DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE - U.S. Government Printing Office by zhouwenjuan


Tenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530
Phone, 202–514–2000

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL                                JANET RENO
  Chief of Staff                                    JOHN M. HOGAN
  Confidential Assistant to the Attorney            BESSIE L. MEADOWS
  Assistants to the Attorney General                ROXIE LOPEZ, DONNA F.
 Special Assistant to the Attorney General          ELIZABETH HYMAN
 White House Fellow                                 YVONNE CAMPOS
Deputy Attorney General                             JAMIE S. GORELICK
 Confidential Assistant                             PATRICIA A. BINNINGER
 Principal Associate Deputy Attorney General        MERRICK B. GARLAND
 Executive Assistant and Counsel                    DENNIS M. CORRIGAN
 Associate Deputy Attorneys General                 ANDREW FOIS, DAVID MARGOLIS,M
                                                         ARK R. STEINBERG, SETH
  Special Counsel, Financial Institution Fraud      GERALD M. STERN
  Counsels to the Attorney General                  ROGER C. ADAMS, ELIZABETH R.
                                                      FINE, PAUL J. FISHMAN, BETH A.
                                                      WILKINSON, GERRI LYNN RATLIFF
  Special Assistants to the Deputy Attorney         CASEY COOPER, AMY JEFFRESS,G
      General                                           EOFFREY KLINEBERG, CHARLES S.
  Director, Executive Office for National           MARK R. STEINBERG
  Counsel, International Programs                   DREW C. ARENA
Associate Attorney General                          JOHN R. SCHMIDT
  Confidential Assistant                            CATHERINE E. GALLAGHER
  Principal Deputy Associate Attorney General       NANCY E. MCFADDEN
  Deputy Associate Attorneys General                PAUL R. FRIEDMAN, JOHN C.
                                                      DWYER, FRANCIS M. ALLEGRA
  Assistant Associate Attorneys General             JOAN SILVERSTEIN, JAMES VIGIL, JR.,
                                                      KEVIN HYNES
  Special Assistants to the Associate Attorney      ERIK REID
  Director, Office of Violence Against Women        BONNIE CAMPBELL
Solicitor General                                   DREW S. DAYS III
Inspector General                                   MICHAEL BROMWICH
  Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal       WALTER E. DELLINGER
  Assistant Attorney General, Office of             KENT MARKUS, Acting
        Legislative Affairs
  Assistant Attorney General, Office of Policy      ELEANOR D. ACHESON
  Assistant Attorney General for Administration     STEPHEN R. COLGATE
  Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division    ANNE K. BINGAMAN

  Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division                      FRANK W. HUNGER
  Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights                        DEVAL L. PATRICK
  Assistant Attorney General, Criminal                            JO ANN HARRIS
  Assistant Attorney General, Environment and                     LOIS J. SCHIFFER
       Natural Resources Division
  Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division                        LORETTA C. ARGRETT
  Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice                   LAURIE ROBINSON
Director, Office of Public Affairs                                CARL L. STERN
Directors, Office of Information and Privacy                      RICHARD L. HUFF
                                                                  DANIEL J. METCALFE
Director, Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys                     CAROL DIBATTISTE
Director, Bureau of Prisons                                       KATHLEEN M. HAWK
Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation                         LOUIS J. FREEH
Director, United States Marshals Service                          EDUARDO GONZALEZ
Director, Executive Office for Immigration                        ANTHONY C. MOSCATO
Director, Executive Office for United States                      JOSEPH PATCHAN
Director, Community Relations Service                             JEFFREY L. WEISS, Acting
Director, Community Orienting Policing                            JOSEPH BRANN
Administrator, Drug Enforcement                                   THOMAS A. CONSTANTINE
Commissioner, Immigration and Naturalization                      DORIS MEISSNER
Chairman, United States Parole Commission                         EDWARD F. REILLY, JR.
Chairman, Foreign Claims Settlement                               DELISSA A. RIDGWAY
Chief, INTERPOL–U.S. National Central                             SHELLEY G. ALTENSTADTER
Counsel, Office of Intelligence Policy and                        RICHARD SCRUGGS
Counsel, Office of Professional Responsibility                    MICHAEL E. SHAHEEN, JR.
Pardon Attorney                                                   MARGARET C. LOVE
[For the Department of Justice statement of organization, see the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 28,
Chapter I, Part 0]

As the largest law firm in the Nation, the Department of Justice serves as counsel
for its citizens. It represents them in enforcing the law in the public interest. Through
its thousands of lawyers, investigators, and agents, the Department plays the key role
in protection against criminals and subversion, in ensuring healthy competition of
business in our free enterprise system, in safeguarding the consumer, and in
enforcing drug, immigration, and naturalization laws. The Department also plays a
significant role in protecting citizens through its efforts for effective law enforcement,
crime prevention, crime detection, and prosecution and rehabilitation of offenders.
   Moreover, the Department conducts all suits in the Supreme Court in which the
United States is concerned. It represents the Government in legal matters generally,
rendering legal advice and opinions, upon request, to the President and to the heads
of the executive departments. The Attorney General supervises and directs these
activities, as well as those of the U.S. attorneys and U.S. marshals in the various
judicial districts around the country.
                                                            DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

                                                                         ATTORNEY GENERAL

                                                                         ATTORNEY GENERAL

  SOLICITOR                                  ASSOCIATE
                                                               OFFICE OF               OFFICE OF
  GENERAL                                ATTORNEY GENERAL
                                                                POLICY                  PUBLIC
                                                             DEVELOPMENT                AFFAIRS

  SOLICITOR                                                    OFFICE OF               OFFICE OF
  GENERAL                                                     LEGISLATIVE               LEGAL
                                                                AFFAIRS                COUNSEL

 OFFICE OF                                     CIVIL                                      FEDERAL                                 OFFICE OF THE               OFFICE OF
                            ORIENTED                            CIVIL                                               CRIMINAL
  JUSTICE                                    RIGHTS                                      BUREAU OF                                 INSPECTOR                PROFESSIONAL
                            POLICING                          DIVISION                                              DIVISION
 PROGRAMS                                    DIVISION                                  INVESTIGATION                                GENERAL                 REPONSIBILITY

                                                            ENVIRONMENT                                                             OFFICE OF
                                                                                           DRUG                                                                  OFFICE OF
                                            ANTITRUST       AND NATURAL                                            BUREAU OF      INTELLIGENCE
                                                                                        ENFORCEMENT                                                             THE PARDON
                                             DIVISION        RESOURCES                                              PRISONS        POLICY AND
                                                                                       ADMINISTRATION                                                            ATTORNEY
                                                              DIVISION                                                               REVIEW

 EXECUTIVE                                                                              EXECUTIVE                    UNITED                                       UNITED
                             OFFICE OF                      COMMUNITY                                                               JUSTICE
 OFFICE FOR                                    TAX                                      OFFICE FOR                   STATES                                       STATES
                           INFORMATION                      RELATIONS                                                             MANAGEMENT
UNITED STATES                                DIVISION                                  UNITED STATES                MARSHALS                                      PAROLE
                           AND PRIVACY                       SERVICE                                                                DIVISION
  TRUSTEES                                                                              ATTORNEYS                    SERVICE                                    COMMISSION

                                                                                        IMMIGRATION                U.S NATIONAL                    EXECUTIVE
              FOREIGN CLAIMS
                                                                                            AND                       CENTRAL                      OFFICE FOR
                                                                                       NATURALIZATION                BUREAU–                      IMMIGRATION
                                                                                                                                                                             DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

                                                                                          SERVICE                    INTERPOL                       REVIEW


The Department of Justice was                created under authority of act of
established by act of June 22, 1870, as      September 24, 1789, as amended (28
amended (28 U.S.C. 501, 503, 509             U.S.C. 503).
note), with the Attorney General as its         The affairs and activities of the
head. Prior to 1870 the Attorney General     Department of Justice are generally
was a member of the President’s              directed by the Attorney General. The
Cabinet, but not the head of a               offices, divisions, bureaus, and boards of
department, the office having been           the Department follow.

