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DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Tenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530 Phone, 202–514–2000 THE ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO Chief of Staff JOHN M. HOGAN Confidential Assistant to the Attorney BESSIE L. MEADOWS General Assistants to the Attorney General ROXIE LOPEZ, DONNA F. TEMPLETON Special Assistant to the Attorney General ELIZABETH HYMAN White House Fellow YVONNE CAMPOS Deputy Attorney General JAMIE S. GORELICK Confidential Assistant PATRICIA A. BINNINGER Principal Associate Deputy Attorney General MERRICK B. GARLAND Executive Assistant and Counsel DENNIS M. CORRIGAN Associate Deputy Attorneys General ANDREW FOIS, DAVID MARGOLIS,M ARK R. STEINBERG, SETH WAXMAN Special Counsel, Financial Institution Fraud GERALD M. STERN Counsels to the Attorney General ROGER C. ADAMS, ELIZABETH R. FINE, PAUL J. FISHMAN, BETH A. WILKINSON, GERRI LYNN RATLIFF Special Assistants to the Deputy Attorney CASEY COOPER, AMY JEFFRESS,G General EOFFREY KLINEBERG, CHARLES S. SGRO Director, Executive Office for National MARK R. STEINBERG Security Counsel, International Programs DREW C. ARENA Associate Attorney General JOHN R. SCHMIDT Confidential Assistant CATHERINE E. GALLAGHER Principal Deputy Associate Attorney General NANCY E. MCFADDEN Deputy Associate Attorneys General PAUL R. FRIEDMAN, JOHN C. DWYER, FRANCIS M. ALLEGRA Assistant Associate Attorneys General JOAN SILVERSTEIN, JAMES VIGIL, JR., KEVIN HYNES Special Assistants to the Associate Attorney ERIK REID General Director, Office of Violence Against Women BONNIE CAMPBELL Solicitor General DREW S. DAYS III Inspector General MICHAEL BROMWICH Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal WALTER E. DELLINGER Counsel Assistant Attorney General, Office of KENT MARKUS, Acting Legislative Affairs Assistant Attorney General, Office of Policy ELEANOR D. ACHESON Development Assistant Attorney General for Administration STEPHEN R. COLGATE Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division ANNE K. BINGAMAN 339 340 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division FRANK W. HUNGER Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights DEVAL L. PATRICK Division Assistant Attorney General, Criminal JO ANN HARRIS Division Assistant Attorney General, Environment and LOIS J. SCHIFFER Natural Resources Division Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division LORETTA C. ARGRETT Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice LAURIE ROBINSON Programs Director, Office of Public Affairs CARL L. STERN Directors, Office of Information and Privacy RICHARD L. HUFF DANIEL J. METCALFE Director, Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys CAROL DIBATTISTE Director, Bureau of Prisons KATHLEEN M. HAWK Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation LOUIS J. FREEH Director, United States Marshals Service EDUARDO GONZALEZ Director, Executive Office for Immigration ANTHONY C. MOSCATO Review Director, Executive Office for United States JOSEPH PATCHAN Trustees Director, Community Relations Service JEFFREY L. WEISS, Acting Director, Community Orienting Policing JOSEPH BRANN Services Administrator, Drug Enforcement THOMAS A. CONSTANTINE Administration Commissioner, Immigration and Naturalization DORIS MEISSNER Service Chairman, United States Parole Commission EDWARD F. REILLY, JR. Chairman, Foreign Claims Settlement DELISSA A. RIDGWAY Commission Chief, INTERPOL–U.S. National Central SHELLEY G. ALTENSTADTER Bureau Counsel, Office of Intelligence Policy and RICHARD SCRUGGS Review Counsel, Office of Professional Responsibility MICHAEL E. SHAHEEN, JR. Pardon Attorney MARGARET C. LOVE [For the Department of Justice statement of organization, see the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 28, Chapter I, Part 0] As the largest law firm in the Nation, the Department of Justice serves as counsel for its citizens. It represents them in enforcing the law in the public interest. Through its thousands of lawyers, investigators, and agents, the Department plays the key role in protection against criminals and subversion, in ensuring healthy competition of business in our free enterprise system, in safeguarding the consumer, and in enforcing drug, immigration, and naturalization laws. The Department also plays a significant role in protecting citizens through its efforts for effective law enforcement, crime prevention, crime detection, and prosecution and rehabilitation of offenders. Moreover, the Department conducts all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States is concerned. It represents the Government in legal matters generally, rendering legal advice and opinions, upon request, to the President and to the heads of the executive departments. The Attorney General supervises and directs these activities, as well as those of the U.S. attorneys and U.S. marshals in the various judicial districts around the country. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ATTORNEY GENERAL DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL SOLICITOR ASSOCIATE OFFICE OF OFFICE OF GENERAL ATTORNEY GENERAL POLICY PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT AFFAIRS OFFICE OF THE SOLICITOR OFFICE OF OFFICE OF GENERAL LEGISLATIVE LEGAL AFFAIRS COUNSEL COMMUNITY OFFICE OF CIVIL FEDERAL OFFICE OF THE OFFICE OF ORIENTED CIVIL CRIMINAL JUSTICE RIGHTS BUREAU OF INSPECTOR PROFESSIONAL POLICING DIVISION DIVISION PROGRAMS DIVISION INVESTIGATION GENERAL REPONSIBILITY SERVICES ENVIRONMENT OFFICE OF DRUG OFFICE OF ANTITRUST AND NATURAL BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE ENFORCEMENT THE PARDON DIVISION RESOURCES PRISONS POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION ATTORNEY DIVISION REVIEW EXECUTIVE EXECUTIVE UNITED UNITED OFFICE OF COMMUNITY JUSTICE OFFICE FOR TAX OFFICE FOR STATES STATES INFORMATION RELATIONS MANAGEMENT UNITED STATES DIVISION UNITED STATES MARSHALS PAROLE AND PRIVACY SERVICE DIVISION TRUSTEES ATTORNEYS SERVICE COMMISSION IMMIGRATION U.S NATIONAL EXECUTIVE FOREIGN CLAIMS AND CENTRAL OFFICE FOR SETTLEMENT NATURALIZATION BUREAU– IMMIGRATION COMMISSION DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SERVICE INTERPOL REVIEW UNITED STATES ATTORNEYS 341 342 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL The Department of Justice was created under authority of act of established by act of June 22, 1870, as September 24, 1789, as amended (28 amended (28 U.S.C. 501, 503, 509 U.S.C. 503). note), with the Attorney General as its The affairs and activities of the head. Prior to 1870 the Attorney General Department of Justice are generally was a member of the President’s directed by the Attorney General. The Cabinet, but not the head of a offices, divisions, bureaus, and boards of department, the office having been the Department follow. Offices Attorney General The Attorney Office drafts legal opinions of the General, as head of the Department of Attorney General rendered in response Justice and chief law enforcement officer to requests from the President and heads of the Federal Government, represents of the executive departments. It also the United States in legal matters provides its own written opinions and generally and gives advice and opinions informal advice in response to requests to the President and to the heads of the from the various agencies of the executive departments of the Government, as well as offices within Government when so requested. The the Department and from Presidential Attorney General appears in person to staff and advisers, typically dealing with represent the Government before the legal issues involving agency U.S. Supreme Court in cases of disagreements or with pending exceptional gravity or importance. The legislation. The Office also is responsible Office of the Attorney General oversees for providing legal advice to the the Offices of Deputy Attorney General, executive branch on all constitutional Associate Attorneys General, Legal questions. Counsel, and Inspector General, as well All Executive orders and as the following offices whose public proclamations proposed to be issued by purposes are widely applied. the President are reviewed by the Office Solicitor General The Solicitor General of Legal Counsel for form and legality, as represents the U.S. Government in cases are various other matters that require the before the Supreme Court. He decides President’s formal approval. In addition, what cases the Government should ask the Office of Legal Counsel functions as the Supreme Court to review and what general counsel for the Department. It position the Government should take in reviews all proposed orders of the cases before the Court. Also, he Attorney General and all regulations supervises the preparation of the requiring the Attorney General’s Government’s Supreme Court briefs and approval. other legal documents and the conduct The Office coordinates the work of the of the oral arguments in the Court. He or Department with respect to treaties, his staff argue most of the Government’s executive agreements, and international cases in the Supreme Court. The organizations. It performs a variety of Solicitor General’s duties also include special assignments referred by the deciding whether the United States Attorney General or the Deputy Attorney should appeal in all cases it loses before General. However, it is not authorized to the lower courts. give legal advice to private persons. Legal Counsel The Assistant Attorney Information and Privacy The Office of General in charge of the Office of Legal Information and Privacy (OIP) operates Counsel assists the Attorney General in under the supervision of a Director, who fulfilling the Attorney General’s function manages the Department’s as legal adviser to the President and all responsibilities related to the Freedom of the executive branch agencies. The Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 343 Act. These responsibilities include supports communities in developing coordinating policy development and local mechanisms as proactive measures compliance Governmentwide for FOIA, to prevent or reduce racial/ethnic and by the Department for the Privacy tensions. Act; and adjudicating all appeals from The services provided include denials by any Department component conciliation, mediation, technical of access to information under those assistance, and training, and involve acts. OIP also processes all initial specialized procedures for preventing requests under those acts for access to and resolving racial and ethnic conflicts. the records of the Offices of the Attorney The Service provides assistance directly General, Deputy Attorney General, to people and their communities. It Associate Attorney General, and other shows no partiality among disputing senior management offices of the parties and, in promoting the principles Department. and ideals of nondiscrimination, applies Pardon Attorney The Office of the skills that allow parties to mediate their Pardon Attorney, in consultation with the own disputes. The Service’s conciliators, Attorney General or his designee, assists who are located in 10 regional offices the President in the exercise of executive and 3 field offices around the country, clemency as authorized under Article II, assist people of diverse racial and section 2, of the Constitution. Generally, cultural backgrounds. all requests for executive clemency are The Service offers its assistance either directed to the Pardon Attorney for on its own motion, when in its judgment investigation and review. Executive peaceful relations among the citizens of clemency may take several forms, a community are threatened, or upon including pardon, commutation, request of State or local officials or other interested persons. The Service seeks the remission of fine, and reprieve. cooperation of appropriate State and Community Relations Service The local, and public and private agencies in Service was created by title X of the carrying out the agency’s mission. Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. Under the Refugee Education and 2000g et seq.). Pursuant to Executive Assistance Act, the Community Relations Order No. 12341 of January 21, 1982, Service provides assistance for the the Attorney General expanded the processing, care, and placement within Service’s mandate to include the United States of Cuban and Haitian responsibility for the Cuban/Haitian entrants. Working with voluntary and Entrant Program (CHEP), as authorized governmental agencies, the Service’s by subsection 501(c)(1)(A) of the Refugee headquarters and Miami field offices Education Assistance Act of 1980 (8 provide humanitarian relief for the U.S.C. 1522). The Community Relations successful resettlement of Cuban and Service is under the general authority of Haitian entrants. These services include the Attorney General and is headed by a shelter care, child welfare, and family Director, appointed by the President reunification for these individuals with the advice and consent of the following their release from Immigration Senate. and Naturalization Service custody. The mission of the Service is to The Community Relations Service’s prevent and resolve community conflicts Primary Resettlement Program provides and reduce community tensions arising transitional community-based refugee from actions, policies, and practices resettlement services to recently perceived to be discriminatory on the apprehended Haitian nationals paroled basis of race, color, or national origin. from detention at Immigration and The Service offers assistance to Naturalization Service Processing communities in resolving disputes Centers—primarily the Krome Service relating to race, color, or national origin Processing Center in South Florida and and facilitates the development of viable the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo, agreements as alternatives to coercion, Cuba—and to recently encountered and violence, or litigation. It also assists and paroled Cuban nationals from ports 344 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL throughout Florida, mostly the Key West provided similar services to other alien coast guard station. minors detained at the Krome Service The Secondary Resettlement Program Processing Center in Miami, FL, and provides resettlement services, other detention facilities in Houston and emphasizing employment placement and Harlingen, TX. retention at specialized sites outside of The Community Relations Service Florida, to Cubans and Haitians whose provides residential shelter care; health initial resettlement in South Florida did services; and counseling, educational, not lead to self-sufficiency. recreational, and family reunification Under the Unaccompanied Minors services to unaccompanied alien minors Program, the Service has extensive through grants to voluntary agencies. experience in providing services to These services are provided in Cuban and Haitian minors apprehended compliance with existing State child by the Immigration and Naturalization welfare standards and regulations. The Service (INS). Since 1986, under a Service’s involvement ensures that alien memorandum of agreement with INS, children apprehended by INS are placed the Community Relations Service has in safe and suitable environments. Regional Offices—Community Relations Service (Areas included within each region are indicated on the map in Appendix A.) Region/Address Director Phone/FTS 1. Boston, MA (99 Summer St., 02110) ....................................................... Martin A. Walsh ................. 617–424–5715 2. New York, NY (26 Federal Plz., 10278) .................................................. Patricia Glenn .................... 212–264–0700 3. Philadelphia, PA (2d and Chestnut Sts., 19106) ..................................... Jonathan Chace ................. 215–597–2344 4. Atlanta, GA (75 Piedmont Ave. NE., 30303) ........................................... Ozell Sutton ....................... 404–331–6883 5. Chicago, IL (55 W. Monroe St., 60603) ................................................... Jesse Taylor ...................... 312–353–4391 6. Dallas, TX (1420 W. Mockingbird Ln., 75247) ......................................... Gilbert J. Chavez ............... 214–655–8175 7. Kansas City, MO (323 W. 8th St., 64105) ............................................... Atkins Warren .................... 816–374–6522 8. Denver, CO (1244 Speer Blvd., 80204–3584) ......................................... Leo Cardenas .................... 303–844–2973 9. San Francisco, CA (33 New Montgomery St., 94105–4511) .................. Julian Klugman .................. 415–744–6565 10. Seattle, WA (915 2d Ave., 98101) ........................................................... Robert Lamb, Jr. ................ 