, journals,
Television, film (motion pictures radio,. Internet etc the electronic media
depend on the electronic power to pass massages across to the heterogeneous
audience. They include: the Radio, television.
      The radio is believed to be the central in the overall development of the
society; this perspective has been accepted by different authorities in mass
communication derived from the long standing traditional role of the media
(Radio) as catalysts of change.

      This suggests that the radio is relevant in power distribution and
watching over the extent at which such power positively or negatively has
impact on the people.

      The radio transmits, ideas, information, entertainment to the targeted
audience it shows that the radio is responsible for most adjustments in the
behaviourial patterns of people in the society, some times those activities take
the targeted audience unaware, yet they themselves are trapped in the
manifestation of the desired behaviour.

      The radio has great powers hence they reassumed great responsibility

especially in the promotion of the culture of the people. most developing

counties    like Nigeria has in the past revolutionized their capacity to

communicate     with their own citizens through which the radio can          reach

majority of bones and most importantly the rural areas like Koluama. This is

due to its massive outreach, linguistic barrier breakage, easy to operate nature,

portability and instantaneous effect. The radio has a special authority in the

sense that it can raise public and official awareness of different development

issues, such cultural promotion strategies the radio communicates new facts

and skills and helps in involving people in major news information programmes

such as cultural imperialism and the promotion of the fight against cultural

imperialism.


      Media have always played a major role in several organizations and in

the general aspect of life entirely. In olden days, people carved stories on stones
and temples. Today we have known a lot about those days by seeing the

sculptures carved on such stones. With the invention of paper, it made it easier

for people to know about the happenings around the world through

newspapers, magazines, banners, posters, leaflets, pamphlets etc.


      But now with the advent of electronic media like Radio, television,

Internet, which have moving images, facilitate easy understanding; is it really

the end of print media?


      On an electronic media, screen glare, font size and website layout can

seriously affect readability. Which of these is easier? Reading a 600 page novel

on your laptop or holding the novel in hand and reading it while lying on your

bed? If a person does not mind shelling out some money, he/she would choose

the second option since LCDs hurt our eyes. But these days with the invention

of e-book readers, even this problem does not exist. E-book readers like Kindle

use paper-like ink display which makes it easier to read books and carry

thousands of books everywhere you go. You can download a newspaper within

seconds from the remotest corner of the world. If you do not want to spend

money on these costly devices, you can still read news at your fingertips on

your mobile phones, which almost every person can afford to buy these days.

With the invention of Internet, a person in a different country can read news

about his native country just by having an access to a computer or laptop.

These days, people can listen to radio on even their mobile phones, thus

making it easy to listen to them even while travelling.
      There are chances that the paper can deteriorate with time and hence

the records can get wiped out. Now that the storage is getting really cheap, it is

easier to take multiple backups of data and thus archival is easier with an

electronic media. Also with the usage of various search tools, it is easier to

search for a file or image on a computer, than searching manually in

cupboards. Information is available sitting at home to people, which they would

previously find by browsing in a library. It is easier to grab people’s attention

by showing them a visual or a video than dumping them with a lot of text and

few still images. Not everyone can read print media and for such illiterate

people, TV would be helpful.


      Electronic media is more environment friendly – the lesser the paper

used, the lesser the trees that are chopped off. It is faster than any other kind

of media; for example, if there was an earthquake or a hurricane somewhere,

you can instantly watch the damages caused by it on the Television within

minutes. Live streaming has helped us in watching tennis/football matches

taking place in a different country on TV. Anything that we watch on TV

remains in our memory for a longer time. For example, we still remember

Sachin’s ad on TV where he says “Boost is the secret of my energy”, but how

many of us remember Boost’s ad that came in the local newspaper? These days

anyone can open an account online and start blogging. This way people can

use the electronic media to convey a message to hundreds and thousands of

people easily. RSS feeds help us in keeping ourselves up to date with the

information available of the net.
Electronic media these days includes these:


·          Social Networking sites where one can meet millions of people –

FaceBook, MySpace, LinkedIn.


·     Information can also be shared via the phones through Twitter.


·     Sharing Audio/Video through YouTube, FaceBook.


·     Digital Photos can be shared using FlickR, Picasa, Facebook.


.     Various    contests,   polls,   surveys,   asking/answering      questions,

commenting on information on the Internet.


.     Searching and watching videos/news clips/interviews on Youtube.


      The longevity of written media is much more than the electronic ones. It

is the written media which has made history recordable and accurate. The age

of an old manuscript found while digging a historical site gives information

about the era in which it was written, which is not possible with electronic

media. Print media is durable, whereas a small virus or a bug in the software

can erase the most important data needed from a computer.