Attorney General The Attorney                Office drafts legal opinions of the
General, as head of the Department of        Attorney General rendered in response
Justice and chief law enforcement officer    to requests from the President and heads
of the Federal Government, represents        of the executive departments. It also
the United States in legal matters           provides its own written opinions and
generally and gives advice and opinions      informal advice in response to requests
to the President and to the heads of the     from the various agencies of the
executive departments of the                 Government, as well as offices within
Government when so requested. The            the Department and from Presidential
Attorney General appears in person to        staff and advisers, typically dealing with
represent the Government before the          legal issues involving agency
U.S. Supreme Court in cases of               disagreements or with pending
exceptional gravity or importance. The       legislation. The Office also is responsible
Office of the Attorney General oversees      for providing legal advice to the
the Offices of Deputy Attorney General,      executive branch on all constitutional
Associate Attorneys General, Legal           questions.
Counsel, and Inspector General, as well         All Executive orders and
as the following offices whose public        proclamations proposed to be issued by
purposes are widely applied.                 the President are reviewed by the Office
Solicitor General The Solicitor General      of Legal Counsel for form and legality, as
represents the U.S. Government in cases      are various other matters that require the
before the Supreme Court. He decides         President’s formal approval. In addition,
what cases the Government should ask         the Office of Legal Counsel functions as
the Supreme Court to review and what         general counsel for the Department. It
position the Government should take in       reviews all proposed orders of the
cases before the Court. Also, he             Attorney General and all regulations
supervises the preparation of the            requiring the Attorney General’s
Government’s Supreme Court briefs and        approval.
other legal documents and the conduct           The Office coordinates the work of the
of the oral arguments in the Court. He or    Department with respect to treaties,
his staff argue most of the Government’s     executive agreements, and international
cases in the Supreme Court. The              organizations. It performs a variety of
Solicitor General’s duties also include      special assignments referred by the
deciding whether the United States           Attorney General or the Deputy Attorney
should appeal in all cases it loses before   General. However, it is not authorized to
the lower courts.                            give legal advice to private persons.
Legal Counsel The Assistant Attorney         Information and Privacy The Office of
General in charge of the Office of Legal     Information and Privacy (OIP) operates
Counsel assists the Attorney General in      under the supervision of a Director, who
fulfilling the Attorney General’s function   manages the Department’s
as legal adviser to the President and all    responsibilities related to the Freedom of
the executive branch agencies. The           Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy
                                                     DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE            343

Act. These responsibilities include            supports communities in developing
coordinating policy development and            local mechanisms as proactive measures
compliance Governmentwide for FOIA,            to prevent or reduce racial/ethnic
and by the Department for the Privacy          tensions.
Act; and adjudicating all appeals from            The services provided include
denials by any Department component            conciliation, mediation, technical
of access to information under those           assistance, and training, and involve
acts. OIP also processes all initial           specialized procedures for preventing
requests under those acts for access to        and resolving racial and ethnic conflicts.
the records of the Offices of the Attorney     The Service provides assistance directly
General, Deputy Attorney General,              to people and their communities. It
Associate Attorney General, and other          shows no partiality among disputing
senior management offices of the               parties and, in promoting the principles
Department.                                    and ideals of nondiscrimination, applies
Pardon Attorney The Office of the              skills that allow parties to mediate their
Pardon Attorney, in consultation with the      own disputes. The Service’s conciliators,
Attorney General or his designee, assists      who are located in 10 regional offices
the President in the exercise of executive     and 3 field offices around the country,
clemency as authorized under Article II,       assist people of diverse racial and
section 2, of the Constitution. Generally,     cultural backgrounds.
all requests for executive clemency are           The Service offers its assistance either
directed to the Pardon Attorney for            on its own motion, when in its judgment
investigation and review. Executive            peaceful relations among the citizens of
clemency may take several forms,               a community are threatened, or upon
including pardon, commutation,                 request of State or local officials or other
                                               interested persons. The Service seeks the
remission of fine, and reprieve.
                                               cooperation of appropriate State and
Community Relations Service The
                                               local, and public and private agencies in
Service was created by title X of the
                                               carrying out the agency’s mission.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C.               Under the Refugee Education and
2000g et seq.). Pursuant to Executive          Assistance Act, the Community Relations
Order No. 12341 of January 21, 1982,           Service provides assistance for the
the Attorney General expanded the              processing, care, and placement within
Service’s mandate to include                   the United States of Cuban and Haitian
responsibility for the Cuban/Haitian           entrants. Working with voluntary and
Entrant Program (CHEP), as authorized          governmental agencies, the Service’s
by subsection 501(c)(1)(A) of the Refugee      headquarters and Miami field offices
Education Assistance Act of 1980 (8            provide humanitarian relief for the
U.S.C. 1522). The Community Relations          successful resettlement of Cuban and
Service is under the general authority of      Haitian entrants. These services include
the Attorney General and is headed by a        shelter care, child welfare, and family
Director, appointed by the President           reunification for these individuals
with the advice and consent of the             following their release from Immigration
Senate.                                        and Naturalization Service custody.
   The mission of the Service is to               The Community Relations Service’s
prevent and resolve community conflicts        Primary Resettlement Program provides
and reduce community tensions arising          transitional community-based refugee
from actions, policies, and practices          resettlement services to recently
perceived to be discriminatory on the          apprehended Haitian nationals paroled
basis of race, color, or national origin.      from detention at Immigration and
The Service offers assistance to               Naturalization Service Processing
communities in resolving disputes              Centers—primarily the Krome Service
relating to race, color, or national origin    Processing Center in South Florida and
and facilitates the development of viable      the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo,
agreements as alternatives to coercion,        Cuba—and to recently encountered and
violence, or litigation. It also assists and   paroled Cuban nationals from ports
344            U.S. GOVERNMENT MANUAL

throughout Florida, mostly the Key West                                          provided similar services to other alien
coast guard station.                                                             minors detained at the Krome Service
   The Secondary Resettlement Program                                            Processing Center in Miami, FL, and
provides resettlement services,                                                  other detention facilities in Houston and
emphasizing employment placement and                                             Harlingen, TX.
retention at specialized sites outside of                                           The Community Relations Service
Florida, to Cubans and Haitians whose                                            provides residential shelter care; health
initial resettlement in South Florida did                                        services; and counseling, educational,
not lead to self-sufficiency.                                                    recreational, and family reunification
   Under the Unaccompanied Minors                                                services to unaccompanied alien minors
Program, the Service has extensive                                               through grants to voluntary agencies.
experience in providing services to                                              These services are provided in
Cuban and Haitian minors apprehended                                             compliance with existing State child
by the Immigration and Naturalization                                            welfare standards and regulations. The
Service (INS). Since 1986, under a                                               Service’s involvement ensures that alien
memorandum of agreement with INS,                                                children apprehended by INS are placed
the Community Relations Service has                                              in safe and suitable environments.
                                  Regional Offices—Community Relations Service
                             (Areas included within each region are indicated on the map in Appendix A.)

                                        Region/Address                                                           Director                    Phone/FTS

 1.   Boston, MA (99 Summer St., 02110) .......................................................      Martin A. Walsh .................      617–424–5715
 2.   New York, NY (26 Federal Plz., 10278) ..................................................       Patricia Glenn ....................    212–264–0700
 3.   Philadelphia, PA (2d and Chestnut Sts., 19106) .....................................           Jonathan Chace .................       215–597–2344
 4.   Atlanta, GA (75 Piedmont Ave. NE., 30303) ...........................................          Ozell Sutton .......................   404–331–6883
 5.   Chicago, IL (55 W. Monroe St., 60603) ...................................................      Jesse Taylor ......................    312–353–4391
 6.   Dallas, TX (1420 W. Mockingbird Ln., 75247) .........................................          Gilbert J. Chavez ...............      214–655–8175
 7.   Kansas City, MO (323 W. 8th St., 64105) ...............................................        Atkins Warren ....................     816–374–6522
 8.   Denver, CO (1244 Speer Blvd., 80204–3584) .........................................            Leo Cardenas ....................      303–844–2973
 9.   San Francisco, CA (33 New Montgomery St., 94105–4511) ..................                       Julian Klugman ..................      415–744–6565
10.   Seattle, WA (915 2d Ave., 98101) ...........................................................   Robert Lamb, Jr. ................      206–220–6700

For further information, contact any regional office or the Director, Community Relations Service,
Department of Justice, Suite 330, 5550 Friendship Boulevard, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Phone, 301–492–

Justice Management Division Under                                                such as automated data processing and
the direction of the Assistant Attorney                                          payroll. The Division supplies automated
General for Administration, the Division                                         litigation support as required to the
provides assistance to senior                                                    Department of Justice and to other
management officials relating to basic                                           Federal agencies involved in litigation.
Department policy for evaluation, budget                                             The Division develops and
and financial management, personnel                                              promulgates Departmentwide policies,
management and training, equal                                                   standards, and procedures for the
opportunity programs, automatic data                                             management of automated information
processing and telecommunications,                                               processing resources and for the
security, records management,                                                    directive system and reviews their
procurement, real property and materiel                                          implementation. The Division collects,
management, and for all other matters                                            organizes, and disseminates recorded
pertaining to organization, management,                                          information that is necessary for the
and administration.                                                              Department to carry out its statutory
  The Division provides direct                                                   mandate and provides general research
administrative support services, such as                                         and reference assistance regarding
personnel, accounting, payroll,                                                  information to Department staff, other
procurement, budget, and facilities and                                          Government attorneys, and members of
property management to the offices,                                              the public.
boards, and divisions of the Department;                                         Professional Responsibility The Office
and operates several central services,                                           of Professional Responsibility, which
                                                   DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE           345