206–220–6700 For further information, contact any regional office or the Director, Community Relations Service, Department of Justice, Suite 330, 5550 Friendship Boulevard, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Phone, 301–492– 5929. Justice Management Division Under such as automated data processing and the direction of the Assistant Attorney payroll. The Division supplies automated General for Administration, the Division litigation support as required to the provides assistance to senior Department of Justice and to other management officials relating to basic Federal agencies involved in litigation. Department policy for evaluation, budget The Division develops and and financial management, personnel promulgates Departmentwide policies, management and training, equal standards, and procedures for the opportunity programs, automatic data management of automated information processing and telecommunications, processing resources and for the security, records management, directive system and reviews their procurement, real property and materiel implementation. The Division collects, management, and for all other matters organizes, and disseminates recorded pertaining to organization, management, information that is necessary for the and administration. Department to carry out its statutory The Division provides direct mandate and provides general research administrative support services, such as and reference assistance regarding personnel, accounting, payroll, information to Department staff, other procurement, budget, and facilities and Government attorneys, and members of property management to the offices, the public. boards, and divisions of the Department; Professional Responsibility The Office and operates several central services, of Professional Responsibility, which DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 345 reports directly to the Attorney General, Departments, concerning questions of is responsible for investigating law, regulation, and guidelines as well allegations of criminal or ethical as the legality of domestic and overseas misconduct by employees of the Justice intelligence operations. Department. The Counsel on The Office prepares and files all Professional Responsibility heads the applications for surveillances and Office, the role of which is to ensure searches under the Foreign Intelligence that departmental employees continue to Surveillance Act of 1978, assists perform their duties in accordance with Government agencies by providing legal the high professional standards expected advice on matters of national security of the Nation’s principal law law and policy and represents the enforcement agency. Department of Justice on a variety of All allegations against Department interagency committees. The Office also employees in attorney, criminal comments on and coordinates other investigative, or law enforcement agencies’ views regarding proposed positions involving violations of law, legislation affecting national security and departmental regulations, or intelligence matters. departmental applicable standards of The Office serves as adviser to the conduct, are reported to the Office of Attorney General and various client Professional Responsibility. At the agencies, including the Central Counsel’s discretion, the Office Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau frequently conducts its own of Investigation, the National Security investigations into those allegations. Agency, and the Defense and State The Office may also participate in or Departments, concerning questions of direct an investigation conducted by law, regulation, and guidelines as well another component of the Department, as the legality of domestic and overseas or may simply monitor an investigation intelligence operations. conducted by an appropriate agency Executive Office for United States having jurisdiction over the matter. In Attorneys Under the supervision of the addition, the Office oversees the internal Deputy Attorney General and the inspection operations of the Federal direction of a Director, the Executive Bureau of Investigation and Drug Office for United States Attorneys Enforcement Administration. provides general executive assistance The Counsel submits an annual report and nonlitigative oversight to the 94 to the Attorney General that reviews and offices of United States attorneys, evaluates the Department’s internal including evaluating the performance of inspection units. The Counsel makes the offices of United States attorneys, recommendations to the Attorney making appropriate reports and taking General on the need for changes in corrective action where indicated, and policies or procedures that become coordinating and directing the evident during the course of internal relationships of the offices of the United inquiries reviewed or initiated by the States attorneys with other organizational Office. units of the Department of Justice. Intelligence Policy and Review The The Office supervises the operation of Office of Intelligence Policy and Review, the Office of Legal Education, including under the direction of the Counsel to the the Attorney General’s Advocacy Attorney General for Intelligence Policy, Institute and the Legal Education is responsible for advising the Attorney Institute, which develops, conducts, and General on all matters relating to the authorizes the training of Federal national security activities of the United executive branch legal personnel and States. The Office also serves as adviser support staff. Administrative and logistic to the Attorney General and various services, including the allocation of client agencies, including the Central personnel, financial resources, and office Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau automation equipment, are furnished to of Investigation, the National Security the offices of the United States attorneys. Agency, and the Defense and State The Office supervises the 346 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL implementation and administration of —adjustments of debts of a family the Law Enforcement Coordination farmer with regular income under Program and of the Victim and Witness chapter 12; and Protection Act. Direction and —adjustment of debts of an individual administrative support are provided to with regular income under chapter 13, the Debt Collection Program and Debt pursuant to which an individual can Collection Criminal Fines. discharge debts by arranging for The Office manages the appointment payments over a period of time. The process of United States attorneys, U.S. Trustee does not have a significant assistant United States attorneys, and role in proceedings under chapter 9, special assistant United States attorneys. which relates to the adjustment of debts The United States Attorneys’ Manual and of a municipality. the United States Attorneys’ Bulletin are Specific responsibilities of the U.S. published and maintained for the Trustees include: internal guidance of the United States —appointing and supervising the attorneys’ offices and those other performance of private trustees in organizational units of the Department individual cases; concerned with litigation. The Office —appointing and convening creditors’ also provides legal opinions, committees in chapter 11 corporate interpretations, and advice to United reorganization cases; States attorneys on topics such as —reviewing applications for the budget, legislation, ethics, and retention of professionals and the Department guidelines. payment of fees; U.S. Trustee Program The U.S. Trustee Program acts in the public interest to —reviewing disclosure statements and promote the efficiency and to protect submitting statements to the court and preserve the integrity of the regarding their adequacy; bankruptcy system. It works to secure —appointing trustees or examiners in the just, speedy, and economical such cases as needed; resolution of bankruptcy cases; monitors —ensuring that the assets involved in the conduct of parties, takes action to bankruptcy cases are protected during ensure compliance with applicable laws the administration of cases; and procedures, and identifies and —serving as trustees in chapters 7, 12, investigates bankruptcy fraud and abuse; and 13 cases where private trustees are and oversees administrative functions in unwilling to serve; and bankruptcy cases. The Program is funded —presenting matters relating to the by the U.S. Trustee System Fund, which Bankruptcy Code in court. consists mainly of filing fees paid by Executive Office for U.S. Trustees The debtors invoking the protections of the Attorney General is charged with the bankruptcy laws. appointment, supervision, and The U.S. Trustees supervise the coordination of the U.S. Trustees and administration of four of the five types of Assistant U.S. Trustees. Day-to-day bankruptcy proceedings defined under policy and legal direction, coordination, the Bankruptcy Code. These are: and control are provided by the Director —proceedings under chapter 7 in of the Executive Office for U.S. Trustees which the assets of the debtor are who is appointed by the Attorney liquidated; General. The Executive Office also —reorganization proceedings under provides administrative and management chapter 11 for rehabilitation of the support to individual U.S. Trustee business debtor; Offices. For further information, contact the Executive Office for U.S. Trustees, Department of Justice, Suite 700, 901 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–307–1391. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 347 Divisions Antitrust Division and oil drilling leases and the disposition The Assistant Attorney General in charge of surplus Government property. of the Antitrust Division is responsible In addition, the Antitrust Division for promoting and maintaining represents the United States in judicial competitive markets by enforcing the proceedings to review certain orders of Federal antitrust laws. Such enforcement, the Interstate Commerce Commission, which is the principal function of the Federal Maritime Commission, Federal Division, involves investigating possible Communications Commission, and antitrust violations, conducting grand Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and jury proceedings, preparing and trying provides direct court representation for antitrust cases, prosecuting appeals, and the Secretary of the Treasury in certain negotiating and enforcing final Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and judgments. The antitrust laws affect Firearms cases. It also participates in virtually all industries and apply to every Federal Trade Commission cases before phase of business, including the Supreme Court. manufacturing, transportation, In the international law area, the distribution, and marketing. They Division represents the United States on prohibit a variety of practices that the Committee on Competition Law and restrain trade, such as price-fixing Policy of the Organization for Economic conspiracies, corporate mergers likely to Cooperation and Development, reduce the competitive vigor of participates in the United Nations particular markets, and predatory acts Conference on Trade and Development, designed to achieve or maintain and, through the Department of State, monopoly power. The Division maintains liaison with foreign prosecutes serious and willful violations governments on antimonopoly laws and of the antitrust laws by filing criminal policies. suits that can lead to large fines and jail sentences. Where criminal prosecution is For further information, contact the FOIA Unit, Antitrust Division, Department of Justice, Tenth not appropriate, the Division seeks a Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, court order forbidding future violations DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–2692. of the law and requiring steps by the defendant to remedy the anticompetitive Civil Division effects of past violations. The Division also is responsible for The Civil Division represents the United acting as an advocate of competition States, its departments and agencies, within the Federal Government. This Members of Congress, Cabinet officers, involves formal appearances in Federal and other Federal employees. Its administrative agency proceedings, litigation reflects the diversity of development of legislative initiatives to Government activities, involving, for promote deregulation and eliminate example, the defense of challenges to unjustifiable exemptions from the Presidential actions; national security antitrust laws, participation on executive issues; benefit programs; energy policies; branch policy task forces, and commercial issues such as contract publication of reports on regulated disputes, banking, insurance, patents, industry performance. The Division fraud, and debt collection; all manner of provides formal advice to other agencies accident and liability claims; and on the competitive implications of violations of the immigration and proposed transactions requiring Federal consumer protection laws. Each year, approval, such as construction of nuclear Division attorneys handle thousands of powerplants and mergers of financial cases that collectively involve billions of institutions. It also consults with Federal dollars in claims and recoveries. The agencies on a variety of other matters, Division confronts significant policy including the issuance of Federal coal issues, which often rise to constitutional 348 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL dimensions, in defending and enforcing property damage involving vessels, shore various Federal programs and actions. installations, and maritime personnel, The Civil Division litigates cases in all equipment, and cargoes; suits arising out Federal district courts, the U.S. Courts of of contracts involving shipping, Appeals, the U.S. Court of Federal chartering of vessels, and the Claims, other Federal and State courts, construction, repair, and salvaging of and the courts of foreign nations. vessels; proceedings to enforce Division attorneys either conduct this navigation and shipping laws; and litigation personally or they supervise or litigation based on international maritime assist the U.S. attorneys and foreign agreements. counsel to whom the Division refers the Commercial Litigation The Commercial cases. The Division is composed of Litigation Branch is responsible for seven major groups: the Torts Branch, litigation associated with the the Commercial Litigation Branch, the Government’s diverse financial Federal Programs Branch, the Appellate involvements. Staff, the Office of Consumer Litigation, This litigation includes all monetary the Office of Immigration Litigation, and suits involving contracts, express or an Office of Management Programs. implied; actions to foreclose on Torts The Torts Branch is responsible Government mortgages and liens; for suits under the Federal Tort Claims bankruptcy and insolvency proceedings; Act, including medical malpractice, and suits against guarantors and sureties. aviation disasters, environmental and Branch attorneys bring suit under the occupational disease, and radiation and False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. 3729) for toxic substance exposure. It also handles the recovery of treble damages and civil maritime litigation and suits that seek penalties, and alternative remedies, upon personal monetary judgments against proof of loss to the Government individual officers or employees. sustained through fraud in the award or Tort litigation more specifically performance of Government contracts, includes the defense of all Federal Tort false claims presented in connection Claims Act suits against the United with Federal programs, the submission of States, and the prosecution of suits in false statements and vouchers to tort on behalf of the United States. Suits Government agencies, and the use of and administrative claims for death, other fraudulent devices in transactions personal injury, and property damage with the Government. These suits brought under the Tort Claims Act allege include those filed pursuant to the qui negligence on the part of Government tam provisions of the False Claims Act, employees acting within the scope of in which private citizens with knowledge their employment and involve matters of fraud against the Government may file such as the operation of Government a lawsuit against the perpetrators on vehicles, the maintenance of behalf of the United States and share in Government premises, and the a percentage of any monetary recovery. performance of Federal services and Branch attorneys also bring suits to regulatory functions such as medical recover sums paid to bribe Government treatment, hospital care, and the control officials and kickbacks in Government of civilian, military, and commercial air procurement. traffic. In addition, the Torts Branch The Branch is responsible for all cases defends petitions filed pursuant to the in the U.S. Court of International Trade, Vaccine Injury Compensation Program including suits brought by importers of and is responsible for administering the merchandise to challenge the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. appraisement or classification of Tort litigation also includes all legal imported goods or other decisions of the proceedings involving the United States U.S. Customs Service in its related to ships, shipping, navigable administration of the tariff laws and waters, and workmen’s compensation. schedules. The Division’s admiralty litigation The Branch has responsibility for all includes suits for personal injury and litigation in the U.S. Court of Federal DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 349 Claims except for those cases assigned to international judicial assistance to the Environment and Natural Resources foreign and international tribunals. Division and the Tax Division. Included Federal Programs The Federal are: Programs Branch defends and asserts the —patent cases and suits arising out of programs, policies, and decisions of construction, procurement, service virtually all Federal departments and contracts, and claims associated with agencies, the President, Cabinet officers, contract terminations; Members of Congress, and other —claims involving freight rate disputes Government officials. It defends against arising out of the transportation of constitutional challenges to statutes, suits Government property; to overturn Government policies and —claims for just compensation under programs, and challenges to the legality the fifth amendment; of Government decisions. These suits —claims for salary or retirement by typically seek injunctive and declaratory civilian and military personnel; and relief and range from objections to the —cases assigned by congressional way that the Government deals with its reference or special legislation. employees to allegations that the Likewise, Branch attorneys handle the President has violated the Constitution or majority of cases before the Court of Federal law. The Branch also initiates Appeals for the Federal Circuit. This suits to enforce regulatory statutes and to litigation involves appeals of decisions remedy or prevent statutory or regulatory made by the U.S. Court of Federal violations. Claims, the U.S. Court of Veterans The areas of litigation include: Appeals, Boards of Contract Appeals, the —defense of suits against the heads of Merit Systems Protection Board, and