      Anyone can anonymously post articles and raise their voices. It is

difficult to track the real owner of an article. With electronic media, anyone can

copy any piece of information and present it as his own; plagiarism is at its

peak these days. There is no means to determine which of the two websites

have authentic data. Rumors and lies circulate all over the Internet and hence

the legitimacy of the information becomes questionable. The information
provided by a newspaper is usually more authentic and genuine. TV is a very

popular media these days but with so many channels available to watch, there

are fewer chances of more people watching an advertisement or a show on a

particular channel and hence there is no guarantee about viewership, whereas

a family which subscribes to a newspaper would definitely go through it on a

daily basis.


      Electronic media depends mainly on electricity. In areas with frequent

power cuts or in the rural areas, it is not a viable replacement for newspapers.

Print media is easily accessible and widely read. Anyone can buy it since it is

cheaper and available in the remotest of the villages. In a country like India,

subscribing to newspapers is cheaper than taking an Internet connection. Print

media is local to the city or the region and carries information about the local

events like a play being screened in the town or an inter-school chess

tournament. Even if you read a nice article online, what are the chances that

you will store it and re-read? Searching for the article will take forever amidst

the GBs of data that you have. I read Stanford commencement speech by Steve

Jobs and I liked it so much that I took printout of it and kept it in my drawer,

because I wanted to re-read later. It is easier to locate a piece of paper in your

drawer than locate a file among the 120 GB data that you have on your hard

disk. On TV, the quality of news is deteriorating these days because of the

competition between the channels. They try to sensationalize the news

unnecessarily in an attempt to increase viewership.
      Even though both kinds of media have their own pros and cons, can we

survive without any one of them? I don’t think so. When Tsunami attacked, I

saw video clips on the TV. Watching the video of the destruction live is better

than visualizing it with a few photos in newspaper. But I also read about it in

detail in the next day’s newspapers. The newspapers had the information in

greater detail, depth and also had images which were not shown on TV.

According to me, both types of media can exist simultaneously and neither of

them will perish. These days many print media are also available in electronic

forms. I used to read Indian newspapers online when I was in USA. But I also

liked reading the local newspapers there which came in the print media format.

Print media has been around from so many centuries and the reason why it

has survived for so long is the reason why it will not die in the future. We must

not compare these two forms of media as they both have their own importance.


MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND COMPARISON IN NIGERIA


      A multiplicity of media voices can be found in Nigeria largely because of

the diversity of the population of the country and the history preceding its

independence. The nation remains unsettled and its constitution is not

enforced in all regions equally. This has led to confusion, frustration, and

violence resulting in numerous deaths in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Reports of deaths from Islamic fundamentalists are commonplace in media

reports particularly in the northern states of Nigeria.
      The British reporter Flora Shaw coined the term "Nigeria" which was to

become the name of the country. In the 1890s she took the term from the Niger

River to apply it to the region during the era of colonial rule.


      Like other segments of society, media reflects the population of the

people. Nigeria has over 250 different ethnic groups. It is nearly twice the size

of California, and with a population of approximately 110 million, is the most

densely populated country in Africa. Other estimates have the population even

higher. One source reports that because tribalism is so sensitive an issue

population estimates based on pre-independence data are intentionally inexact

so as not to ignite controversy. Hundreds of thousands of Nigerians live in the

United States, and nearly 200,000 of them have attained U.S. citizenship.

English is the official language of Nigeria. Broadcast stations and print media

provide content to audiences in English. Other dominant languages spoken are

Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, and Fulani. Hausa and Fulani are primarily in the north.

Yoruba is in the southwest, while Ibos are located in the southeast.


      The country has had varying degrees of freedom of the press over its

tumultuous history. There has generally been a diversity of voices in the media;

however, as the government changed hands frequently and in violent

circumstances, the media voices that were in support of a leader would find

themselves without a voice as a replacement emerged. At some points,

newspapers and magazines were proscribed entirely due to their criticism of

government authorities.
      Examples of this form of silencing the press are found in the late 1970s

and mid 1980s. Although newspapers and magazines were privately owned, the

government prohibited them from expressing their editorial opinions. In 1977

Newbreed was closed down. In 1984 the government closed down the Tribune

and four years later in 1988 Newswatch was a victim of government

censorship. Also during this time period, government leaders harassed

individual journalists. In 1971 Minere Amakiri, a reporter for the Nigerian

Observer, was detained and had his hair shaved. Numerous other journalists

experienced similar assaults.