reports directly to the Attorney General,    Departments, concerning questions of
is responsible for investigating             law, regulation, and guidelines as well
allegations of criminal or ethical           as the legality of domestic and overseas
misconduct by employees of the Justice       intelligence operations.
Department. The Counsel on                      The Office prepares and files all
Professional Responsibility heads the        applications for surveillances and
Office, the role of which is to ensure       searches under the Foreign Intelligence
that departmental employees continue to      Surveillance Act of 1978, assists
perform their duties in accordance with      Government agencies by providing legal
the high professional standards expected     advice on matters of national security
of the Nation’s principal law                law and policy and represents the
enforcement agency.                          Department of Justice on a variety of
   All allegations against Department        interagency committees. The Office also
employees in attorney, criminal              comments on and coordinates other
investigative, or law enforcement            agencies’ views regarding proposed
positions involving violations of law,       legislation affecting national security and
departmental regulations, or                 intelligence matters.
departmental applicable standards of            The Office serves as adviser to the
conduct, are reported to the Office of       Attorney General and various client
Professional Responsibility. At the          agencies, including the Central
Counsel’s discretion, the Office             Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau
frequently conducts its own                  of Investigation, the National Security
investigations into those allegations.       Agency, and the Defense and State
   The Office may also participate in or     Departments, concerning questions of
direct an investigation conducted by         law, regulation, and guidelines as well
another component of the Department,         as the legality of domestic and overseas
or may simply monitor an investigation       intelligence operations.
conducted by an appropriate agency           Executive Office for United States
having jurisdiction over the matter. In      Attorneys Under the supervision of the
addition, the Office oversees the internal   Deputy Attorney General and the
inspection operations of the Federal         direction of a Director, the Executive
Bureau of Investigation and Drug             Office for United States Attorneys
Enforcement Administration.                  provides general executive assistance
   The Counsel submits an annual report      and nonlitigative oversight to the 94
to the Attorney General that reviews and     offices of United States attorneys,
evaluates the Department’s internal          including evaluating the performance of
inspection units. The Counsel makes          the offices of United States attorneys,
recommendations to the Attorney              making appropriate reports and taking
General on the need for changes in           corrective action where indicated, and
policies or procedures that become           coordinating and directing the
evident during the course of internal        relationships of the offices of the United
inquiries reviewed or initiated by the       States attorneys with other organizational
Office.                                      units of the Department of Justice.
Intelligence Policy and Review The              The Office supervises the operation of
Office of Intelligence Policy and Review,    the Office of Legal Education, including
under the direction of the Counsel to the    the Attorney General’s Advocacy
Attorney General for Intelligence Policy,    Institute and the Legal Education
is responsible for advising the Attorney     Institute, which develops, conducts, and
General on all matters relating to the       authorizes the training of Federal
national security activities of the United   executive branch legal personnel and
States. The Office also serves as adviser    support staff. Administrative and logistic
to the Attorney General and various          services, including the allocation of
client agencies, including the Central       personnel, financial resources, and office
Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau      automation equipment, are furnished to
of Investigation, the National Security      the offices of the United States attorneys.
Agency, and the Defense and State            The Office supervises the

implementation and administration of                       —adjustments of debts of a family
the Law Enforcement Coordination                        farmer with regular income under
Program and of the Victim and Witness                   chapter 12; and
Protection Act. Direction and                              —adjustment of debts of an individual
administrative support are provided to                  with regular income under chapter 13,
the Debt Collection Program and Debt                    pursuant to which an individual can
Collection Criminal Fines.                              discharge debts by arranging for
   The Office manages the appointment                   payments over a period of time. The
process of United States attorneys,                     U.S. Trustee does not have a significant
assistant United States attorneys, and                  role in proceedings under chapter 9,
special assistant United States attorneys.              which relates to the adjustment of debts
The United States Attorneys’ Manual and                 of a municipality.
the United States Attorneys’ Bulletin are                  Specific responsibilities of the U.S.
published and maintained for the                        Trustees include:
internal guidance of the United States                     —appointing and supervising the
attorneys’ offices and those other                      performance of private trustees in
organizational units of the Department                  individual cases;
concerned with litigation. The Office                      —appointing and convening creditors’
also provides legal opinions,                           committees in chapter 11 corporate
interpretations, and advice to United
                                                        reorganization cases;
States attorneys on topics such as
                                                           —reviewing applications for the
budget, legislation, ethics, and
                                                        retention of professionals and the
Department guidelines.
                                                        payment of fees;
U.S. Trustee Program The U.S. Trustee
Program acts in the public interest to                     —reviewing disclosure statements and
promote the efficiency and to protect                   submitting statements to the court
and preserve the integrity of the                       regarding their adequacy;
bankruptcy system. It works to secure                      —appointing trustees or examiners in
the just, speedy, and economical                        such cases as needed;
resolution of bankruptcy cases; monitors                   —ensuring that the assets involved in
the conduct of parties, takes action to                 bankruptcy cases are protected during
ensure compliance with applicable laws                  the administration of cases;
and procedures, and identifies and                         —serving as trustees in chapters 7, 12,
investigates bankruptcy fraud and abuse;                and 13 cases where private trustees are
and oversees administrative functions in                unwilling to serve; and
bankruptcy cases. The Program is funded                    —presenting matters relating to the
by the U.S. Trustee System Fund, which                  Bankruptcy Code in court.
consists mainly of filing fees paid by                  Executive Office for U.S. Trustees The
debtors invoking the protections of the                 Attorney General is charged with the
bankruptcy laws.                                        appointment, supervision, and
   The U.S. Trustees supervise the                      coordination of the U.S. Trustees and
administration of four of the five types of             Assistant U.S. Trustees. Day-to-day
bankruptcy proceedings defined under                    policy and legal direction, coordination,
the Bankruptcy Code. These are:                         and control are provided by the Director
   —proceedings under chapter 7 in                      of the Executive Office for U.S. Trustees
which the assets of the debtor are                      who is appointed by the Attorney
liquidated;                                             General. The Executive Office also
   —reorganization proceedings under                    provides administrative and management
chapter 11 for rehabilitation of the                    support to individual U.S. Trustee
business debtor;                                        Offices.

For further information, contact the Executive Office for U.S. Trustees, Department of Justice, Suite 700,
901 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–307–1391.
                                                     DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                347

Antitrust Division                            and oil drilling leases and the disposition
The Assistant Attorney General in charge      of surplus Government property.
of the Antitrust Division is responsible         In addition, the Antitrust Division
for promoting and maintaining                 represents the United States in judicial
competitive markets by enforcing the          proceedings to review certain orders of
Federal antitrust laws. Such enforcement,     the Interstate Commerce Commission,
which is the principal function of the        Federal Maritime Commission, Federal
Division, involves investigating possible     Communications Commission, and
antitrust violations, conducting grand        Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and
jury proceedings, preparing and trying        provides direct court representation for
antitrust cases, prosecuting appeals, and     the Secretary of the Treasury in certain
negotiating and enforcing final               Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
judgments. The antitrust laws affect          Firearms cases. It also participates in
virtually all industries and apply to every   Federal Trade Commission cases before
phase of business, including                  the Supreme Court.
manufacturing, transportation,                   In the international law area, the
distribution, and marketing. They             Division represents the United States on
prohibit a variety of practices that          the Committee on Competition Law and
restrain trade, such as price-fixing          Policy of the Organization for Economic
conspiracies, corporate mergers likely to     Cooperation and Development,
reduce the competitive vigor of               participates in the United Nations
particular markets, and predatory acts        Conference on Trade and Development,
designed to achieve or maintain               and, through the Department of State,
monopoly power. The Division                  maintains liaison with foreign
prosecutes serious and willful violations     governments on antimonopoly laws and
of the antitrust laws by filing criminal      policies.
suits that can lead to large fines and jail
sentences. Where criminal prosecution is      For further information, contact the FOIA Unit,
                                              Antitrust Division, Department of Justice, Tenth
not appropriate, the Division seeks a         Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington,
court order forbidding future violations      DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–2692.
of the law and requiring steps by the
defendant to remedy the anticompetitive       Civil Division
effects of past violations.
   The Division also is responsible for       The Civil Division represents the United
acting as an advocate of competition          States, its departments and agencies,
within the Federal Government. This           Members of Congress, Cabinet officers,
involves formal appearances in Federal        and other Federal employees. Its
administrative agency proceedings,            litigation reflects the diversity of
development of legislative initiatives to     Government activities, involving, for
promote deregulation and eliminate            example, the defense of challenges to
unjustifiable exemptions from the             Presidential actions; national security
antitrust laws, participation on executive    issues; benefit programs; energy policies;
branch policy task forces, and                commercial issues such as contract
publication of reports on regulated           disputes, banking, insurance, patents,
industry performance. The Division            fraud, and debt collection; all manner of
provides formal advice to other agencies      accident and liability claims; and
on the competitive implications of            violations of the immigration and
proposed transactions requiring Federal       consumer protection laws. Each year,
approval, such as construction of nuclear     Division attorneys handle thousands of
powerplants and mergers of financial          cases that collectively involve billions of
institutions. It also consults with Federal   dollars in claims and recoveries. The
agencies on a variety of other matters,       Division confronts significant policy
including the issuance of Federal coal        issues, which often rise to constitutional