Federal departments and agencies and Federal district courts. other government officials to enjoin The Branch handles all litigation official actions, as well as suits for involving the rights, liabilities, and judicial review of administrative administrative functions of the decisions, orders, and regulations; Government with respect to patent, —defense and prosecution of suits copyright, and trademark matters. This involving national security, including includes: suits to protect sensitive intelligence —defense of patent infringement suits sources and materials; based on the liability of the United —prosecution of suits to prevent States for infringements in connection interference with Government with the performance of Government operations; contracts; —litigation concerning the —legal proceedings to establish constitutionality of Federal legislation; Government priority of invention; and —suits for specific performance to —defense of suits involving require transfer of rights and title and specialized statutes, such as the Freedom payment of royalties; of Information Act, the Federal Advisory —suits to cancel patents acquired by Committee Act, and the Privacy Act. fraud upon the Patent Office; Appellate Staff The Appellate Staff has —defense of administrative acts of the primary responsibility for the litigation of Register of Copyrights; and Civil Division cases in the appellate —actions on behalf of the courts. The Staff prepares Government Government involving the use of briefs and presents oral argument for the trademarks. cases. Additionally, the Appellate Staff The Branch is also responsible for the participates in drafting all documents supervision of litigation in foreign courts filed for these cases in the United States involving the United States as a party Supreme Court, including briefs on the and suits against U.S. employees merits, petitions for certiorari, and stationed abroad who are being sued in jurisdictional statements. the course of their Government service. Consumer Litigation The Office of Additionally, the Branch renders Consumer Litigation is responsible for 350 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL civil and criminal litigation and related district court litigation, deportation matters arising under various consumer review proceedings, habeas corpus protection and public health statutes, review and general advice, and including the Federal Food, Drug, and immigration-related appellate matters. Cosmetic Act, the Federal Trade The Office is also responsible for cases Commission Act, the Consumer Product pertaining to the issuance of visas and Safety Act, the Hazardous Substances passports, and for litigation arising under Act, and the Truth in Lending Act. The the amnesty and employer sanctions Office also serves as a liaison with other provisions of the Immigration Reform Federal agencies and with local and Control Act of 1986 (8 U.S.C. enforcement agencies for the referral of 1255a, 1324a) and 1990 immigration consumer complaints outside the jurisdiction of the Department of Justice. reforms. Immigration Litigation The Office of Management Programs The Office of Immigration Litigation is responsible for Management Programs provides conducting civil litigation under the management and administrative services Immigration and Nationality Act (8 to the Division, including policy analysis U.S.C. 1101) and related laws and for and planning, administrative representing the United States in civil management, budget formulation and litigation brought against employees of execution, management information the Immigration and Naturalization systems, office automation, and Service. In addition, this Office handles automated litigation support. For further information, contact the Office of the Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division, Department of Justice, Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–3301. Civil Rights Division sex, and religion in programs and The Civil Rights Division, headed by an activities that receive Federal financial Assistant Attorney General, was assistance. The Section also conducts established in 1957 to secure effective compliance reviews and investigates Federal enforcement of civil rights. The complaints of discrimination on the basis Division is the primary institution within of race, color, national origin, sex, age, the Federal Government responsible for and religion in the services and activities enforcing Federal statutes prohibiting of recipients of Federal financial discrimination on the basis of race, sex, assistance from the Department of disability, religion, and national origin. Justice. The Division is composed of the Criminal Section Under the Federal following Sections: criminal civil rights statutes, the Criminal Appellate Section The Appellate Section prosecutes conduct involving Section handles civil rights cases in the conspiracies to interfere with federally courts of appeals and, in cooperation protected rights, deprivation of rights with the Solicitor General, in the under color of law, the use of force or Supreme Court. The Section frequently threat of force to injure or intimidate participates in amicus curiae cases that someone in their enjoyment of specific affect the Division, and provides counsel rights (such as voting, housing, to the Department on civil rights and employment, education, public facilities, appellate litigation. It handles all appeals and accommodations), interference with from both favorable and adverse the free excercise of religious beliefs or judgments in which the Government damage to religious property, and the participates. holding of a worker in a condition of Coordination and Review Section This slavery or involuntary servitude. More Section coordinates the enforcement by recently, the Section began enforcing the Federal agencies of various civil rights criminal aspects of the new Freedom of statutes that prohibit discrimination on Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). the basis of race, color, national origin, This statute prohibits conduct intended DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 351 to injure, intimidate, or interfere with Immigration Reform and Control Act of persons seeking to obtain or provide 1986 (8 U.S.C. 1324b). The Special reproductive services. Also, a task force Counsel is responsible for investigating staffed by attorneys from both the and prosecuting charges of national Criminal and Civil Rights Divisions was origin and citizenship status created by the Attorney General to discrimination in hiring, firing, or determine if there is any organized recruitment. Jurisdiction over national criminal effort to commit violence upon origin charges is limited to those not abortion providers. covered by the Equal Employment Educational Opportunities Section The Opportunity Commission. Jurisdiction Educational Opportunities Section over citizenship status is exclusive. enforces title IV of the Civil Rights Act of The Special Counsel files complaints 1964 and the Equal Educational before an administrative law judge based Opportunities Act of 1974. In addition, it on charges filed with this Office or on its represents the Department of Education own independent investigations. Appeals in certain suits filed against and on of administrative decisions are to the behalf of the Secretary of Education. The U.S. Courts of Appeals. Section closely monitors approximately In addition, the Special Counsel 400 school districts operating under coordinates with the Immigration and desegregation court orders. Naturalization Service, the Equal Employment Litigation Section The Employment Opportunity Commission, Employment Litigation Section enforces and other Federal agencies in promoting the provisions of title VII of the Civil public awareness of the Rights Act of 1964, as amended, and antidiscrimination provisions of the act, other Federal laws prohibiting through employer and public interest employment practices that discriminate conferences, public service on the grounds of race, sex, religion, and announcements, and nationwide national origin, as they apply to State distribution of enforcement information. and local government employers. Disability Rights Section This Section Housing and Civil Enforcement Section (previously the Public Access Section) The Housing and Civil Enforcement enforces Titles I, II, and III of the Section has principal responsibility for Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 enforcing the Fair Housing Act of 1968, (ADA) and Department of Justice as amended, which prohibits regulations implementing these discrimination in housing on the basis of provisions, provides technical assistance race, color, religion, sex, national origin, to entities covered by the ADA and to disability, and familial status. The act persons protected by the ADA, and allows the Section to bring cases on coordinates the technical assistance behalf of individuals where a complaint efforts of all Federal agencies with is filed with the Department of Housing technical assistance responsibilities and Urban Development (HUD). under the ADA. The Section also Additionally, the Section enforces the certifies that State or local building Equal Credit Opportunity Act, which codes meet or exceed the requirements prohibits discrimination in credit of the ADA. The Section is also transactions; and title II of the Civil responsible for carrying out the Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits Department’s responsibilities under discrimination in places of public section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of accommodations, such as hotels, 1973. restaurants, and places of entertainment. Special Litigation Section The Special Office of Special Counsel for Litigation Section is responsible for Immigration Related Unfair Employment protecting the constitutional and Practices The Office of Special Counsel statutory rights of persons confined in for Immigration Related Unfair certain institutions owned or operated by Employment Practices was established State or local governments, including pursuant to section 102 of the facilities for individuals with mental and 352 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL developmental disabilities, nursing and technical services, including homes, prisons, jails, and juvenile personnel administration, budget detention facilities where a pattern or formulation and execution, facilities practice of violations exist. This authority services, mail and file operations, and is granted by the Civil Rights of automated systems. This Section also Institutionalized Persons Act. The Section contains the Freedom of Information/ is also responsible for civil enforcement Privacy Act Branch, which ensures that provisions of the Freedom of Access to the Division complies with all aspects of Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) which the Freedom of Information and Privacy prohibits force or the threat of force for Acts. the purpose of interfering with the Another component of the provision of reproductive services; and Administrative Management Section is the police misconduct provision of the the Office of Redress Administration, Violent Crime Control and Law which implements the responsibilities Enforcement Act of 1994, which gives given to the Attorney General under the Attorney General authority to remedy section 105 of the Civil Liberties Act of patterns and practices of misconduct by 1988. The Act provides for redress to certain law enforcement authorities. American citizens and permanent Voting Section The Voting Section is resident aliens of Japanese ancestry who responsible for the enforcement of the were evacuated, relocated, and interned Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Voting by the United States during World War Accessibility for the Elderly and II. Handicapped Act, the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, For further information, contact the Executive Officer, Civil Rights Division, Department of the National Voter Registration Act of Justice, P.O. Box 65310, Washington, DC 20035– 1993, and other statutory provisions 5310. Phone, 202–514–4224. designed to safeguard the right to vote of racial and language minorities, illiterate Criminal Division persons, individuals with disabilities, overseas citizens, persons who change The Criminal Division develops, their residence shortly before a enforces, and supervises the application Presidential election, and persons 18 to of all Federal criminal laws, except those 20 years of age. specifically assigned to other divisions. Under section 2 of the Voting Rights The Division and the 93 U.S. attorneys Act, the Section brings lawsuits to are responsible for overseeing criminal remedy discriminatory election practices. matters under more than 900 statutes, as Under section 5 of the Voting Rights Act, well as certain civil litigation. In addition the Section reviews voting changes to its direct litigation responsibilities, the submitted to the Attorney General and Division formulates and implements defends section 5 litigation in court to criminal enforcement policy and assure that redistricting plans and other provides advice and assistance. The changes in voting practices and Division approves or monitors sensitive procedures do not abridge the right to areas of law enforcement such as vote of racial or language minorities. participation in the Witness Security Under section 8 of the Voting Rights Act, Program and the use of electronic the Attorney General requests the surveillance; advises the Attorney assignment of Federal observers—who General, Congress, the Office of generally are employees of the Office of Management and Budget, and the White Personnel Management—to monitor House of matters of criminal law; polling place activities on election day provides legal advice and assistance to to document and deter discriminatory Federal prosecutors and investigative practices. agencies; and provides leadership for Administrative Management Section coordinating international as well as This Section supports the Division by Federal, State, and local law providing a diverse array of management enforcement matters. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 353 Office of Administration The Office of property with State and local Administration performs a wide range of enforcement agencies, as well as other administrative and managerial functions nations, and oversees the approval of the for the components of the Criminal placement of such property into official Division, including budget preparation use by the Federal agencies. and execution, personnel actions, Child Exploitation and Obscenity The computer support services, mail and Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section records services, procurement, and (CEOS) prosecutes violators of Federal security. criminal statutes relating to sexual Appellate Section The Appellate exploitation of minors, child support, Section prepares draft briefs and and obscenity. Under these statutes, the certiorari petitions for the Solicitor Section prosecutes those who possess, General to be filed in the U.S. Supreme manufacture, or distribute child Court; makes recommendations to the pornography, those who sell, buy, or Solicitor General as to whether further transport children interstate or review on adverse decisions in the internationally to engage in sexually district courts and courts of appeals is explicit conduct; those who travel necessary; and prepares briefs and interstate or internationally to sexually argues cases in the courts of appeals. abuse children; those who sexually The Section assists U.S. attorneys and abuse children on Federal and Indian Division prosecutors in preparing briefs lands; those who do not pay certain for the courts of appeals and provides court-ordered child support payments; advice on Speedy Trial Act [of 1974] and those who transport obscene problems and a variety of other legal material in interstate or foreign issues. commerce either by the mails, common Asset Forfeiture The Asset Forfeiture carrier, cable television lines, telephone Office provides centralized management lines, or satellite transmission. Section of the Department’s Asset Forfeiture attorneys also assist U.S. attorneys in Program to ensure its integrity and to investigations, trials, and appeals related maximize its full law enforcement to these statutes. Finally, Section potential. The Office provides oversight, attorneys provide advice on victim- management, and direction to the witness issues and develop and refine various Federal participating proposals for prosecution policies, components. It initiates, coordinates, and legislation, governmental practices, and reviews legislative and policy proposals agency regulations in the areas of child impacting on the program and serves as sexual exploitation of minors, child the Department’s contact for Congress, support, and obscenity. other executive branch agencies, and Fraud The Fraud Section, the largest State and local law enforcement component of the Criminal Division, agencies. The Office develops, directs and coordinates the Federal effort promulgates, and oversees uniform against fraud and white-collar crime, forfeiture policies of the Department. It focusing primarily on complex frauds assists in the litigation of both civil and that involve: multidistrict and criminal asset forfeiture cases, either by international activities; financial conducting the litigation itself or institutions; the insurance industry; providing legal and practical advice to Government programs and procurement the U.S. attorneys or their assistants. The procedures, including health care Office oversees asset forfeiture training providers, defense procurement fraud, seminars for Federal prosecutors, and Housing and Urban Development investigating agents, and contract fraud; the securities and commodities personnel. It also adjudicates all exchanges; and multidistrict schemes petitions for remission or mitigation of that involve consumer victimization, forfeited assets in judicial forfeiture such as telemarketing. The Section