      The cause of violence in the country is sometimes difficult to determine

because ethnic and religious differences both enter the mix. The largest

religious group is Muslim, making up about 50 percent of the population.

Christians account for about 40 percent, while the remaining 10 percent of the

people follow traditional beliefs or some combination of the two major groups.


      Rivalries between various ethnic groups within Nigeria can be traced

back for as far as these groups have existed. Tensions flare for a period, then a

temporary peace follows. During the waning days of the colonial period these

ancestral rivalries played a role in the country's evolution to independence. In

January 1956, Queen Elizabeth II visited Nigeria for a ceremonial tour, which

was in part a reaction to anti-colonialism that had taken place in other African

nations such as the Mau-Mau uprising in Kenya. The concern in the United

Kingdom was that Moslems in northern Nigeria would stir passions of revolt.

Two years earlier Nigeria had been granted a degree of autonomy with the aim
of solidifying British loyalty, according to a report in the Chronicle of the

twentieth Century.


      The internal conflict has taken its toll on life expectancy. The nation has

the 15th highest infant mortality rate in the world, 87 deaths per 1,000 live

births. Life expectancy in Nigeria is 56 years, compared to 76 years in the

United States. Steps are being taken to improve the plight of the Nigerian

people, however. The United States has initiated a series of actions to help

provide some stability to the emerging democracy. In 2000 a $19.9 million

agreement was signed by USAID to assist Nigeria in reforming its educational

policies. The goal was to encourage civic participation on a broad basis. Under

the plan six Community Resource Centers would be built that would provide

increased Internet access to every region of the nation. The U.S. Education for

Development and Democracy Initiative (EDDI) provided $4.5 million to

establish the centers. Local educators would receive training at the centers,

which would also be used to support distance education to Nigerian

universities, provide computer, and targeted vocational educational training to

local communities, and support adult literacy and AIDS education. An

additional part of the initiative is $500,000 which allowed girls who would

otherwise not have access to educational opportunities to attend school from

the primary to university level.


      Although the press was intended to be a "watchdog" for the country,

similar to its role in free countries such as the United Kingdom or the United

States, it has had difficulty fulfilling that role due to the demands of the
various competing special interest groups. The large number of different voices

created something of a marketplace of ideas although some of the ideas

resulted in violence.


      At the end of the twentieth century Nigeria had more than thirty national

and provincial newspapers. There were more than twenty general interest

magazines and journals in circulation, along with more than twenty television

and radio stations. Just because media fare was available, that does not

necessarily mean the people were reached with its content. In spite of the

relatively large number of newspapers and magazines nearly one third of men

and half the women are illiterate.


      One of the country's most respected philosophers, Chinua Achebe,

described the tragedy facing the press by writing "listen to Nigerian leaders and

you will frequently hear the phrase 'this great country of ours.' Nigeria is not a

great country. It is one of the most disorderly nations in the world. It is one of

the most corrupt, insensitive, inefficient places under the sun. It is dirty,

callous, noisy, ostentatious, dishonest and vulgar. In short it is among the

most unpleasant places on earth" (Hudgens and Trillo 914).


      Nigeria is governed under a constitution that was adopted in 1999. It is

largely based on an earlier constitution that was written in 1979. Over the

course of those two decades violence and turmoil has remained constant.

Besides high rates of illiteracy, another one of the many problems faced by

media personnel seeking to serve in a watchdog capacity is the constant

turnover of the government. Cordelia C. Nwagwu points out that since
achieving independence in 1960, Nigeria has experienced a turnover in the

government averaging every 3.5 years. Nwagwu describes the havoc this has on

an integral part of any society such as the educational system. With the vast

majority    of     the   short-term     governments      being   military      regimes    the

consideration for public approval was ignored.


        There is some indication that some of the earlier restrictions on freedom,

which resulted when the constitution was ignored may ending. The Times of

India    reports    that   the    attorney   general     declared     strict   Islamic    law

unconstitutional in that it discriminates against Nigerians on the basis of

religion and sex as it applies only to Muslims, and in some cases, only to

women.


        In its 2000 annual report the United States Department of State

expressed     concern      over   the   constitutional    liberties    lost    due   to   the

implementation of Sharia law in the northern states of Nigeria. The report said

"although Christians were exempt from the law, the societal ramifications of

expanded Sharia law infringed upon the rights of non-Muslims in the north to

live in society governed by secular laws." The report went on to add "plans to

implement expanded Sharia laws in Kaduna state, which has a large Christian

population, sparked violence in February 2000 that lasted for several days and

resulted in an estimated 1,000 to 1,500 deaths."