dimensions, in defending and enforcing          property damage involving vessels, shore
various Federal programs and actions.           installations, and maritime personnel,
    The Civil Division litigates cases in all   equipment, and cargoes; suits arising out
Federal district courts, the U.S. Courts of     of contracts involving shipping,
Appeals, the U.S. Court of Federal              chartering of vessels, and the
Claims, other Federal and State courts,         construction, repair, and salvaging of
and the courts of foreign nations.              vessels; proceedings to enforce
Division attorneys either conduct this          navigation and shipping laws; and
litigation personally or they supervise or      litigation based on international maritime
assist the U.S. attorneys and foreign           agreements.
counsel to whom the Division refers the         Commercial Litigation The Commercial
cases. The Division is composed of              Litigation Branch is responsible for
seven major groups: the Torts Branch,           litigation associated with the
the Commercial Litigation Branch, the           Government’s diverse financial
Federal Programs Branch, the Appellate          involvements.
Staff, the Office of Consumer Litigation,           This litigation includes all monetary
the Office of Immigration Litigation, and       suits involving contracts, express or
an Office of Management Programs.               implied; actions to foreclose on
Torts The Torts Branch is responsible           Government mortgages and liens;
for suits under the Federal Tort Claims         bankruptcy and insolvency proceedings;
Act, including medical malpractice,             and suits against guarantors and sureties.
aviation disasters, environmental and               Branch attorneys bring suit under the
occupational disease, and radiation and         False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. 3729) for
toxic substance exposure. It also handles       the recovery of treble damages and civil
maritime litigation and suits that seek         penalties, and alternative remedies, upon
personal monetary judgments against             proof of loss to the Government
individual officers or employees.               sustained through fraud in the award or
    Tort litigation more specifically           performance of Government contracts,
includes the defense of all Federal Tort        false claims presented in connection
Claims Act suits against the United             with Federal programs, the submission of
States, and the prosecution of suits in         false statements and vouchers to
tort on behalf of the United States. Suits      Government agencies, and the use of
and administrative claims for death,            other fraudulent devices in transactions
personal injury, and property damage            with the Government. These suits
brought under the Tort Claims Act allege        include those filed pursuant to the qui
negligence on the part of Government            tam provisions of the False Claims Act,
employees acting within the scope of            in which private citizens with knowledge
their employment and involve matters            of fraud against the Government may file
such as the operation of Government             a lawsuit against the perpetrators on
vehicles, the maintenance of                    behalf of the United States and share in
Government premises, and the                    a percentage of any monetary recovery.
performance of Federal services and             Branch attorneys also bring suits to
regulatory functions such as medical            recover sums paid to bribe Government
treatment, hospital care, and the control       officials and kickbacks in Government
of civilian, military, and commercial air       procurement.
traffic. In addition, the Torts Branch              The Branch is responsible for all cases
defends petitions filed pursuant to the         in the U.S. Court of International Trade,
Vaccine Injury Compensation Program             including suits brought by importers of
and is responsible for administering the        merchandise to challenge the
Radiation Exposure Compensation Act.            appraisement or classification of
    Tort litigation also includes all legal     imported goods or other decisions of the
proceedings involving the United States         U.S. Customs Service in its
related to ships, shipping, navigable           administration of the tariff laws and
waters, and workmen’s compensation.             schedules.
The Division’s admiralty litigation                 The Branch has responsibility for all
includes suits for personal injury and          litigation in the U.S. Court of Federal
                                                    DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE            349

Claims except for those cases assigned to     international judicial assistance to
the Environment and Natural Resources         foreign and international tribunals.
Division and the Tax Division. Included       Federal Programs The Federal
are:                                          Programs Branch defends and asserts the
    —patent cases and suits arising out of    programs, policies, and decisions of
construction, procurement, service            virtually all Federal departments and
contracts, and claims associated with         agencies, the President, Cabinet officers,
contract terminations;                        Members of Congress, and other
    —claims involving freight rate disputes   Government officials. It defends against
arising out of the transportation of          constitutional challenges to statutes, suits
Government property;                          to overturn Government policies and
    —claims for just compensation under       programs, and challenges to the legality
the fifth amendment;                          of Government decisions. These suits
    —claims for salary or retirement by       typically seek injunctive and declaratory
civilian and military personnel; and          relief and range from objections to the
    —cases assigned by congressional          way that the Government deals with its
reference or special legislation.             employees to allegations that the
    Likewise, Branch attorneys handle the     President has violated the Constitution or
majority of cases before the Court of         Federal law. The Branch also initiates
Appeals for the Federal Circuit. This         suits to enforce regulatory statutes and to
litigation involves appeals of decisions      remedy or prevent statutory or regulatory
made by the U.S. Court of Federal             violations.
Claims, the U.S. Court of Veterans               The areas of litigation include:
Appeals, Boards of Contract Appeals, the         —defense of suits against the heads of
Merit Systems Protection Board, and           Federal departments and agencies and
Federal district courts.                      other government officials to enjoin
    The Branch handles all litigation         official actions, as well as suits for
involving the rights, liabilities, and        judicial review of administrative
administrative functions of the               decisions, orders, and regulations;
Government with respect to patent,               —defense and prosecution of suits
copyright, and trademark matters. This        involving national security, including
includes:                                     suits to protect sensitive intelligence
    —defense of patent infringement suits     sources and materials;
based on the liability of the United             —prosecution of suits to prevent
States for infringements in connection        interference with Government
with the performance of Government            operations;
contracts;                                       —litigation concerning the
    —legal proceedings to establish           constitutionality of Federal legislation;
Government priority of invention;             and
    —suits for specific performance to           —defense of suits involving
require transfer of rights and title and      specialized statutes, such as the Freedom
payment of royalties;                         of Information Act, the Federal Advisory
    —suits to cancel patents acquired by      Committee Act, and the Privacy Act.
fraud upon the Patent Office;                 Appellate Staff The Appellate Staff has
    —defense of administrative acts of the    primary responsibility for the litigation of
Register of Copyrights; and                   Civil Division cases in the appellate
    —actions on behalf of the                 courts. The Staff prepares Government
Government involving the use of               briefs and presents oral argument for the
trademarks.                                   cases. Additionally, the Appellate Staff
    The Branch is also responsible for the    participates in drafting all documents
supervision of litigation in foreign courts   filed for these cases in the United States
involving the United States as a party        Supreme Court, including briefs on the
and suits against U.S. employees              merits, petitions for certiorari, and
stationed abroad who are being sued in        jurisdictional statements.
the course of their Government service.       Consumer Litigation The Office of
Additionally, the Branch renders              Consumer Litigation is responsible for

civil and criminal litigation and related               district court litigation, deportation
matters arising under various consumer                  review proceedings, habeas corpus
protection and public health statutes,                  review and general advice, and
including the Federal Food, Drug, and                   immigration-related appellate matters.
Cosmetic Act, the Federal Trade                         The Office is also responsible for cases
Commission Act, the Consumer Product                    pertaining to the issuance of visas and
Safety Act, the Hazardous Substances                    passports, and for litigation arising under
Act, and the Truth in Lending Act. The                  the amnesty and employer sanctions
Office also serves as a liaison with other              provisions of the Immigration Reform
Federal agencies and with local
                                                        and Control Act of 1986 (8 U.S.C.
enforcement agencies for the referral of
                                                        1255a, 1324a) and 1990 immigration
consumer complaints outside the
jurisdiction of the Department of Justice.              reforms.
Immigration Litigation The Office of                    Management Programs The Office of
Immigration Litigation is responsible for               Management Programs provides
conducting civil litigation under the                   management and administrative services
Immigration and Nationality Act (8                      to the Division, including policy analysis
U.S.C. 1101) and related laws and for                   and planning, administrative
representing the United States in civil                 management, budget formulation and
litigation brought against employees of                 execution, management information
the Immigration and Naturalization                      systems, office automation, and
Service. In addition, this Office handles               automated litigation support.

For further information, contact the Office of the Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division, Department
of Justice, Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–3301.

Civil Rights Division                                   sex, and religion in programs and
The Civil Rights Division, headed by an                 activities that receive Federal financial
Assistant Attorney General, was                         assistance. The Section also conducts
established in 1957 to secure effective                 compliance reviews and investigates
Federal enforcement of civil rights. The                complaints of discrimination on the basis
Division is the primary institution within              of race, color, national origin, sex, age,
the Federal Government responsible for                  and religion in the services and activities
enforcing Federal statutes prohibiting                  of recipients of Federal financial
discrimination on the basis of race, sex,               assistance from the Department of
disability, religion, and national origin.              Justice.
The Division is composed of the                         Criminal Section Under the Federal
following Sections:                                     criminal civil rights statutes, the Criminal
Appellate Section The Appellate                         Section prosecutes conduct involving
Section handles civil rights cases in the               conspiracies to interfere with federally
courts of appeals and, in cooperation                   protected rights, deprivation of rights
with the Solicitor General, in the                      under color of law, the use of force or
Supreme Court. The Section frequently                   threat of force to injure or intimidate
participates in amicus curiae cases that                someone in their enjoyment of specific
affect the Division, and provides counsel               rights (such as voting, housing,
to the Department on civil rights and                   employment, education, public facilities,
appellate litigation. It handles all appeals            and accommodations), interference with
from both favorable and adverse                         the free excercise of religious beliefs or
judgments in which the Government                       damage to religious property, and the
participates.                                           holding of a worker in a condition of
Coordination and Review Section This                    slavery or involuntary servitude. More
Section coordinates the enforcement by                  recently, the Section began enforcing the
Federal agencies of various civil rights                criminal aspects of the new Freedom of
statutes that prohibit discrimination on                Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE).
the basis of race, color, national origin,              This statute prohibits conduct intended
                                                     DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE           351