cases. The Office administers the conducts investigations and prosecutes program for sharing federally forfeited on its own about 100 fraud cases of 354 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL national significance or great complexity enforces the Foreign Agents Registration annually. It also assists U.S. attorneys Act of 1938 and related disclosure with cases, where requested. The Section statutes. maintains a regional Bank Fraud Task Money Laundering The Money Force field office in Dallas, TX, and Laundering Section works with the entire Boston, MA, and provides staffing for the spectrum of law enforcement and San Diego Bank Fraud Task Force. The regulatory agencies using an interagency, Section also trains Federal agents and interdisciplinary, and international prosecutors through its conferences and approach. The Section is mandated to: participation in other Federal coordinate multidistrict investigations conferences. and prosecutions; provide guidance, General Litigation and Legal Advice legal advice, and assistance with respect The General Litigation and Legal Advice to money laundering investigations and Section investigates and prosecutes cases prosecutions to U.S. attorneys’ offices involving violations of approximately and investigative agencies; develop two-thirds of all Federal criminal regulatory and legislative initiatives; statutes. Its Computer Crime Unit ensure, through implementation of the enforces the Computer Fraud and Abuse money laundering prosecution Act. Other Section jurisdiction includes guidelines, the uniform application of crimes against the public and crimes the money laundering statutes; litigate against government operations and complex, sensitive, and multidistrict offenses involving criminally enforceable money laundering cases and provide regulations in the areas of health, safety, litigation assistance to U.S. attorneys’ and welfare. Examples of areas handled offices and Criminal Division by the Section include wiretapping components; participate in international violations, information technology efforts to combat money laundering; crimes and customs fraud, theft, or develop, use, and teach cutting-edge destruction of Government property, investigative and prosecutive obstruction of justice, perjury and methodologies; identify new trends and offenses on Federal or Indian typologies in money laundering; develop reservations or on the high seas. The national strategy with respect to new and Section also handles certain civil matters emerging trends, and coordinate and provides extensive legal advice to responses among appropriate agencies; officials of the Department, U.S. and provide training, materials, and attorneys’ offices, and investigative conferences for attorneys and law agencies relating to its broad spectrum of enforcement personnel in conjunction responsibilities. with the Department’s Office of Legal Internal Security The Internal Security Education. The Money Laundering Section supervises the investigation and Section carries its own litigation prosecution of cases affecting national caseload and, at the same time, works security, foreign relations, and the export with other law enforcement agencies of military and strategic commodities throughout the country to promote and technology. The Section has innovative, yet uniform development of exclusive responsibility for authorizing the law in money laundering and money the prosecution of cases under criminal laundering-related forfeiture matters. statutes relating to espionage, sabotage, Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs The neutrality, and atomic energy. It provides Narcotic and Dangerous Drug Section legal advice to U.S. attorneys’ offices investigates and prosecutes complex, and investigative agencies on all matters multidefendant narcotics and related within its area of responsibility, which money-laundering cases. The Section includes 88 Federal statutes affecting coordinates complex multidistrict cases national security. It also coordinates and provides direct litigation support to criminal cases involving the application the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement of the Classified Information Procedures Task Forces, the High Intensity Drug Act. The Section also administers and Trafficking Areas programs, and other DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 355 multiagency initiatives. The Section Department policy on emerging litigates appeals from cases prosecuted technologies and telecommunications by its attorneys and appeals of denials or issues. It also assists, upon request, in revocations of licenses and registrations the drafting of reply briefs involving by the Administrator of the Drug electronic surveillance issues. Enforcement Administration. The Office responds to requests for Section attorneys actively participate disclosure of information under the in various working groups formed to Freedom of Information Act and the assist the Department in fulfilling its Privacy Act. responsibilities in the development and International Affairs The Office of implementation of domestic and International Affairs supports the international narcotics law enforcement Department’s legal divisions, the U.S. programs and policies. attorneys, and State and local The Section includes a Drug prosecutors regarding questions of Intelligence Unit which serves as a point foreign and international law, including of contact when information gathering issues related to extradition and mutual efforts of the intelligence community legal assistance treaties. The Office also overlap with domestic investigations and coordinates all international evidence prosecutions. gathering. In conjunction with the State Enforcement Operations The Office of Department, the Office engages in the Enforcement Operations oversees the use negotiation of new extradition and of the most sophisticated investigative mutual legal assistance treaties and tools at the Department’s disposal, executive agreements throughout the including electronic surveillance and the world. Office attorneys also participate Federal Witness Protection Program. The on a number of committees established Office provides U.S. attorneys’ offices under the auspices of the United Nations and the various Criminal Division and other international organizations that components with a wide range of are directed at resolving a variety of prosecutorial support services in these international law enforcement problems, and other areas. These areas include such as narcotics trafficking and money reviewing all Federal electronic laundering. The Office maintains a surveillance requests; reviewing and permanent field office in Rome. authorizing requests to apply for court Legislation The Office of Legislation orders permitting the use of video develops legislative proposals, legal surveillance; authorizing or denying the memoranda, and congressional entry of all applicants into the Federal testimony. The Office also prepares Witness Security Program, coordinating comments on pending and proposed and administering all Program legislation affecting the Federal criminal components and matters relating to all justice system. It works closely with the aspects of the Witness Security Program; U.S. Sentencing Commission and approving or denying requests by provides legal support to the Advisory Federal agencies to utilize Federal Committee on Criminal Rules and the prisoners for investigative purposes; Federal Rules of Evidence of the Judicial administering the International Prisoner Conference regarding the Federal Rules Transfer Program; coordinating requests of Criminal Procedure. for U.S. prisoners to testify in foreign Professional Development and Training countries; and supervising the The Office of Professional Development mechanism by which persons who are and Training furthers the goals of the not Federal law enforcement officers or Criminal Division relating to its agents may become Special Deputy initiatives in international training. In this United States Marshals. The Office regard, the Office coordinates the provides legal advice to Federal, State, training of judges and prosecutors and local law enforcement agencies on abroad through various Government the use of Federal electronic surveillance agencies and U.S. embassies. The Office statutes, and assists in developing coordinates such training programs in 356 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL South and Central America and in attorneys’ offices in 21 Federal districts Central and Eastern Europe. having a significant organized crime The Office also serves as the presence. These cases involve a broad Department’s liaison between various spectrum of criminal statutes, including private and public agencies that sponsor extortion, murder, bribery, fraud, visits to the United States for foreign narcotics, and labor racketeering. officials who are interested in the U.S. The Section is involved in setting legal system. The Office makes national priorities for the organized presentations explaining the U.S. crime program by coordinating with criminal system process to hundreds of investigative agencies such as the international visitors each year. Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug Another responsibility of this Office is Enforcement Administration, and others; the revision and publication of Criminal and by working with the Attorney Division manuals and monographs. The General’s Organized Crime Council, Office also has a small in-house video which is ultimately responsible for the library to afford Criminal Division Federal Government’s policy in this area. In addition to its close supervision of attorneys easy access to quick updates in all Federal organized crime cases, the important areas of the law, such as Section maintains close control over all sentencing guidelines and the Government uses of the RICO statute, admissibility of DNA (deoxyribonucleic and provides extensive advice to acid) identification evidence. prosecutors about the use of this Policy and Management Analysis The powerful tool for cases involving patterns Office of Policy and Management of serious criminal conduct. Analysis analyzes policy and In a more specialized context, the management issues relating to criminal Section provides support for criminal justice enforcement and makes prosecutions, which may not include recommendations to senior managers in organized criminal groups. These cases the Criminal Division and the involve labor-management disputes, the Department. The Office is involved in internal affairs of labor unions in the projects that may require contact with private sector, and the operation of U.S. attorneys, Federal investigators, and employee pension and welfare benefit other law enforcement officials. plans. Special Investigations The Office of Public Integrity The Public Integrity Special Investigations detects and Section oversees the Federal effort to investigates individuals who took part in combat corruption through the Nazi-sponsored acts of persecution prosecution of elected and appointed abroad before and during World War II, public officials at all levels of and who subsequently entered, or seek Government. The Section has exclusive to enter, the United States illegally and/ jurisdiction over allegations of criminal or fraudulently. It then takes appropriate misconduct by Federal judges, and also legal action seeking their exclusion, monitors the investigation and denaturalization, and/or deportation. prosecution of election and conflict of Organized Crime and Racketeering interest crimes. Section attorneys The Organized Crime and Racketeering prosecute selected cases against Federal, Section coordinated the Department’s State, and local officials, and are program to combat organized crime. The available as a source of advice and principal enforcement efforts are expertise to other prosecutors and to currently directed against traditional investigators. Since 1978, the Section groups—such as La Cosa Nostra families, has supervised the administration of the and emerging groups from Asia and Independent Counsel provisions of the Europe—such as Chinese Triads, the Ethics in Government Act. Sicilian Mafia, and Russian organized Terrorism and Violent Crime The crime. The Section supervises the Terrorism and Violent Crime Section investigation and prosecution of these investigates and prosecutes Federal cases by Strike Force Units within U.S. offenses relating to international DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 357 terrorism incidents which impact on U.S. and reporting on caseload and other interests. The Section also oversees the statistical data for the Task Forces; the prosecution of domestic violent crime coordination of multiagency research offenses over which Federal jurisdiction reports for the Attorney General, the exists, as well as the prosecution of Under Secretary of the Treasury, the U.S. firearms and explosives violations. In attorneys, the President, the Congress, appropriate instances, Section attorneys and others; and the policy formulation assume direct responsibility for the and management of the fiscal aspects of prosecution of violent crime cases. The the program. Section assists in the implementation of For further information, contact the Office of the an initiative designed to deter criminals Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, from possessing firearms by using Department of Justice, Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Federal firearms laws, which generally Phone, 202–514–2601. provide longer and often mandatory sentences for gun offenses. Additionally, Environment and Natural Resources the Section administers the national anti- Division violent crime strategy which is being carried out in every Federal judicial The Environment and Natural Resources district. The strategy focuses particular Division, formerly known as the Land attention on the investigation and and Natural Resources Division, is the prosecution of gang-related crimes. Nation’s environmental lawyer. It is Section attorneys provide legal advice to responsible for litigating significant Federal prosecutors concerning Federal cases—ranging from protection of statutes relating to murder, assault, endangered species, to global climate change, to cleaning up the Nation’s kidnapping, threats, robbery, weapons hazardous waste sites. A key Division and explosives control, malicious responsibility is enforcing civil and destruction of property, and aircraft and criminal environmental laws in order to sea piracy. The Section also formulates protect its citizens’ health and legislative initiatives and Department environment. The Division also defends policies relating to international terrorism environmental challenges to Government and violent crime, and coordinates such programs and activities. It represents the initiatives and strategies with other United States in all matters concerning Government agencies. the protection, use, and development of Executive Office for the Organized the Nation’s natural resources and public Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces lands, wildlife protection, Indian rights Since 1982, the Organized Crime Drug and claims, and the acquisition of Enforcement Task Forces (OCDETF) Federal property. Program has been the principal coordinating mechanism for Federal, Environmental Crimes The State, and local enforcement Environmental Crimes Section is investigations and prosecutions aimed at responsible for prosecuting individuals high-level drug trafficking and related and industries which have violated laws enterprises. The OCDETF goal is to designed to protect the environment. The dismantle and/or significantly disrupt the Section works closely with the Federal operations of those enterprises by Bureau of Investigation and criminal investigating, prosecuting, and investigators for the Environmental convicting the organizational leadership. Protection Agency (EPA) in dealing with The Executive Office for OCDETF violations of such statutes as the Clean supports the work of over 4,000 Federal Air Act; the Comprehensive agents and prosecutors and an annual Environmental Response, Compensation average of 6,000 State and local and Liability Act (Superfund); and the personnel in OCDETF activities through Resource Conservation and Recovery Act the coordination of legal and (RCRA), among others. administrative services provided to the Environmental Enforcement The Task Forces; the collection, analyses, Environmental Enforcement Section is 358 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL responsible for handling most of the Federal wildlife laws and laws affirmative civil litigation brought on concerning the protection of marine fish behalf of the United States and mammals. Prosecutions focus on Environmental Protection Agency; claims illegal hunting, smuggling, and black- for damages to our natural resources on market dealers of protected fish and behalf of the Departments of Interior, wildlife. Civil litigation, particularly Commerce, and Agriculture; claims for under the Endangered Species Act, often contribution against private parties for focuses on conflicts between the needs contamination of public land; and of protected species versus pressures for recoupment of money spent to clean up development by both the Federal certain oil spills on behalf of the United Government and private enterprise. States Coast Guard. The Section supports General Litigation The General the regulatory programs of its client Litigation Section is responsible for agencies through litigation to obtain ensuring compliance with over 80 compliance with environmental statutes, different statutes dealing with land establishes a credible deterrent against management issues of federally owned violation of those statutes, recoups properties and natural resources. This Federal funds spent to abate includes litigation under the National environmental contamination, and Environmental Policy Act, the Federal obtains money to restore or replace Land Policy Management Act, and the natural resources damaged through oil National Historic