        Chief Olusegun Obasanjo was elected president of Nigeria in 1999. He

had previously been head of state between 1976 and 79, but voluntarily

resigned and handed the reigns of power over to the democratically elected
Aljaji Shehu Shagari. The web page of the Consulate General of Nigeria in

Atlanta reports that Obasanjo was born in former Western Nigeria, a part of

what is now Ogun State in 1937. He was educated in military academies in

Nigeria, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. He reluctantly

became the head of state after his military forces defeated Biafran forces in

January 1970. He was an outspoken critic of military rule during this time in

the nation's history.


      Not only is the press faced with political instability and uncertainty, but

the infrastructure of the nation is lacking in many basic services too. The

internal infrastructure of Nigeria has not been maintained over the years.

Portions of the government are not fully functional. Due to political corruption,

including bribes and payoffs, oil-rich Nigeria does not have the basic services

available to its citizens that other nations provide which have fewer natural

resources, but are better managed.


      It is interesting to note the career track Nigerian journalists have taken

historically. In the early 1980s John Merrill noted that newspapers in Nigeria

attempted to recruit former broadcast journalists. This runs counter to the

career path in many other countries where electronic media managers have

sought to recruit print journalists.
                                 CHAPTER THREE


                           RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


RESEARCH DESIGN

      The researcher will adopt survey research method which will be based on

a personally administered questionnaire.   The researcher chose this method

because, this study is based on the comparative analysis of the media

management based on the two types of media management namely; electronic

and the print media because the population of the study is large and

heterogeneous to be observed directly. More so, this method is used because it

is suitable for gathering vast array of data and it makes data arrangement and

computation less cumbersome.



AREA OF THE STUDY

      The researcher’s area of study is Osogbo metropolis, precisely the

listening audience of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation and The Nation

Newspaper Osogbo. The researcher’s topic is on “A comparative analysis on

electronic media and print media, (A Study of OSBC and The Nation)”, and

choosing the population of OSBC and The Nation listenership and readers is

the most appropriate area of the study.

POPULATION OF THE STUDY

      The researcher’s population of the study is the comparative analysis of

the media management in Nigeria that dwell within Osogbo metropolis,

comprising of Oke baale, Oja oba, Old garage, Okefia and Ogo Oluwa, which is
estimated as 75,000 based on the result of the last population census that only

gave the figure of states without further breakdowns. Hence, the adoption of

the estimated figure given above.

This population will be able to compare the two radio stations in focus, since

they listen to programmes of both stations.



RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

      A sample size of ‘100’ will be drawn from the population. The sample

population will be gotten from the population of the study in such a way that it

will be representative of the major divisions of the metropolis. Hence, since

there are five areas within the metropolis that have been chosen, the sample

size will be divided equally among them to amount to 20 respondents each,

from each of the areas.

      The sampling technique to be adopted is the simple random sampling

method through which the researcher will get 100 respondents, with the use of

‘Yes’ and ‘No’ Chips of paper (Uwakwe 2006).        This is due to the fact that

simple random sampling offers the respondents equal chance of being selected.



INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

      The   questionnaire   is   the   instrument   for   data   collection.   The

questionnaire will be in two parts; part one will be the demography of the

respondents like; gender, age, marital status etc. and part two will contain

questions relating to the study underway.
The questionnaire will consist of about 10 close- ended questions appropriate

to elicit the desired information.



VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

      The instrument (questionnaire) used is valid because it is the most

appropriate instrument for data collection in survey study because; it removes

the influence of the researcher in gathering information for the research; its

impersonal nature makes data realized from it reliable, and most importantly,

it makes both respondents and researcher trust the confidentiality of their

communication.

      More so, the project supervisor monitored it to ensure its validity both in

content and context. This was done by ensuring that the questions contained

in the questionnaire are properly constructed (content), context wise, the

questions though properly constructed are also checked for their relevance to

the study.



METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

      The method of data collection used is the primary source, which

according to Churchill (1978:28), is data originated from the researcher for the

purpose of the study at hand. The primary data was collected through the use

of questionnaire which was self administered to the respondents.

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

      For proper analysis of the data collected during the course of this study.

Appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical tools of analysis of data will
be used in analyzing the collected data.      The use of these data analysis

methods cannot be done without appropriate coding.            For this reason,

responses will be assembled in what is known as the coding sheet, using

unique coding scheme for responses to questions in the questionnaire.

In testing the hypothesis collected for the study, the Chi –square Goodness of

Fit test will be used because lit is reliable and scientific in nature and widely

used by social scientists.
                       CHAPTER FIVE

          SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

SUMMARY

				
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