to injure, intimidate, or interfere with       Immigration Reform and Control Act of
persons seeking to obtain or provide           1986 (8 U.S.C. 1324b). The Special
reproductive services. Also, a task force      Counsel is responsible for investigating
staffed by attorneys from both the             and prosecuting charges of national
Criminal and Civil Rights Divisions was        origin and citizenship status
created by the Attorney General to             discrimination in hiring, firing, or
determine if there is any organized            recruitment. Jurisdiction over national
criminal effort to commit violence upon        origin charges is limited to those not
abortion providers.                            covered by the Equal Employment
Educational Opportunities Section The          Opportunity Commission. Jurisdiction
Educational Opportunities Section              over citizenship status is exclusive.
enforces title IV of the Civil Rights Act of      The Special Counsel files complaints
1964 and the Equal Educational                 before an administrative law judge based
Opportunities Act of 1974. In addition, it     on charges filed with this Office or on its
represents the Department of Education         own independent investigations. Appeals
in certain suits filed against and on          of administrative decisions are to the
behalf of the Secretary of Education. The      U.S. Courts of Appeals.
Section closely monitors approximately            In addition, the Special Counsel
400 school districts operating under           coordinates with the Immigration and
desegregation court orders.                    Naturalization Service, the Equal
Employment Litigation Section The              Employment Opportunity Commission,
Employment Litigation Section enforces         and other Federal agencies in promoting
the provisions of title VII of the Civil       public awareness of the
Rights Act of 1964, as amended, and            antidiscrimination provisions of the act,
other Federal laws prohibiting                 through employer and public interest
employment practices that discriminate         conferences, public service
on the grounds of race, sex, religion, and     announcements, and nationwide
national origin, as they apply to State        distribution of enforcement information.
and local government employers.                Disability Rights Section This Section
Housing and Civil Enforcement Section          (previously the Public Access Section)
The Housing and Civil Enforcement              enforces Titles I, II, and III of the
Section has principal responsibility for       Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
enforcing the Fair Housing Act of 1968,        (ADA) and Department of Justice
as amended, which prohibits                    regulations implementing these
discrimination in housing on the basis of      provisions, provides technical assistance
race, color, religion, sex, national origin,   to entities covered by the ADA and to
disability, and familial status. The act       persons protected by the ADA, and
allows the Section to bring cases on           coordinates the technical assistance
behalf of individuals where a complaint        efforts of all Federal agencies with
is filed with the Department of Housing        technical assistance responsibilities
and Urban Development (HUD).                   under the ADA. The Section also
Additionally, the Section enforces the         certifies that State or local building
Equal Credit Opportunity Act, which            codes meet or exceed the requirements
prohibits discrimination in credit             of the ADA. The Section is also
transactions; and title II of the Civil        responsible for carrying out the
Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits            Department’s responsibilities under
discrimination in places of public             section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of
accommodations, such as hotels,                1973.
restaurants, and places of entertainment.      Special Litigation Section The Special
Office of Special Counsel for                  Litigation Section is responsible for
Immigration Related Unfair Employment          protecting the constitutional and
Practices The Office of Special Counsel        statutory rights of persons confined in
for Immigration Related Unfair                 certain institutions owned or operated by
Employment Practices was established           State or local governments, including
pursuant to section 102 of the                 facilities for individuals with mental and

developmental disabilities, nursing            and technical services, including
homes, prisons, jails, and juvenile            personnel administration, budget
detention facilities where a pattern or        formulation and execution, facilities
practice of violations exist. This authority   services, mail and file operations, and
is granted by the Civil Rights of              automated systems. This Section also
Institutionalized Persons Act. The Section     contains the Freedom of Information/
is also responsible for civil enforcement      Privacy Act Branch, which ensures that
provisions of the Freedom of Access to         the Division complies with all aspects of
Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) which              the Freedom of Information and Privacy
prohibits force or the threat of force for     Acts.
the purpose of interfering with the                Another component of the
provision of reproductive services; and        Administrative Management Section is
the police misconduct provision of the         the Office of Redress Administration,
Violent Crime Control and Law                  which implements the responsibilities
Enforcement Act of 1994, which gives           given to the Attorney General under
the Attorney General authority to remedy       section 105 of the Civil Liberties Act of
patterns and practices of misconduct by        1988. The Act provides for redress to
certain law enforcement authorities.           American citizens and permanent
Voting Section The Voting Section is           resident aliens of Japanese ancestry who
responsible for the enforcement of the         were evacuated, relocated, and interned
Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Voting          by the United States during World War
Accessibility for the Elderly and              II.
Handicapped Act, the Uniformed and
Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act,         For further information, contact the Executive
                                               Officer, Civil Rights Division, Department of
the National Voter Registration Act of         Justice, P.O. Box 65310, Washington, DC 20035–
1993, and other statutory provisions           5310. Phone, 202–514–4224.
designed to safeguard the right to vote of
racial and language minorities, illiterate     Criminal Division
persons, individuals with disabilities,
overseas citizens, persons who change          The Criminal Division develops,
their residence shortly before a               enforces, and supervises the application
Presidential election, and persons 18 to       of all Federal criminal laws, except those
20 years of age.                               specifically assigned to other divisions.
   Under section 2 of the Voting Rights        The Division and the 93 U.S. attorneys
Act, the Section brings lawsuits to            are responsible for overseeing criminal
remedy discriminatory election practices.      matters under more than 900 statutes, as
Under section 5 of the Voting Rights Act,      well as certain civil litigation. In addition
the Section reviews voting changes             to its direct litigation responsibilities, the
submitted to the Attorney General and          Division formulates and implements
defends section 5 litigation in court to       criminal enforcement policy and
assure that redistricting plans and other      provides advice and assistance. The
changes in voting practices and                Division approves or monitors sensitive
procedures do not abridge the right to         areas of law enforcement such as
vote of racial or language minorities.         participation in the Witness Security
Under section 8 of the Voting Rights Act,      Program and the use of electronic
the Attorney General requests the              surveillance; advises the Attorney
assignment of Federal observers—who            General, Congress, the Office of
generally are employees of the Office of       Management and Budget, and the White
Personnel Management—to monitor                House of matters of criminal law;
polling place activities on election day       provides legal advice and assistance to
to document and deter discriminatory           Federal prosecutors and investigative
practices.                                     agencies; and provides leadership for
Administrative Management Section              coordinating international as well as
This Section supports the Division by          Federal, State, and local law
providing a diverse array of management        enforcement matters.
                                                    DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE           353

Office of Administration The Office of        property with State and local
Administration performs a wide range of       enforcement agencies, as well as other
administrative and managerial functions       nations, and oversees the approval of the
for the components of the Criminal            placement of such property into official
Division, including budget preparation        use by the Federal agencies.
and execution, personnel actions,             Child Exploitation and Obscenity The
computer support services, mail and           Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section
records services, procurement, and            (CEOS) prosecutes violators of Federal
security.                                     criminal statutes relating to sexual
Appellate Section The Appellate               exploitation of minors, child support,
Section prepares draft briefs and             and obscenity. Under these statutes, the
certiorari petitions for the Solicitor        Section prosecutes those who possess,
General to be filed in the U.S. Supreme       manufacture, or distribute child
Court; makes recommendations to the           pornography, those who sell, buy, or
Solicitor General as to whether further       transport children interstate or
review on adverse decisions in the            internationally to engage in sexually
district courts and courts of appeals is      explicit conduct; those who travel
necessary; and prepares briefs and            interstate or internationally to sexually
argues cases in the courts of appeals.        abuse children; those who sexually
   The Section assists U.S. attorneys and     abuse children on Federal and Indian
Division prosecutors in preparing briefs      lands; those who do not pay certain
for the courts of appeals and provides        court-ordered child support payments;
advice on Speedy Trial Act [of 1974]          and those who transport obscene
problems and a variety of other legal         material in interstate or foreign
issues.                                       commerce either by the mails, common
Asset Forfeiture The Asset Forfeiture         carrier, cable television lines, telephone
Office provides centralized management        lines, or satellite transmission. Section
of the Department’s Asset Forfeiture          attorneys also assist U.S. attorneys in
Program to ensure its integrity and to        investigations, trials, and appeals related
maximize its full law enforcement             to these statutes. Finally, Section
potential. The Office provides oversight,     attorneys provide advice on victim-
management, and direction to the              witness issues and develop and refine
various Federal participating                 proposals for prosecution policies,
components. It initiates, coordinates, and    legislation, governmental practices, and
reviews legislative and policy proposals      agency regulations in the areas of child
impacting on the program and serves as        sexual exploitation of minors, child
the Department’s contact for Congress,        support, and obscenity.
other executive branch agencies, and          Fraud The Fraud Section, the largest
State and local law enforcement               component of the Criminal Division,
agencies. The Office develops,                directs and coordinates the Federal effort
promulgates, and oversees uniform             against fraud and white-collar crime,
forfeiture policies of the Department. It     focusing primarily on complex frauds
assists in the litigation of both civil and   that involve: multidistrict and
criminal asset forfeiture cases, either by    international activities; financial
conducting the litigation itself or           institutions; the insurance industry;
providing legal and practical advice to       Government programs and procurement
the U.S. attorneys or their assistants. The   procedures, including health care
Office oversees asset forfeiture training     providers, defense procurement fraud,
seminars for Federal prosecutors,             and Housing and Urban Development
investigating agents, and contract            fraud; the securities and commodities
personnel. It also adjudicates all            exchanges; and multidistrict schemes
petitions for remission or mitigation of      that involve consumer victimization,
forfeited assets in judicial forfeiture       such as telemarketing. The Section
cases. The Office administers the             conducts investigations and prosecutes
program for sharing federally forfeited       on its own about 100 fraud cases of