Preservation Act. spills or the release of hazardous Important sources of Federal revenue substances into the environment. The such as offshore oil leasing and coal primary statutes within the Section’s slurry pipeline cases are examples of the responsibility are: the Comprehensive varied matters handled by the Section. In Environmental Response, Compensation addition, the Section represents the and Liability Act (Superfund); the Clean United States in all legal and equitable Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the claims asserted by Indian tribes on the Resource Conservation and Recovery grounds that the United States has failed Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act; and to honor its obligations to the tribes. the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Indian Resources The Indian Resources Environmental Defense The Section represents the United States in its Environmental Defense Section trust capacity for individual Indians or represents the United States, principally Indian tribes. These suits include EPA, in suits challenging the establishing water rights, establishing Government’s administration of Federal and protecting hunting and fishing rights, environmental laws. The goal of the collecting damages for trespass on Indian Section’s litigation is to assure that lands, and establishing reservation environmental laws are implemented in boundaries and rights to land. The a fair and consistent manner nationwide. litigation is often complex but of vital The lawsuits arise in Federal district and interest to the Indians. appellate courts, and include challenges Land Acquisition The Land Acquisition by industries, environmental groups, and Section is responsible for acquiring land, citizens that Federal agencies are not through condemnation proceedings, for meeting environmental standards. The use by the Federal Government for Section also protects the Nation’s purposes ranging from establishing wetlands from unauthorized public parks to creating missile sites, and development and destruction, through for approving title to lands being both enforcement actions against illegal acquired by the United States by direct activities and actions defending Corps of purchase. The Section seeks to Engineer decisions on permit implement the just compensation clause applications. of the Fifth Amendment in a way that is Wildlife and Marine Resources The fair both to property owners and Wildlife and Marine Resources Section taxpayers. The legal and factual issues tries both civil and criminal cases under involved can include the power of the DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 359 United States to condemn under specific employees in actions arising out of the acts of Congress; ascertainment of the performance of their official duties, as fair market value of property; well as representing other Federal applicability of zoning regulations and departments and agencies in their problems related to subdivisions; dealings with State and local tax capitalization of income; and the authorities. In civil tax litigation the admissibility of evidence. Division’s responsibility involves cases in Policy, Legislation and Special Litigation the United States District Courts, the The Policy, Legislation and Special United States Court of Federal Claims, Litigation Section advises and assists the the United States Courts of Appeals, and Assistant Attorney General on specific the U. S. Supreme Court, as well as policy matters and particular litigation. It cases in the State courts. coordinates and directs the Division’s The Division represents the United legislative program, including States in many different types of appearances of Division witnesses before disputes, both civil and criminal, dealing congressional committees. Other duties with the interpretation of Federal tax include responding to citizens’ requests laws. For example, when the Internal and serving as the Division’s ethics Revenue Service challenges a tax return officer. Attorneys in the Section also and determines a deficiency, the litigate amicus curiae cases and taxpayer may pay the full amount of tax undertake other special litigation assessed and then bring a suit against the projects. Government for refund. The Division Appeals The Appellate Section is defends the Government in these refund responsible for conducting all appeals in actions. cases initially tried in lower courts by Other areas of civil litigation in which any of the sections within the Division. the Tax Division is involved on behalf of In addition, the Section drafts briefs for the Federal Government include: —suits brought by individuals to all Division cases which reach the level foreclose mortgages or to quiet title to of the U.S. Supreme Court, and property in which the United States is formulates recommendations to the named as a party defendant because of Solicitor General that seek authority to the existence of a Federal tax lien on the appeal unfavorable decisions. The property; Section deals with the full range and —suits brought by the United States to complexity of the new and challenging collect unpaid assessments, to foreclose issues presented by environmental law. Federal tax liens or determine the Executive Office The Executive Office priority of such liens, to obtain serves as administrator to the Division judgments against delinquent taxpayers, on financial management, personnel, to enforce summonses, and to establish automated systems, procurement, and tax claims in bankruptcy, receivership, automated litigation support issues. or probate proceedings; For further information, contact the Office of the —proceedings involving mandamus, Assistant Attorney General, Environment and injunctions, and other specific writs Natural Resources Division, Department of Justice, arising in connection with internal Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–2701. revenue matters; —suits against Internal Revenue Tax Division Service employees for damages claimed because of alleged injuries caused in the The Tax Division represents the United performance of their official duties; States and its officers in all civil and —suits against the Secretary of the criminal litigation arising under the Treasury, the Commissioner of Internal internal revenue laws, other than Revenue, or similar officials to test the proceedings in the United States Tax validity of regulations or rulings not in Court. While the Division’s primary the context of a specific refund action; client is the Internal Revenue Service, it —suits brought by the United States to also represents Federal officials and enjoin the promotion of abusive tax 360 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL shelters and to enjoin activities relating requests for assistance by the appropriate to aiding and abetting the U.S. attorney. In its efforts to deter understatement of tax liabilities of others; willful deception through prosecution of —suits brought by taxpayers for a criminal offenders, the Tax Division also judicial determination of the plays a significant role in curbing reasonableness of a jeopardy or organized crime, public corruption, termination assessment and the narcotics trafficking, and financial appropriateness of the amount; institution fraud. —proceedings brought against the Tax The primary functions of the Division Division and the Internal Revenue are to aid the Internal Revenue Service Service for disclosure of information in collecting the Federal revenue and to under the Freedom of Information Act; establish principles of law that will serve and —intergovernmental immunity suits in as guidelines to taxpayers and their which the United States resists attempts representatives, as well as to the Internal to apply a State or local tax to some Revenue Service, in the administration of activity or property of the United States. the Internal Revenue Code. As a result, The Division also collects judgments coordination with the Internal Revenue in tax cases. To this end, the Division Service’s administrative policies and the directs collection efforts and coordinates Treasury Department’s legislative tax with, monitors the efforts of, and concerns in developing litigating provides assistance to the various United postures is essential. States attorneys’ offices in collecting The Division also provides input into outstanding judgments in tax cases. the preparation of reports to the With respect to criminal tax litigation, Congress, the Office of Management and the Division prosecutes or supervises the Budget, and the Office of Legislative prosecution of all criminal offenses Affairs on pending or proposed committed under the internal revenue legislation and monitors congressional laws, including attempts to evade and activities with respect to matters of defeat taxes, willful failures to file returns interest to the Division. and to pay taxes, filing false returns and In accordance with the Attorney other deceptive documents, making false General’s program to enhance the statements to revenue officials, and other litigating skills of Department attorneys, miscellaneous offenses involving internal the Division conducts training programs revenue matters. These duties include for its attorneys, with special emphasis the institution of criminal proceedings on matters unique to tax litigation and and collaboration with U.S. attorneys in the development of advocacy skills. the conduct of litigation in the trial and appellate courts. Further, Tax Division For further information, contact the Office of the Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division, attorneys frequently conduct grand jury Department of Justice, Tenth Street and investigations and actual trials of Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. criminal tax cases, often as a result of Phone, 202–514–2901. Bureaus Federal Bureau of Investigation charged with gathering and reporting facts, locating witnesses, and compiling Ninth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., evidence in cases involving Federal Washington, DC 20535. Phone, 202–324– jurisdiction. 3000 The Federal Bureau of Investigation was established in 1908 by the Attorney The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) General, who directed that Department is the principal investigative arm of the of Justice investigations be handled by its United States Department of Justice. It is own staff. The Bureau is charged with DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 361 investigating all violations of Federal law The Executive Office of the Director except those that have been assigned by provides overall direction for agency legislative enactment or otherwise to operations. In addition to typical another Federal agency. Its jurisdiction administrative functions performed by an includes a wide range of responsibilities agency head, the Offices of General in the criminal, civil, and security fields. Counsel and Internal Affairs are within Priority has been assigned to the five the Office and report to the Director. areas that affect society the most: The Administration Division develops organized crime/drugs, counterterrorism, plans, programs, and policies concerning white-collar crime, foreign the acquisition, construction, and staffing counterintelligence, and violent crime. of new facilities, as well as budget On January 28, 1982, the Attorney development, financial management, General assigned concurrent jurisdiction procurement, and contracting. for the enforcement of the Controlled The Correctional Programs Division is Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801) to the responsible for managing the Bureau and the Drug Enforcement correctional services (security) operations Administration (DEA). The DEA in Bureau institutions and case and unit Administrator reports to the Attorney management, as well as religious and General through the FBI Director. psychological services, drug treatment programs, and inmate systems. The Bureau also offers cooperative Federal Prison Industries (trade name services such as fingerprint identification, UNICOR) is a wholly owned laboratory examination, police training, Government corporation whose mission and the National Crime Information is to provide employment and training Center to duly authorized law opportunities for inmates confined in enforcement agencies. Federal correctional facilities. UNICOR The Bureau headquarters in manufactures a wide range of items— Washington, DC, consists of nine from executive and systems furniture to separate divisions, a Deputy Director, an electronics, textiles, and graphics/ Office of Public and Congressional signage. Services performed by Affairs, an Office of Equal Employment UNICOR’s inmates include data entry, Opportunity Affairs, and a Director’s printing, and furniture refinishing. The staff. corporation funds selected preindustrial, The Bureau’s investigations are vocational, and experimental training conducted through 56 field offices. Most programs. of its investigative personnel are trained The Health Services Division has at the FBI Academy in Quantico, VA. oversight responsibility for all medical and psychiatric programs; environmental For further information, contact the Office of Public and Congressional Affairs, Federal Bureau of and occupational health services; food Investigation, J. Edgar Hoover F.B.I. Building, Ninth and nutrition services; and farm Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, operations. DC 20535. Phone, 202–324–2727. The Human Resource Management Division provides personnel, training, Bureau of Prisons and labor management within the 320 First Street NW., Washington, DC 20534. agency. Its functions also include pay Phone, 202–307–3198 and position management and recruitment. The mission of the Bureau of Prisons is The National Institute of Corrections to protect society by confining offenders provides technical assistance and in the controlled environments of prisons training for State and local correctional and community-based facilities that are agencies throughout the country. It also safe, humane, and appropriately secure, provides grants for research, evaluation, and which provide work and other self- and program development. The improvement opportunities to assist Institute’s administrative offices, Prison offenders in becoming law-abiding Division, and Community Corrections citizens. Division are located in Washington, DC; 362 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL and the Jails Division, Training marshals and their support staff of Academy, and Information Center are approximately 3,500 deputy marshals located in Longmont, CO. The Institute and administrative personnel operate receives logistical support from the from 427 office locations in all 94 Bureau of Prisons but is a separate Federal judicial districts nationwide, budget entity. from Guam to Puerto Rico, and from The Program Review Division oversees Alaska to Florida. agency review functions, ensures internal The Marshals Service performs tasks controls, and coordinates the year-end that are essential to the operation of assurance statement to the Attorney General. This division also conducts in- virtually every aspect of the Federal depth analyses of review outcomes, and justice system. The Service is responsible tracks and monitors management for: changes made in accord with those —providing support and protection for findings. the Federal courts, including security for The Information, Policy and Public over 700 judicial facilities and nearly Affairs Division encompasses the 2,000 judges and magistrates, as well as Bureau’s Information Systems; Policy countless other trial participants such as Review; Information Resources jurors and attorneys; Management; Research and Evaluation; —apprehending most Federal fugitives; Security Technology; Documents Control; External Liaison; Archives; and —operating the Federal Witness Office of Public Affairs. Security program, ensuring the safety of The Community Corrections and endangered government witnesses; Detention Division is responsible for the —maintaining custody of and Bureau’s Community Corrections and transporting thousands of Federal Detention Programs, Contract Services, prisoners annually; Administration, and Program Development. —executing court orders and arrest The Bureau is subdivided into six warrants; geographic regions, each staffed with —seizing, managing, and selling field-qualified personnel who are property forfeited to the Government by responsible for policy development and drug traffickers and other criminals, and oversight, providing operational assisting the Justice Department’s Seizure guidance to field locations, and and Forfeiture Program; and providing support functions in areas such —responding to emergency as auditing, technical assistance, budget, circumstances, including civil and personnel. Each regional office is disturbances, terrorist incidents, and headed by an experienced career Bureau other crisis situations, through its Special manager who is a full member of the Operations Group, and restoring order in Bureau’s executive staff. riot and mob-violence situations. For further information, contact the Public The Director of the U.S. Marshals Information Officer, Bureau of Prisons, Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20534. Phone, 202– Service, who is appointed by the 307–3198. President, supervises the operations of the Service throughout the United States United States Marshals Service and its territories. The Deputy Director for Operations oversees the Service’s 600 Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202– enforcement, court security, witness 4210. Phone, 202–307–9065 protection, prisoner transportation, and The United States Marshals Service is the asset seizure and forfeiture activities. The Nation’s oldest Federal law enforcement Deputy Director for Administration is agency, having served as a vital link responsible for personnel management; between the executive and judicial procurement and property management; branches of the Government since 1789. space, transportation, and Today, the Presidentially appointed communications; information systems; DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 363 and the U.S. Marshals Service Training designates the Attorney General as the Academy. permanent representative to INTERPOL For further information, contact the Office of and the Secretary of the Treasury as the Congressional and Public Affairs, U.S. Marshals alternate representative. Service, Department of Justice, Suite 1260, 600 The Bureau operates through Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202. Phone, 202–307–9065. cooperative efforts with Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies. United States National Central Programs and initiatives, such as the Bureau–International Criminal State Liaison Program and the Canadian Police Organization Interface Project, broaden the scope of U.S. investigative resources to include Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–272– the international community, thus 8383 forming an integral part of the United The U.S. National Central Bureau States efforts to confront the problem of (USNCB) represents the United States in international crime. INTERPOL, the International Criminal Federal and State law enforcement Police Organization. Also known as agencies represented at the USNCB INTERPOL—Washington, USNCB include the Federal Bureau of provides an essential communications Investigation; U.S. Marshals Service; link between the U.S. police community Drug Enforcement Administration; and their counterparts in the foreign Immigration and Naturalization Service; member countries. Criminal Division, U.S. Customs Service; INTERPOL is an association of 169 U.S. Secret Service; Internal Revenue countries dedicated to promoting mutual Service; Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and assistance among law enforcement Firearms; Office of the Comptroller of authorities in the prevention and the Currency; Office of the Inspector suppression of international crime. With General, Department of Agriculture; U.S. no police force of its own, INTERPOL Postal Inspection Service; Bureau of has no powers of arrest or search and Diplomatic Security, Department of seizure. Instead, INTERPOL serves as a State; Naval Investigative Service; channel of communication among the Federal Law Enforcement Training police of the member countries, and Center; Financial Crimes Enforcement provides a forum for discussions, Network; and the Massachusetts State working group meetings, and symposia Police. to enable police to focus on specific areas of criminal activity affecting their Under the State Liaison Program, countries. States establish an office within their United States participation in own law enforcement community to INTERPOL began in 1938 by serve as liaison to USNCB. International congressional authorization, designating leads developed in criminal the Attorney General as the official investigations being conducted by a representative to the organization. State or local police entity can be INTERPOL operations were interrupted pursued through their Liaison Office, and during World War II, but resumed in criminal investigative requests from 1947. abroad are funneled through the relevant The Attorney General officially State liaison office for action by the designated the Secretary of the Treasury appropriate State or local agency. All 50 as the U.S. representative to INTERPOL States now participate in the liaison in 1958, and the U.S. National Central program, which is currently coordinated Bureau was established within the by a representative from the Treasury Department in 1969. In 1977, Massachusetts State Police. an arrangement was effected between USNCB has two sub-bureaus which Justice and Treasury officials establishing serve to more effectively address the law dual authority in administering USNCB. enforcement needs of U.S. territories. This Memorandum of Understanding The sub-bureaus are located in San Juan, 364 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL Puerto Rico; and Pago Pago, American border patrol sectors throughout the Samoa. United States. INS also maintains three For further information, contact the U.S. National district offices in Bangkok, Thailand; Central Bureau–INTERPOL, Washington, DC 20530. Mexico City, Mexico; and Rome, Italy. Phone, 202–272–8383. INS carries out its mission through operational programs in adjudications Immigration and Naturalization and naturalization, inspections, Service investigations, and detention and 425 I Street NW., Washington, DC 20536. deportation, as well as the U.S. Border Phone, 202–514–4316, 4330, or 4354 Patrol. These programs are divided into the following mission responsibilities: [For the Immigration and Naturalization Service —facilitating the entry of persons statement of organization, see the Code of Federal legally admissible as immigrants or as Regulations, Title 8, Aliens and Nationality] visitors to the United States; The Immigration and Naturalization —granting benefits under the Service (INS) was created by act of Immigration and Nationality Act, as March 3, 1891 (8 U.S.C. 1551 note), amended, including providing assistance and its purpose and responsibilities were to those seeking asylum, temporary or further specified by the Immigration and permanent resident status, or Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. naturalization; 1101 note), which charges the Attorney —preventing unlawful entry, General with the administration and employment, or receipt of benefits by enforcement of its provisions. The those who are not entitled to them; and Attorney General has delegated authority —apprehending or removing those to the Commissioner of the Immigration aliens who enter or remain illegally in and Naturalization service to carry out the United States and/or whose stay is these provisions of immigraion law. not in the public interest. Overall policy and executive direction The Service also has a firm flow from the Washington, DC, commitment to strengthen criminal headquarters office through 3 regional investigations and seek the most effective offices to 33 district offices and 21 deterrents to illegal immigration. For further information, contact the Office of Information, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Department of Justice, 425 I Street NW., Washington, DC 20536. Phone, 202–514–4316, 4330, or 4354. Drug Enforcement Administration any other competent jurisdiction—on those significant organizations and their 600–700 Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA members involved in cultivation, 22202. Phone, 202–307–1000; FTS, 367– 1000 production, smuggling, distribution, or diversion of controlled substances The Drug Enforcement Administration appearing in or destined for illegal traffic (DEA) is the lead Federal agency in in the United States. DEA immobilizes enforcing narcotics and controlled these organizations by arresting their substances laws and regulations. It was members, confiscating their drugs, and created in July 1973, by Reorganization seizing their assets; and creates, Plan No. 2 of 1973 (5 U.S.C. app.), manages, and supports enforcement- which merged four separate drug law related programs—domestically and enforcement agencies. internationally—aimed at reducing the DEA enforces the provisions of the availability of and demand for controlled controlled substances and chemical substances. diversion and trafficking laws and regulations of the United States, and DEA’s responsibilities include: operates on a worldwide basis. It —investigation of major narcotic presents cases to the criminal and civil violators who operate at interstate and justice systems of the United States—or international levels; DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 365 —seizure and forfeiture of assets The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) was derived from, traceable to, or intended established by the Justice Assistance Act to be used for illicit drug trafficking; of 1984 and reauthorized in 1994 to —enforcement of regulations provide Federal leadership, coordination, governing the legal manufacture, and assistance needed to make the distribution, and dispensing of controlled Nation’s justice system more efficient substances; and effective in preventing and —management of a national narcotics controlling crime. OJP and its five intelligence system; program bureaus are responsible for —coordination with Federal, State, collecting statistical data and conducting and local law enforcement authorities analyses; identifying emerging criminal and cooperation with counterpart justice issues; developing and testing agencies abroad; and promising approaches to address these —training, scientific research, and issues; evaluating program results, and information exchange in support of drug disseminating these findings and other traffic prevention and control. information to State and local DEA manages the El Paso Intelligence governments. Center (EPIC), a 24-hour tactical drug The Office is headed by an Assistant intelligence center, which utilizes DEA Attorney General who, by statute and and Federal personnel from 13 other delegation of authority from the Attorney agencies. General, establishes, guides, promotes, The Administration concentrates its and coordinates policy; focuses efforts efforts on high-level narcotics smuggling on the priorities established by the and distribution organizations in the President and the Attorney General; and United States and abroad, working promotes coordination among the five closely with such agencies as the major bureaus or offices within OJP. These are: Bureau of Justice Assistance, Customs Service, the Internal Revenue Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Service, and the Coast Guard. It also Institute of Justice, Office of Juvenile chairs the 11-agency National Narcotics Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and Intelligence Consumers Committee, Office for Victims of Crime. which develops an annual report on Through the programs developed and drug production, trafficking, and abuse financed by its bureaus and offices, OJP trends. works to form partnerships among Approximately 400 Administration Federal, State, and local government compliance investigators enforce officials to control drug abuse and regulation of the legal manufacture and trafficking, rehabilitate crime-ridden distribution of prescription drugs. The neighborhoods, improve the agency also maintains an active training administration of justice in America, program for narcotics officers in other meet the needs of crime victims, and Federal, State, and local agencies—as find innovative ways to address well as foreign police. problems such as gang violence, prison The Administration maintains liaison crowding, juvenile crime, and white- with the United Nations, INTERPOL, and collar crime. The functions of each other organizations on matters relating to bureau or office are interrelated. For international narcotics control programs. example, the statistics generated by the It has offices throughout the United Bureau of Justice Statistics may drive the States and in 50 foreign countries. research that is conducted through the For further information, contact the Public Affairs National Institute of Justice and the Section, Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Juvenile Justice and Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20537. Delinquency Prevention. Research Phone, 202–307–7977. results may generate new programs that receive support from the Bureau of Office of Justice Programs Justice Assistance and the Office of 633 Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC Juvenile Justice and Delinquency 20531. Phone, 202–307–0781 Prevention. 366 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL Although some research and technical Comprehensive Communities Program. assistance is provided directly by OJP’s BJA also supports violence reduction bureaus and offices, most of the work is initiatives, such as homicide accomplished through Federal financial investigations and firearms control assistance to scholars, practitioners, and programs. Criminal justice agencies are State and local governments. provided assistance in addressing new Program bureaus and offices award issues and problems, such as the spread formula grants to State agencies, which, of drug-trafficking gangs; intermediate in turn, subgrant funds to units of State punishment, such as bootcamps; and and local government. Formula grant drug testing of criminal offenders. The programs—drug control and system Bureau also supports programs that are improvement, juvenile justice, victims national or multistate in scope, such as compensation, and victims assistance— Operation Weed and Seed, the Regional are administered by State agencies Information Sharing Systems, the designated by each State’s Governor. National White Collar Crime Center, and Discretionary grant programs usually are the National Crime Prevention (McGruff) announced in the Federal Register, and Campaign. Discretionary Grant funds are applications are made directly to the awarded directly by the Bureau and do sponsoring Office of Justice Programs not require matching funds. bureau or office. Direct assistance is also provided by Bureau of Justice Assistance The the Bureau through the Emergency Bureau provides financial and technical Federal Law Enforcement Assistance, assistance to State and local units of Federal Surplus Property Transfer, Prison government to control drug abuse, drug Industry Certification, Public Safety trafficking, and violent crime and to Officers’ Death and Disability Benefits, improve the criminal justice system. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (42 and the State Criminal Alien Assistance U.S.C. 3750), which established the Programs. Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Bureau of Justice Statistics The Bureau Law Enforcement Assistance Programs, is responsible for collecting, analyzing, authorizes the Bureau to make grants for publishing, and disseminating statistical the purpose of enforcing State and local information on crime, its perpetrators laws that establish offenses similar to and victims, and the operation of justice those designated in the Controlled systems at all levels of government and Substances Act and to improve the internationally. functioning of the criminal justice The Bureau also assists State system, with emphasis on violent crime governments in developing capabilities and serious offenders. The States are in criminal justice statistics and required to prepare a statewide anti-drug improving their criminal justice records and violent crime strategy as part of their and information systems. applications for Formula Grant funds. The Bureau provides the President, the Federal funds may be used for up to 75 Congress, other officials, and the public percent of the total project costs. with timely and accurate data about The Bureau uses the Discretionary crime and the administration of justice. Grant Program to provide State and local The Bureau publishes concise Special criminal justice agencies with state-of- Reports and periodic Bulletins that the-art information on innovative and provide up-to-date statistical information effective programs, practices, and on various aspects of criminal justice. In techniques through demonstration addition, lengthier volumes present projects, training, and technical detailed analyses of specific topics. assistance. For example, the Bureau is The National Crime Victimization developing and implementing Survey is the largest ongoing statistical comprehensive crime control and crime series currently conducted by the prevention strategies for communities Bureau. Using interviews from a large faced with high rates of violence and sample of U.S. households, the Survey drug-related crime through the measures the rates at which the Nation’s DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 367 population is victimized by crimes of community anti-drug initiatives, violence and theft. multijurisdictional task forces, and drug Other statistical series cover civil testing programs. justice, prison and jail inmates, NIJ’s evaluations of new approaches probation and parole, adjudication, for holding offenders accountable for processing offenders as they move their crimes has provided invaluable through the criminal justice system, information regarding such programs as criminal justice expenditure and bootcamps, youth challenge camps, employment, law enforcement intensive community supervision, management and administration, and the specialized probation, and prison work- Federal justice system. release programs. The corrections The Bureau supports a statistical information sharing system at NIJ assists component in the National Criminal State and local officials in exchanging Justice Reference Service. The Bureau of information on innovative and cost- Justice Statistics Clearinghouse provides effective concepts and techniques for reference services for people requesting planning, financing, and constructing information, maintains a mailing list, and new prisons and jails. distributes Bureau publications. The In addition, NIJ works to fulfill the Bureau may be contacted on 800–732– information needs of the criminal justice 3277 (toll-free). system by publishing and disseminating The Bureau also manages the Drugs reports and other materials from its and Crime Data Center and research, demonstration, evaluation, and Clearinghouse, funded by the Office of other programs; provides training and National Drug Control Policy, which technical assistance to justice officials on gathers and evaluates existing data on innovations developed through its drugs and the justice system; identifies programs; and serves as the national and drug enforcement data gaps; operates a international clearinghouse of justice clearinghouse/reference center that information for Federal, State, and local serves as a single source for those in governments. need of drug statistics; and prepares special reports and tabulations of For further information, contact