national significance or great complexity     enforces the Foreign Agents Registration
annually. It also assists U.S. attorneys      Act of 1938 and related disclosure
with cases, where requested. The Section      statutes.
maintains a regional Bank Fraud Task          Money Laundering The Money
Force field office in Dallas, TX, and         Laundering Section works with the entire
Boston, MA, and provides staffing for the     spectrum of law enforcement and
San Diego Bank Fraud Task Force. The          regulatory agencies using an interagency,
Section also trains Federal agents and        interdisciplinary, and international
prosecutors through its conferences and       approach. The Section is mandated to:
participation in other Federal                coordinate multidistrict investigations
conferences.                                  and prosecutions; provide guidance,
General Litigation and Legal Advice           legal advice, and assistance with respect
The General Litigation and Legal Advice       to money laundering investigations and
Section investigates and prosecutes cases     prosecutions to U.S. attorneys’ offices
involving violations of approximately         and investigative agencies; develop
two-thirds of all Federal criminal            regulatory and legislative initiatives;
statutes. Its Computer Crime Unit             ensure, through implementation of the
enforces the Computer Fraud and Abuse         money laundering prosecution
Act. Other Section jurisdiction includes      guidelines, the uniform application of
crimes against the public and crimes          the money laundering statutes; litigate
against government operations and             complex, sensitive, and multidistrict
offenses involving criminally enforceable     money laundering cases and provide
regulations in the areas of health, safety,   litigation assistance to U.S. attorneys’
and welfare. Examples of areas handled        offices and Criminal Division
by the Section include wiretapping            components; participate in international
violations, information technology            efforts to combat money laundering;
crimes and customs fraud, theft, or           develop, use, and teach cutting-edge
destruction of Government property,           investigative and prosecutive
obstruction of justice, perjury and           methodologies; identify new trends and
offenses on Federal or Indian                 typologies in money laundering; develop
reservations or on the high seas. The         national strategy with respect to new and
Section also handles certain civil matters    emerging trends, and coordinate
and provides extensive legal advice to        responses among appropriate agencies;
officials of the Department, U.S.             and provide training, materials, and
attorneys’ offices, and investigative         conferences for attorneys and law
agencies relating to its broad spectrum of    enforcement personnel in conjunction
responsibilities.                             with the Department’s Office of Legal
Internal Security The Internal Security       Education. The Money Laundering
Section supervises the investigation and      Section carries its own litigation
prosecution of cases affecting national       caseload and, at the same time, works
security, foreign relations, and the export   with other law enforcement agencies
of military and strategic commodities         throughout the country to promote
and technology. The Section has               innovative, yet uniform development of
exclusive responsibility for authorizing      the law in money laundering and money
the prosecution of cases under criminal       laundering-related forfeiture matters.
statutes relating to espionage, sabotage,     Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs The
neutrality, and atomic energy. It provides    Narcotic and Dangerous Drug Section
legal advice to U.S. attorneys’ offices       investigates and prosecutes complex,
and investigative agencies on all matters     multidefendant narcotics and related
within its area of responsibility, which      money-laundering cases. The Section
includes 88 Federal statutes affecting        coordinates complex multidistrict cases
national security. It also coordinates        and provides direct litigation support to
criminal cases involving the application      the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement
of the Classified Information Procedures      Task Forces, the High Intensity Drug
Act. The Section also administers and         Trafficking Areas programs, and other
                                                    DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE             355

multiagency initiatives. The Section         Department policy on emerging
litigates appeals from cases prosecuted      technologies and telecommunications
by its attorneys and appeals of denials or   issues. It also assists, upon request, in
revocations of licenses and registrations    the drafting of reply briefs involving
by the Administrator of the Drug             electronic surveillance issues.
Enforcement Administration.                     The Office responds to requests for
    Section attorneys actively participate   disclosure of information under the
in various working groups formed to          Freedom of Information Act and the
assist the Department in fulfilling its      Privacy Act.
responsibilities in the development and      International Affairs The Office of
implementation of domestic and               International Affairs supports the
international narcotics law enforcement      Department’s legal divisions, the U.S.
programs and policies.                       attorneys, and State and local
    The Section includes a Drug              prosecutors regarding questions of
Intelligence Unit which serves as a point    foreign and international law, including
of contact when information gathering        issues related to extradition and mutual
efforts of the intelligence community        legal assistance treaties. The Office also
overlap with domestic investigations and     coordinates all international evidence
prosecutions.                                gathering. In conjunction with the State
Enforcement Operations The Office of         Department, the Office engages in the
Enforcement Operations oversees the use      negotiation of new extradition and
of the most sophisticated investigative      mutual legal assistance treaties and
tools at the Department’s disposal,          executive agreements throughout the
including electronic surveillance and the    world. Office attorneys also participate
Federal Witness Protection Program. The      on a number of committees established
Office provides U.S. attorneys’ offices      under the auspices of the United Nations
and the various Criminal Division            and other international organizations that
components with a wide range of              are directed at resolving a variety of
prosecutorial support services in these      international law enforcement problems,
and other areas. These areas include         such as narcotics trafficking and money
reviewing all Federal electronic             laundering. The Office maintains a
surveillance requests; reviewing and         permanent field office in Rome.
authorizing requests to apply for court      Legislation The Office of Legislation
orders permitting the use of video           develops legislative proposals, legal
surveillance; authorizing or denying the     memoranda, and congressional
entry of all applicants into the Federal     testimony. The Office also prepares
Witness Security Program, coordinating       comments on pending and proposed
and administering all Program                legislation affecting the Federal criminal
components and matters relating to all       justice system. It works closely with the
aspects of the Witness Security Program;     U.S. Sentencing Commission and
approving or denying requests by             provides legal support to the Advisory
Federal agencies to utilize Federal          Committee on Criminal Rules and the
prisoners for investigative purposes;        Federal Rules of Evidence of the Judicial
administering the International Prisoner     Conference regarding the Federal Rules
Transfer Program; coordinating requests      of Criminal Procedure.
for U.S. prisoners to testify in foreign     Professional Development and Training
countries; and supervising the               The Office of Professional Development
mechanism by which persons who are           and Training furthers the goals of the
not Federal law enforcement officers or      Criminal Division relating to its
agents may become Special Deputy             initiatives in international training. In this
United States Marshals. The Office           regard, the Office coordinates the
provides legal advice to Federal, State,     training of judges and prosecutors
and local law enforcement agencies on        abroad through various Government
the use of Federal electronic surveillance   agencies and U.S. embassies. The Office
statutes, and assists in developing          coordinates such training programs in