the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Phone, 1–800– existing drug data. The Drugs and Crime 851–3420. Data Center and Clearinghouse may be contacted on 800–666–3332 (toll-free). Office of Juvenile Justice and National Institute of Justice The Delinquency Prevention The Office National Institute of Justice (NIJ) sponsors was created by the Juvenile Justice and special projects and research and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (42 development programs designed to U.S.C. 5601) in response to national improve and strengthen the criminal concern about juvenile crime. It is the justice system and reduce or prevent primary Federal agency for addressing crime. It also conducts national juvenile crime and delinquency and the demonstration projects that employ problem of missing and exploited innovative or promising approaches for children. The Office is comprised of five improving criminal justice, and develops divisions. new technologies to fight crime and The State Relations and Assistance improve criminal justice. Division oversees the Formula Grants NIJ conducts evaluations to determine Program. States can receive formula the effectiveness of criminal justice grants to help implement delinquency programs, particularly programs funded prevention, control, and system by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, and improvement programs, including the identifies programs that promise to be core requirements of the Juvenile Justice successful if continued or replicated in and Deliquency Prevention Act. These other jurisdictions. For example, it has core requirements include evaluated the effectiveness of innovative deinstitutionalizing status offenders, drug control programs, including separating juveniles from adult offenders neighborhood-oriented policing, in institutions, removing juveniles from 368 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL adult jails and lockups, and addressing Programs The Concentration of Federal the disproportionate confinement of Efforts Program and the Missing minority youth. Technical assistance is Children’s Program are also under the provided to States and communities to Office’s direction. The Concentration of enhance their programs. The Division Federal Efforts Program coordinates also administers the Title V Prevention Federal programs dealing with juvenile Incentive Grants Program. delinquency and assists Federal agencies The Special Emphasis Division that have responsibility for delinquency provides funds directly to public and prevention and treatment. It also private nonprofit agencies and promotes interagency cooperation in individuals to foster new approaches to eliminating duplicate efforts and deliquency prevention and control and provides direction for the use of Federal the improvement of the juvenile justice resources in facilitating a system. The Division focuses on such comprehensive, unified Federal juvenile areas as serious, violent, and chronic justice policy. juvenile offenders; gangs; at-risk female The Missing Children’s Program was juvenile offenders; and school dropouts. created in 1984 by the Missing The Research and Program Children’s Assistance Act to provide Development Division sponsors research Federal leadership in ensuring that every and studies about national trends in practical step is taken in recovering juvenile deliquency and drug use, missing children, reuniting them with serious juvenile crime, the causes of their families, and prosecuting abductors. deliquency, prevention strategies, The Program serves as a central focus for program evaluation, and improvement of research, data collection, policy development, training professionals in the juvenile justice system. It is also the field, and providing information responsible for program evaluation, about missing and exploited children. It statistics, and demonstration programs. also funds the National Center for The Training and Technical Assistance Missing and Exploited Children, which Division sponsors training for juvenile operates a national toll-free telephone justice practitioners, policymakers, and line and serves as a national information organizations and provides technical clearinghouse. assistance in planning, funding, Office for Victims of Crime The Office establishing, operating, and evaluating for Victims of Crime (OVC) serves as the juvenile delinquency programs. In Federal focal point for addressing the addition, the Division administers needs and improving the treatment of juvenile court and prosecutor training, crime victims. This includes carrying out court-appointed special advocates, and the activities mandated by the Victims of children’s advocacy center programs Crime Act of 1984 (VOCA), as amended under the Victims of Child Abuse Act of (42 U.S.C. 10601 note); monitoring 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13001). compliance with the provisions The Information Dissemination Unit regarding assistance for Federal crime conducts a wide variety of information victims of the Victim and Witness dissemination activities for the Office in Protection Act of 1982; and support of its statutory mandate to serve implementing the recommendations of as a clearinghouse and information the President’s Task Force on Victims of center for the preparation, publication, Crime, the Attorney General’s Task Force and dissemination of information on on Family Violence, and the President’s juvenile delinquency and missing Child Safety Partnership. children. The Unit also monitors the VOCA created a Crime Victims Fund operations of the juvenile justice in the U.S. Treasury to provide Federal clearinghouse, which collects, stores, financial assistance to State governments and disseminates the Office’s and other to compensate and assist victims of juvenile justice-related publications. The crime. Monies in the fund come from toll-free telephone number is 1–800– fines and penalties assessed on 638–8736. convicted Federal defendants. The Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 369 awards grants to States to compensate discretionary grant programs authorized crime victims for expenses, such as by the Violence Against Women Act of medical costs, resulting from their 1994. victimization. Grants also are awarded to The program assists the Nation’s State governments to support State and criminal justice system to respond to the local programs that provide direct needs and concerns of women who have assistance to crime victims and their been, or potentially could be, victimized families. Priority for victim assistance by violence. The program emphasizes funds is given to programs providing enhanced delivery of services to women direct services to victims of sexual victimized by violence, and will work to assualt, spouse abuse, and child abuse. strengthen outreach efforts to minorities States also must use grant funds to assist and disabled women. The Office previously underserved victim provides technical assistance to State populations, such as victims of drunk and tribal government officials in drivers or the families of homicide plannimg innovative and effective victims. criminal justice responses to violent A small portion of the Crime Victims crimes committed against women. The Fund is available to support services for Office provides Indian tribal victims of Federal crimes. Programs governments with funds to develop and under this initiative have focused on strengthen the tribal justice system’s developing victim assistance services for response to violent crimes committed Federal crime victims in Indian country, against Native American women through creating an emergency fund for use by a discretionary grant program. U.S. attorneys offices to pay for States that receive Violence Against emergency services for Federal crime Women Program formula grant funds are victims, and assisting Native American required to engage in a multidisciplinary child abuse victims. planning process involving law In collaboration with other agencies enforcement; prosecution; nonprofit, and groups, OVC administers numerous nongovernmental victim service projects serving the victims of drug- providers including domestic violence related crimes. The Office also supports and sexual assault coalitions; key national programs to improve and criminal justice practitioners; and coordinate services to crime victims and community leaders to develop a sponsors conferences and training for coordinated and integrated strategy to criminal justice practitioners, medical address to address violence against and mental health personnel, the clergy, women. Funds may be used to support and others who work with crime victims seven broad purpose areas including and their families. In addition, each year training for law enforcement officers and OVC sponsors National Crime Victims’ prosecutors to identify and respond more Rights Week to increase public effectively to violent crimes against awareness of crime victims’ special women; developing, training, or needs and to honor those who work on expanding special units of law behalf of victims. The OVC Resource enforcement officers and prosecutors to Center, which provides information respond to violent crimes against concerning victims issues to victims women; developing, training, or advocates, criminal justice practitioners, expanding special units of law and the public, is funded by OVC. The enforcement officers and prosecutors to Center may be reached toll-free on 1– respond to violent crimes against 800–627–6872. women; developing and improving data Violence Against Women Program collection and communications systems Office The Violence Against Women linking police, prosecutors, and courts, Program Office coordinates the activities or to identify and track arrests, of the Bureaus within OJP relating to protection orders, violations of violence against women. It also protection orders; creating or enhancing establishes the policy for and administers victim services programs and programs the Department’s formula and addressing stalking; and developing and 370 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL enhancing programs which focus on the administration for the corrections special needs of Indian tribes in programs authorized by the Violent addressing violent crimes. Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act Drug Court Program Office The Drug of 1994. In particular, the Office is Court Program Office was established to responsible for the following grant support the development and programs: Violent Offender implementation of effective Drug Court Incarceration; Truth in Sentencing; programming at the State, local, and Punishment of Young Offenders Formula tribal level. The Office coordinates the Grants; Family Unity Demonstration Drug Court activities of OJP’s five Projects; and Residential Substance component bureaus and administers the Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners. Drug Court Grant Program as authorized The largest grant programs--the Violent by Title V of the Violent Crime Control Offender and Truth in Sentencing and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. Incentive Grants--provide assistance This discretionary grant program through formula grants to States, and assists local units of government in the States organized as multi-State compacts, planning, implementation, and for adult and juvenile correctional improvement of Drug Courts which systems. The program recognizes that target non-violent, drug-involved States and local jurisdictions have offenders. The Office strives to experienced substantial increases in jail, strengthen existing Drug Courts and prison, and juvenile confinement develop new Drug Courts, encouraging populations in recent years, resulting in them to provide continuing judicial escalating costs and serious difficulties in supervision, mandatory periodic testing managing overcapacity correctional for substance abuse among clients, populations. This program provides substance abuse treatment, offender funds for States to construct, expand, supervision, management and aftercare, modify, operate, and improve combined with appropriate sanctions for correctional facilities, including boot failure to comply with program camp facilities and other alternative requirements. The Office will work correctional programs that will free closely with agencies and organizations secure prison space for the confinement involved in the areas of justice and of violent offenders. recovery. The Office also will develop The Corrections Program Office and deliver appropriate technical emphasizes comprehensive correctional assistance, training, and research planning and State/local coordination in findings in order to enhance the the provision of correctional services to effectiveness and operation of both offenders. States participating in the existing and new Drug Courts. grant program will receive technical Corrections Program Office The assistance and training and be expected Corrections Program Office provides to participate in a comprehensive policy direction, coordination, and national evaluation. For further information, contact the Office of Congressional and Public Affairs, Office of Justice Programs, Department of Justice, 633 Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20531. Phone, 202–307–0781. Boards Executive Office for Immigration the Immigration and Nationality Act of Review 1952 (8 U.S.C. 1101) and all other laws relating to the immigration and Falls Church, VA 22041 naturalization of aliens. Certain powers The Attorney General is responsible for and authorities of the Attorney General the administration and enforcement of for the administration and interpretation DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 371 of the immigration laws are delegated to reconsideration of decisions previously the Executive Office for Immigration rendered. Review. The Executive Office for Following a review of the record and Immigration Review is completely research into questions of law raised by independent of the Immigration and the parties, the attorney-adviser drafts a Naturalization Service, the body charged proposed order for consideration of the with the enforcement of the immigration Board members. He or she frequently laws. It includes the Board of confers with individual Board members Immigration Appeals, the Office of the concerning the proposed order. Chief Immigration Judge, and the Office Attorney-advisers also assist in various of the Chief Administrative Hearing administrative and support functions. In Officer. It operates under the supervision addition to developing expertise in the of the Deputy Attorney General and is field of immigration law, the attorney- headed by a Director, who is responsible adviser is often called upon to analyze for the immediate supervision of the questions of constitutional law, State, Board of Immigration Appeals, the Office Federal, and foreign civil and criminal of the Chief Immigration Judge, and the law. Office of the Chief Administrative Office of the Chief Immigration Judge Hearing Officer. The Office of the Chief Immigration Board of Immigration Appeals The Judge is responsible for the general Board of Immigration Appeals is a quasi- supervision and direction of the judicial body composed of a Chairman, immigration judges in the performance Vice Chairman, and seven members, and of their duties. It establishes operational a Chief Attorney-Examiner, who is also policies for the offices of the immigration an alternate Board member. judges and evaluates the performance of Located in Falls Church, VA, the those offices. Board hears oral argument in that Located in Falls Church, VA, the location. The Board is authorized a staff Office of the Chief Immigration Judge of attorney-advisers who assist the Board includes a headquarters staff of in the preparation of decisions. management and legal personnel. The Board has been given nationwide Office of the Immigration Judge The jurisdiction to hear appeals from offices of the immigration judges are decisions entered by district and center responsible for presiding at formal, directors of the Immigration and quasi-judicial deportation and exclusion Naturalization Service and by proceedings. The immigration judges act immigration judges. In addition, the independently in their decisionmaking Board is responsible for hearing appeals capacity, and their decisions are involving the suspension or barring from administratively final unless appealed or practice of attorneys and representatives certified to the Board of Immigration before the Service and the Board. Appeals. Decisions of the Board are binding on In exclusion proceedings, an all Service officers and immigration immigration judge determines whether judges unless modified or overruled by an individual arriving from a foreign the Attorney General, and are subject to country should be allowed to enter the judicial review in the Federal courts. The United States or should be excluded and majority of appeals reaching the Board deported. Located throughout the United involves orders of deportation and States, each judge has jurisdiction to applications for relief from deportation. consider various forms of relief available Other cases before the Board include the in exclusion proceedings, including exclusion of aliens applying for applications for asylum and relief under admission to the United States, petitions section 243(h) of the Immigration and to classify the status of alien relatives for Nationality Act of 1952 (8 U.S.C. 1158, the issuance of preference immigrant 1253). visas, fines imposed upon carriers for the In deportation proceedings, the violation of the immigration laws, and immigration judge determines whether motions for reopening and an individual who has already entered 372 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL the United States is deportable from this serve as officials in the field of organized country. In such proceedings the judge labor or in labor-oriented management also adjudicates applications for the positions; likewise, under the various forms of relief available under Employment Retirement Income and this country’s immigration laws. These Security Act of 1974, the Commission include applications for adjustment of determines whether or not such persons status, suspension of deportation, may provide services to or be employed voluntary departure, relief under section by employment benefit plans. 