South and Central America and in              attorneys’ offices in 21 Federal districts
Central and Eastern Europe.                   having a significant organized crime
   The Office also serves as the              presence. These cases involve a broad
Department’s liaison between various          spectrum of criminal statutes, including
private and public agencies that sponsor      extortion, murder, bribery, fraud,
visits to the United States for foreign       narcotics, and labor racketeering.
officials who are interested in the U.S.         The Section is involved in setting
legal system. The Office makes                national priorities for the organized
presentations explaining the U.S.             crime program by coordinating with
criminal system process to hundreds of        investigative agencies such as the
international visitors each year.             Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug
   Another responsibility of this Office is   Enforcement Administration, and others;
the revision and publication of Criminal      and by working with the Attorney
Division manuals and monographs. The          General’s Organized Crime Council,
Office also has a small in-house video        which is ultimately responsible for the
library to afford Criminal Division           Federal Government’s policy in this area.
                                                 In addition to its close supervision of
attorneys easy access to quick updates in
                                              all Federal organized crime cases, the
important areas of the law, such as
                                              Section maintains close control over all
sentencing guidelines and the                 Government uses of the RICO statute,
admissibility of DNA (deoxyribonucleic        and provides extensive advice to
acid) identification evidence.                prosecutors about the use of this
Policy and Management Analysis The            powerful tool for cases involving patterns
Office of Policy and Management               of serious criminal conduct.
Analysis analyzes policy and                     In a more specialized context, the
management issues relating to criminal        Section provides support for criminal
justice enforcement and makes                 prosecutions, which may not include
recommendations to senior managers in         organized criminal groups. These cases
the Criminal Division and the                 involve labor-management disputes, the
Department. The Office is involved in         internal affairs of labor unions in the
projects that may require contact with        private sector, and the operation of
U.S. attorneys, Federal investigators, and    employee pension and welfare benefit
other law enforcement officials.              plans.
Special Investigations The Office of          Public Integrity The Public Integrity
Special Investigations detects and            Section oversees the Federal effort to
investigates individuals who took part in     combat corruption through the
Nazi-sponsored acts of persecution            prosecution of elected and appointed
abroad before and during World War II,        public officials at all levels of
and who subsequently entered, or seek         Government. The Section has exclusive
to enter, the United States illegally and/    jurisdiction over allegations of criminal
or fraudulently. It then takes appropriate    misconduct by Federal judges, and also
legal action seeking their exclusion,         monitors the investigation and
denaturalization, and/or deportation.         prosecution of election and conflict of
Organized Crime and Racketeering              interest crimes. Section attorneys
The Organized Crime and Racketeering          prosecute selected cases against Federal,
Section coordinated the Department’s          State, and local officials, and are
program to combat organized crime. The        available as a source of advice and
principal enforcement efforts are             expertise to other prosecutors and to
currently directed against traditional        investigators. Since 1978, the Section
groups—such as La Cosa Nostra families,       has supervised the administration of the
and emerging groups from Asia and             Independent Counsel provisions of the
Europe—such as Chinese Triads, the            Ethics in Government Act.
Sicilian Mafia, and Russian organized         Terrorism and Violent Crime The
crime. The Section supervises the             Terrorism and Violent Crime Section
investigation and prosecution of these        investigates and prosecutes Federal
cases by Strike Force Units within U.S.       offenses relating to international
                                                      DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                 357

terrorism incidents which impact on U.S.       and reporting on caseload and other
interests. The Section also oversees the       statistical data for the Task Forces; the
prosecution of domestic violent crime          coordination of multiagency research
offenses over which Federal jurisdiction       reports for the Attorney General, the
exists, as well as the prosecution of          Under Secretary of the Treasury, the U.S.
firearms and explosives violations. In         attorneys, the President, the Congress,
appropriate instances, Section attorneys       and others; and the policy formulation
assume direct responsibility for the           and management of the fiscal aspects of
prosecution of violent crime cases. The        the program.
Section assists in the implementation of       For further information, contact the Office of the
an initiative designed to deter criminals      Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division,
from possessing firearms by using              Department of Justice, Tenth Street and
                                               Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530.
Federal firearms laws, which generally         Phone, 202–514–2601.
provide longer and often mandatory
sentences for gun offenses. Additionally,      Environment and Natural Resources
the Section administers the national anti-     Division
violent crime strategy which is being
carried out in every Federal judicial          The Environment and Natural Resources
district. The strategy focuses particular      Division, formerly known as the Land
attention on the investigation and             and Natural Resources Division, is the
prosecution of gang-related crimes.            Nation’s environmental lawyer. It is
Section attorneys provide legal advice to      responsible for litigating significant
Federal prosecutors concerning Federal         cases—ranging from protection of
statutes relating to murder, assault,          endangered species, to global climate
                                               change, to cleaning up the Nation’s
kidnapping, threats, robbery, weapons
                                               hazardous waste sites. A key Division
and explosives control, malicious
                                               responsibility is enforcing civil and
destruction of property, and aircraft and
                                               criminal environmental laws in order to
sea piracy. The Section also formulates
                                               protect its citizens’ health and
legislative initiatives and Department         environment. The Division also defends
policies relating to international terrorism   environmental challenges to Government
and violent crime, and coordinates such        programs and activities. It represents the
initiatives and strategies with other          United States in all matters concerning
Government agencies.                           the protection, use, and development of
Executive Office for the Organized             the Nation’s natural resources and public
Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces             lands, wildlife protection, Indian rights
Since 1982, the Organized Crime Drug           and claims, and the acquisition of
Enforcement Task Forces (OCDETF)               Federal property.
Program has been the principal
coordinating mechanism for Federal,            Environmental Crimes The
State, and local enforcement                   Environmental Crimes Section is
investigations and prosecutions aimed at       responsible for prosecuting individuals
high-level drug trafficking and related        and industries which have violated laws
enterprises. The OCDETF goal is to             designed to protect the environment. The
dismantle and/or significantly disrupt the     Section works closely with the Federal
operations of those enterprises by             Bureau of Investigation and criminal
investigating, prosecuting, and                investigators for the Environmental
convicting the organizational leadership.      Protection Agency (EPA) in dealing with
   The Executive Office for OCDETF             violations of such statutes as the Clean
supports the work of over 4,000 Federal        Air Act; the Comprehensive
agents and prosecutors and an annual           Environmental Response, Compensation
average of 6,000 State and local               and Liability Act (Superfund); and the
personnel in OCDETF activities through         Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
the coordination of legal and                  (RCRA), among others.
administrative services provided to the        Environmental Enforcement The
Task Forces; the collection, analyses,         Environmental Enforcement Section is

responsible for handling most of the         Federal wildlife laws and laws
affirmative civil litigation brought on      concerning the protection of marine fish
behalf of the United States                  and mammals. Prosecutions focus on
Environmental Protection Agency; claims      illegal hunting, smuggling, and black-
for damages to our natural resources on      market dealers of protected fish and
behalf of the Departments of Interior,       wildlife. Civil litigation, particularly
Commerce, and Agriculture; claims for        under the Endangered Species Act, often
contribution against private parties for     focuses on conflicts between the needs
contamination of public land; and            of protected species versus pressures for
recoupment of money spent to clean up        development by both the Federal
certain oil spills on behalf of the United   Government and private enterprise.
States Coast Guard. The Section supports     General Litigation The General
the regulatory programs of its client        Litigation Section is responsible for
agencies through litigation to obtain        ensuring compliance with over 80
compliance with environmental statutes,      different statutes dealing with land
establishes a credible deterrent against     management issues of federally owned
violation of those statutes, recoups         properties and natural resources. This
Federal funds spent to abate                 includes litigation under the National
environmental contamination, and             Environmental Policy Act, the Federal
obtains money to restore or replace          Land Policy Management Act, and the
natural resources damaged through oil        National Historic Preservation Act.
spills or the release of hazardous           Important sources of Federal revenue
substances into the environment. The         such as offshore oil leasing and coal
primary statutes within the Section’s        slurry pipeline cases are examples of the
responsibility are: the Comprehensive        varied matters handled by the Section. In
Environmental Response, Compensation         addition, the Section represents the
and Liability Act (Superfund); the Clean     United States in all legal and equitable
Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the            claims asserted by Indian tribes on the
Resource Conservation and Recovery           grounds that the United States has failed
Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act; and        to honor its obligations to the tribes.
the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.               Indian Resources The Indian Resources
Environmental Defense The                    Section represents the United States in its
Environmental Defense Section                trust capacity for individual Indians or
represents the United States, principally    Indian tribes. These suits include
EPA, in suits challenging the                establishing water rights, establishing
Government’s administration of Federal       and protecting hunting and fishing rights,
environmental laws. The goal of the          collecting damages for trespass on Indian
Section’s litigation is to assure that       lands, and establishing reservation
environmental laws are implemented in        boundaries and rights to land. The
a fair and consistent manner nationwide.     litigation is often complex but of vital
The lawsuits arise in Federal district and   interest to the Indians.
appellate courts, and include challenges     Land Acquisition The Land Acquisition
by industries, environmental groups, and     Section is responsible for acquiring land,
citizens that Federal agencies are not       through condemnation proceedings, for
meeting environmental standards. The         use by the Federal Government for
Section also protects the Nation’s           purposes ranging from establishing
wetlands from unauthorized                   public parks to creating missile sites, and
development and destruction, through         for approving title to lands being
both enforcement actions against illegal     acquired by the United States by direct
activities and actions defending Corps of    purchase. The Section seeks to
Engineer decisions on permit                 implement the just compensation clause
applications.                                of the Fifth Amendment in a way that is
Wildlife and Marine Resources The            fair both to property owners and
Wildlife and Marine Resources Section        taxpayers. The legal and factual issues
tries both civil and criminal cases under    involved can include the power of the
                                                           DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE           359