212(c) of the act (8 U.S.C. 1182), and The Parole Commission presently applications for asylum and withholding consists of six members, appointed by of deportation. the President with the advice and Office of the Chief Administrative consent of the Senate. It has sole Hearing Officer The Office of the Chief authority to grant, modify, or revoke Administrative Hearing Officer is paroles of eligible U.S. prisoners serving responsible for the general supervision of sentences of more than 1 year and D.C. administrative law judges in the Code prisoners housed in Federal performance of their duties under 8 institutions. It is responsible for the U.S.C. 1324a–1324c. Administrative law supervision of parolees and prisoners judge proceedings are mandated by the released upon the expiration of their Immigration and Nationality Act and sentences with allowances for statutory concern allegations of unlawful good time, and the determination of employment of aliens, unfair supervisory conditions and terms. U.S. immigration-related employment probation officers supervise parolees and discrimination, and immigration mandatory releasees under the direction document fraud. of the Commission. For further information, contact the Counsel to the The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 Director, Executive Office for Immigration Review, gave the Commission jurisdiction over Department of Justice, Falls Church, VA 22041. all foreign transfer treaty cases beginning Phone, 703–305–0470. January 1, 1989. For offenses committed after November 1, 1987, the United States Parole Commission Commission is to apply the guidelines of 5550 Friendship Boulevard, Chevy Chase, the U.S. Sentencing Commission. MD 20815. Phone, 301–492–5990 For further information, contact the Office of the The granting, denying, or revocation of Chairman, United States Parole Commission, Department of Justice, 5550 Friendship Boulevard, parole for eligible Federal offenders rests Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Phone, 301–492–5990. in the discretion of the U.S. Parole Commission. The Commission will be Office of Community Oriented abolished on November 1, 1997, 10 Policing Services years after the implementation of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines. (The The Office of Community Oriented Comprehensive Crime Control Act of Policing Services (COPS) was created 1984 abolished the U.S. Parole with the passage of the Violent Crime Commission and instituted mandatory Control and Law Enforcement Act of sentencing for all offenders whose 1994 to achieve several goals: to crimes were committed after November advance the philosophy of community 1, 1987.) The Commission is also policing as a national law enforcement responsible for the supervision of strategy; to deploy 100,000 new police paroled or otherwise released offenders officers in community policing roles; to until expiration of their terms and may reinforce partnerships that will sustain discharge parolees early from community policing; and to evaluate and supervision. Under the Labor demonstrate the effectiveness of Management Reporting and Disclosure community policing to improve the Act of 1959 (29 U.S.C. 401 note), the quality of life by reducing the levels of Commission determines whether or not disorder, violence, and crime in our persons convicted of certain crimes may communities. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 373 The primary activity of the COPS through every available channel of Office is the awarding of competitive, communication, including timely and discretionary grants directly to law accurate responses to media inquiries, enforcement agencies across the United interviews, public events, publications States and its territories. Over the life of and related materials produced by and the COPS Office, approximately $8 for any telecommunication format. billion in grant funding will be made The Intergovernmental and Public available to achieve these goals. Liaison Division maintains channels for The COPS Office is headed by a communication and feedback regarding Director, appointed by the Attorney COPS programs with representatives of General, and is organized into several interested local, State, and national divisions. The Grants Administration organizations and with local elected Division is responsible for developing officials. and designing new programs to provide Finally, the Administrative Division resources for the hiring of new officers provides support services to the COPS and to further the adoption and Office, including resource management implementation of community policing, to recruit, train, and maintain a reviewing grant applications, maintaining professional workforce; fiscal resource liaison with the Office of Justice management to perform the accounting Programs for financial review of and budget formulation and execution applications, monitoring grant awards, functions necessary to administer the developing and maintaining databases to COPS appropriation; facilities support policymaking, participating in management to acquire and maintain the evaluation of the grant programs, space, provide security, and procure and coordination of the Office’s research supplies, equipment, telephones, and agenda. Within the Grants other services; and information resource Administration Division are the Police management. Hiring section and the Program Planning, Research and Evaluation Foreign Claims Settlement section. Commission of the United States The Training and Technical Assistance Division is responsible for coordinating The Foreign Claims Settlement the provision of training and technical Commission of the United States is a assistance to advance the adoption, quasi-judicial, independent agency implementation and sustaining of within the Department of Justice which community policing in the thousands of adjudicates claims of U.S. nationals communities served by the COPS Office. against foreign governments, either The Legal Division is responsible for under specific jurisdiction conferred by providing legal advice to the Director Congress or pursuant to international and other functional areas of the COPS claims settlement agreements. Funds for Office, and for ensuring compliance with payment of the Commission’s awards are the legal requirements applicable to the derived from congressional activities of the COPS Office. appropriations, international claims The Congressional Relations Division settlements, or the liquidation of foreign assists Members of Congress in serving assets in the United States by the their constituents, thereby facilitating Departments of Justice and the Treasury. greater dissemination of information The Commission recently started an about COPS programs and activities, and Albanian Claims Program, to adjudicate provides input in program design and claims and make awards compensating development and policy formulation so U.S. nationals for losses resulting from that programs and policies reflect nationalization, expropriation, legislative intent and address intervention and other property-taking by congressional needs. the Albanian regime which took power The Communications Division at the end of World War II. provides ongoing information about The Commission recently completed community policing and COPS programs the adjudication of more than 3,100 374 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL claims against the Government of Iran, maintaining records and responding to which arose out of the 1979 Islamic inquiries related to the various claims Revolution. The Iran Claims Program programs it has conducted under the resulted in total awards in excess of $86 International Claims Settlement Act of million between 1991 and February 1949, as amended, involving the 1995, pursuant to the June 1990 Iran- Governments of Yugoslavia, Panama, U.S. Settlement Agreement and the Iran Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Claims Settlement Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 Italy, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, note). Cuba, the German Democratic Republic, The Commission also has authority the People’s Republic of China, Vietnam, under the War Claims Act of 1948, as Ethiopia, and Egypt, as well as those amended (50 U.S.C. app. 2001 et seq.), authorized under the War Claims Act of to receive, determine the validity and 1948, and other statutes. amount, and provide for the payment of The Commission’s organization and claims by U.S. servicemen and civilians functions are defined in the International held as prisoners of war or interned by Claims Settlement Act of 1949, as a hostile force in Southeast Asia during amended (22 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), the the Vietnam conflict, or by the survivors War Claims Act of 1948, as amended of such servicemen and civilians. (50 U.S.C. app. 2001 et seq.), and the In addition, the Commission furnishes Iran Claims Settlement Act (50 U.S.C. technical assistance and advice to other 1701 note). Federal agencies and offices in planning new claims adjudication programs, and For further information, contact the Office of the Chair, Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the negotiating international claims United States, Department of Justice, Suite 6002, settlement agreements. In addition, the 600 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20579. Phone, Commission is responsible for 202–616–6975; or fax, 202–616–6993. Sources of Information Controlled Substances Act Registration Federal Bureau of Investigation: Information about registration under the Director, Washington, DC 20535, or any Controlled Substances Act may be of the field offices or resident agencies obtained from the Registration Section of whose addresses are listed in the front of the Drug Enforcement Administration, most local telephone directories. P.O. Box 28083, Central Station, Immigration and Naturalization Washington, DC 20038. Phone, 202– Service: Central Office, 425 I Street 307–7255. NW., Washington, DC 20536 (phone, Employment The Department maintains 202–514–2530); or any regional or an agencywide job line. Phone, 202– district office. 514–3397. Drug Enforcement Administration: Attorneys’ applications: Director, regional offices, laboratories, or Office of Attorney Personnel Washington Headquarters Office of Management, Department of Justice, Personnel. Room 6150, Tenth Street and Bureau of Prisons: Central Office, 320 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, First Street NW., Washington, DC 20534 DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–1432. (phone, 202–307–3082); or any regional Assistant U.S. attorney applicants should or field office. apply to individual U.S. attorneys. Office of Justice Programs, 633 United States Marshals Service: Field Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC Staffing Branch, United States Marshals 20531. Phone, 202–307–0730. Service, Department of Justice, 600 United States Trustee Program, Room Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202– 770, 901 E Street NW., Washington, DC 4210. 20530. Phone, 202–616–1000. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 375 Foreign Claims Settlement The Freedom of Information Act Guide Commission: Attorneys: Office of the and Privacy Act Overview and the Chief Counsel, Suite 6002, 600 E Street Freedom of Information Case List, both NW., Washington, DC 20579 (phone, published annually, are available from 202–616–6975); Other: Administrative the Superintendent of Documents, Officer, same address and phone. Government Printing Office, Reading Rooms Located in Washington, DC 20530; and in Washington, DC, at: U.S. Department of electronic format through INTERNET– Justice, Room 6505, Tenth Street and Library of Congress. ISBN 0–16–042921– Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, 8. DC 20530 (phone, 202–514–3775). FOIA Update (Stock No. 727–002– Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street NW., 00000–6), published quarterly, is 20534 (phone, 202–307–3029); available free of charge to FOIA offices Immigration and Naturalization Service, and other interested offices 425 I Street NW., 20536 (phone, 202– Governmentwide. This publication is 514–2837); Foreign Claims Settlement also available from the Superintendent of Commission, 600 E Street NW., 20579 Documents, Government Printing Office, (phone, 202–616–6975). Also at the U.S. Washington, DC 20402; and in Parole Commission, 5550 Friendship electronic format through INTERNET– Boulevard, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 Library of Congress. (phone, 301–492–5959); Board of Guidelines for Effective Human Immigration Appeals, Suite 2400, 5107 Relations Commissions, Annual Report Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041 of the Community Relations Service, (phone, 703–305–0168); some of the Community Relations Service Brochure, Immigration and Naturalization Service CRS Hotline Brochure, Police Use of district offices; and the National Institute Deadly Force: A Conciliation Handbook of Justice, 9th Floor, 633 Indiana Avenue for Citizens and Police, Principles of NW., Washington, DC 20531 (phone, Good Policing: Avoiding Violence 202–307–5883). Between Police and Citizens, Resolving Publications and Films The FBI Law Racial Conflict: A Guide for Enforcement Bulletin and Uniform Crime Municipalities, and Viewpoints and Reports—Crime in the United States are Guidelines on Court-Appointed Citizens available from the Superintendent of Monitoring Commissions in School Documents, Government Printing Office, Desegregation are available upon Washington, DC 20402. request from the Public Information The Annual Report of the Attorney Office, Community Relations Service, General of the United States is published Department of Justice, Washington, DC each year by the Department of Justice, 20530. Washington, DC 20530. A limited number of drug educational Approximately nine textbooks on films are available, free of charge, to citizenship, consisting of teachers civic, educational, private, and religious manuals and student textbooks at various groups. reading levels, are distributed free to A limited selection of pamphlets and public schools for applicants for brochures is available. The most widely citizenship and are on sale to all others requested publication is Drugs of Abuse, from the Superintendent of Documents, an identification manual intended for Government Printing Office, professional use. Single copies are free. Washington, DC 20402. Public schools Copies of the Foreign Claims or organizations under the supervision of Settlement Commission’s semiannual public schools which are entitled to free (through December 1966) and annual textbooks should make their requests to (from January 1967) reports to the the appropriate Immigration and Congress concerning its activities are Naturalization Service Regional Office available at the Commission in limited (See appropriate section of this manual quantities. for mailing addresses.). For general Reference Service In 1972, the information, call 202–514–3946. National Institute of Justice established 376 U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL the National Criminal Justice Reference referrals to other information sources. Service (NCJRS). All five OJP bureaus Under contracts with OJP bureaus, the now support NCJRS, a clearinghouse of National Criminal Justice Reference information and publications concerning Service also operates the Drugs and OJP programs and other information of Crime Data Center and Clearinghouse, interest to the criminal justice the Bureau of Justice Assistance community. The Office’s National Clearinghouse, the Justice Statistics Institute of Justice, which has supported Clearinghouse, the Juvenile Justice the clearinghouse for almost 20 years, Clearinghouse, the National Victims provides most of the funding for the Resource Center, and the Construction National Criminal Justice Reference Information Exchange. All the Service’s Service. Police, corrections agencies, clearinghouses may be contacted on courts, criminal justice planners, juvenile 800–851–3420 (toll-free); or in the justice practitioners, community crime Washington, DC, metropolitan area on prevention groups, and others needing 301–251–5500. information for planning and problem The NCJRS Electronic Bulletin Board, solving in criminal justice can refer to with 3,000 registered users, makes this international information service NCJRS’ services available online. The specially designed to assist the justice Bulletin Board may be accessed by community. modem on 301–738–8895. The National Criminal Justice Reference Service provides information Organizations and individuals may from its computerized data base system register to receive information from the free or at a minimal cost to users National Criminal Justice Reference through a variety of products and Service by writing NCJRS, Box 6000, services including the bimonthly NIJ 1600 Research Boulevard, Rockville, Catalog, which contains abstracts of MD 20850. significant additions to the data base and Small Business Activities Contract pertinent information and a Calendar of information for small businesses can be Events announcing upcoming training obtained from the Office of Small and courses and conferences; selected Disadvantaged Business Utilization, hardcopy documents upon request; three Department of Justice, Tenth Street and types of data base search packages; Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, various microfiche products; and DC 20530. Phone, 202–616–0521. For further information concerning the Department of Justice, contact the Office of Public Affairs, Department of Justice, Tenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202– 514–2007 (voice); 202–786–5731 (TDD).
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