United States to condemn under specific              employees in actions arising out of the
acts of Congress; ascertainment of the               performance of their official duties, as
fair market value of property;                       well as representing other Federal
applicability of zoning regulations and              departments and agencies in their
problems related to subdivisions;                    dealings with State and local tax
capitalization of income; and the                    authorities. In civil tax litigation the
admissibility of evidence.                           Division’s responsibility involves cases in
Policy, Legislation and Special Litigation           the United States District Courts, the
The Policy, Legislation and Special                  United States Court of Federal Claims,
Litigation Section advises and assists the           the United States Courts of Appeals, and
Assistant Attorney General on specific               the U. S. Supreme Court, as well as
policy matters and particular litigation. It         cases in the State courts.
coordinates and directs the Division’s                  The Division represents the United
legislative program, including                       States in many different types of
appearances of Division witnesses before             disputes, both civil and criminal, dealing
congressional committees. Other duties               with the interpretation of Federal tax
include responding to citizens’ requests             laws. For example, when the Internal
and serving as the Division’s ethics                 Revenue Service challenges a tax return
officer. Attorneys in the Section also               and determines a deficiency, the
litigate amicus curiae cases and                     taxpayer may pay the full amount of tax
undertake other special litigation                   assessed and then bring a suit against the
projects.                                            Government for refund. The Division
Appeals The Appellate Section is                     defends the Government in these refund
responsible for conducting all appeals in            actions.
cases initially tried in lower courts by                Other areas of civil litigation in which
any of the sections within the Division.             the Tax Division is involved on behalf of
In addition, the Section drafts briefs for           the Federal Government include:
                                                        —suits brought by individuals to
all Division cases which reach the level
                                                     foreclose mortgages or to quiet title to
of the U.S. Supreme Court, and
                                                     property in which the United States is
formulates recommendations to the
                                                     named as a party defendant because of
Solicitor General that seek authority to
                                                     the existence of a Federal tax lien on the
appeal unfavorable decisions. The
Section deals with the full range and                   —suits brought by the United States to
complexity of the new and challenging                collect unpaid assessments, to foreclose
issues presented by environmental law.               Federal tax liens or determine the
Executive Office The Executive Office                priority of such liens, to obtain
serves as administrator to the Division              judgments against delinquent taxpayers,
on financial management, personnel,                  to enforce summonses, and to establish
automated systems, procurement, and                  tax claims in bankruptcy, receivership,
automated litigation support issues.                 or probate proceedings;
For further information, contact the Office of the      —proceedings involving mandamus,
Assistant Attorney General, Environment and          injunctions, and other specific writs
Natural Resources Division, Department of Justice,   arising in connection with internal
Tenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW.,
Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–2701.           revenue matters;
                                                        —suits against Internal Revenue
Tax Division                                         Service employees for damages claimed
                                                     because of alleged injuries caused in the
The Tax Division represents the United               performance of their official duties;
States and its officers in all civil and                —suits against the Secretary of the
criminal litigation arising under the                Treasury, the Commissioner of Internal
internal revenue laws, other than                    Revenue, or similar officials to test the
proceedings in the United States Tax                 validity of regulations or rulings not in
Court. While the Division’s primary                  the context of a specific refund action;
client is the Internal Revenue Service, it              —suits brought by the United States to
also represents Federal officials and                enjoin the promotion of abusive tax

shelters and to enjoin activities relating       requests for assistance by the appropriate
to aiding and abetting the                       U.S. attorney. In its efforts to deter
understatement of tax liabilities of others;     willful deception through prosecution of
   —suits brought by taxpayers for a             criminal offenders, the Tax Division also
judicial determination of the                    plays a significant role in curbing
reasonableness of a jeopardy or                  organized crime, public corruption,
termination assessment and the                   narcotics trafficking, and financial
appropriateness of the amount;                   institution fraud.
   —proceedings brought against the Tax
                                                     The primary functions of the Division
Division and the Internal Revenue
                                                 are to aid the Internal Revenue Service
Service for disclosure of information
                                                 in collecting the Federal revenue and to
under the Freedom of Information Act;
                                                 establish principles of law that will serve
   —intergovernmental immunity suits in          as guidelines to taxpayers and their
which the United States resists attempts         representatives, as well as to the Internal
to apply a State or local tax to some            Revenue Service, in the administration of
activity or property of the United States.       the Internal Revenue Code. As a result,
   The Division also collects judgments          coordination with the Internal Revenue
in tax cases. To this end, the Division          Service’s administrative policies and the
directs collection efforts and coordinates       Treasury Department’s legislative tax
with, monitors the efforts of, and               concerns in developing litigating
provides assistance to the various United        postures is essential.
States attorneys’ offices in collecting              The Division also provides input into
outstanding judgments in tax cases.              the preparation of reports to the
   With respect to criminal tax litigation,      Congress, the Office of Management and
the Division prosecutes or supervises the        Budget, and the Office of Legislative
prosecution of all criminal offenses             Affairs on pending or proposed
committed under the internal revenue             legislation and monitors congressional
laws, including attempts to evade and            activities with respect to matters of
defeat taxes, willful failures to file returns   interest to the Division.
and to pay taxes, filing false returns and           In accordance with the Attorney
other deceptive documents, making false          General’s program to enhance the
statements to revenue officials, and other       litigating skills of Department attorneys,
miscellaneous offenses involving internal        the Division conducts training programs
revenue matters. These duties include            for its attorneys, with special emphasis
the institution of criminal proceedings          on matters unique to tax litigation and
and collaboration with U.S. attorneys in         the development of advocacy skills.
the conduct of litigation in the trial and
appellate courts. Further, Tax Division          For further information, contact the Office of the
                                                 Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division,
attorneys frequently conduct grand jury          Department of Justice, Tenth Street and
investigations and actual trials of              Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530.
criminal tax cases, often as a result of         Phone, 202–514–2901.

Federal Bureau of Investigation                  charged with gathering and reporting
                                                 facts, locating witnesses, and compiling
Ninth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW.,        evidence in cases involving Federal
Washington, DC 20535. Phone, 202–324–            jurisdiction.
3000                                                The Federal Bureau of Investigation
                                                 was established in 1908 by the Attorney
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)        General, who directed that Department
is the principal investigative arm of the        of Justice investigations be handled by its
United States Department of Justice. It is       own staff. The Bureau is charged with
                                                              DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE           361

investigating all violations of Federal law                The Executive Office of the Director
except those that have been assigned by                 provides overall direction for agency
legislative enactment or otherwise to                   operations. In addition to typical
another Federal agency. Its jurisdiction                administrative functions performed by an
includes a wide range of responsibilities               agency head, the Offices of General
in the criminal, civil, and security fields.            Counsel and Internal Affairs are within
Priority has been assigned to the five                  the Office and report to the Director.
areas that affect society the most:                        The Administration Division develops
organized crime/drugs, counterterrorism,                plans, programs, and policies concerning
white-collar crime, foreign                             the acquisition, construction, and staffing
counterintelligence, and violent crime.                 of new facilities, as well as budget
   On January 28, 1982, the Attorney                    development, financial management,
General assigned concurrent jurisdiction                procurement, and contracting.
for the enforcement of the Controlled                      The Correctional Programs Division is
Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801) to the                   responsible for managing the
Bureau and the Drug Enforcement                         correctional services (security) operations
Administration (DEA). The DEA                           in Bureau institutions and case and unit
Administrator reports to the Attorney                   management, as well as religious and
General through the FBI Director.                       psychological services, drug treatment
                                                        programs, and inmate systems.
   The Bureau also offers cooperative                      Federal Prison Industries (trade name
services such as fingerprint identification,            UNICOR) is a wholly owned
laboratory examination, police training,                Government corporation whose mission
and the National Crime Information                      is to provide employment and training
Center to duly authorized law                           opportunities for inmates confined in
enforcement agencies.                                   Federal correctional facilities. UNICOR
   The Bureau headquarters in                           manufactures a wide range of items—
Washington, DC, consists of nine                        from executive and systems furniture to
separate divisions, a Deputy Director, an               electronics, textiles, and graphics/
Office of Public and Congressional                      signage. Services performed by
Affairs, an Office of Equal Employment                  UNICOR’s inmates include data entry,
Opportunity Affairs, and a Director’s                   printing, and furniture refinishing. The
staff.                                                  corporation funds selected preindustrial,
   The Bureau’s investigations are                      vocational, and experimental training
conducted through 56 field offices. Most                programs.
of its investigative personnel are trained                 The Health Services Division has
at the FBI Academy in Quantico, VA.                     oversight responsibility for all medical
                                                        and psychiatric programs; environmental
For further information, contact the Office of
Public and Congressional Affairs, Federal Bureau of     and occupational health services; food
Investigation, J. Edgar Hoover F.B.I. Building, Ninth   and nutrition services; and farm
Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington,         operations.
DC 20535. Phone, 202–324–2727.                             The Human Resource Management
                                                        Division provides personnel, training,
Bureau of Prisons                                       and labor management within the
320 First Street NW., Washington, DC 20534.             agency. Its functions also include pay
Phone, 202–307–3198                                     and position management and
The mission of the Bureau of Prisons is                    The National Institute of Corrections
to protect society by confining offenders               provides technical assistance and
in the controlled environments of prisons               training for State and local correctional
and community-based facilities that are                 agencies throughout the country. It also
safe, humane, and appropriately secure,                 provides grants for research, evaluation,
and which provide work and other self-                  and program development. The
improvement opportunities to assist                     Institute’s administrative offices, Prison
offenders in becoming law-abiding                       Division, and Community Corrections
citizens.                                               Division are located in Washington, DC;

and the Jails Division, Training                     marshals and their support staff of
Academy, and Information Center are                  approximately 3,500 deputy marshals
located in Longmont, CO. The Institute               and administrative personnel operate
receives logistical support from the                 from 427 office locations in all 94
Bureau of Prisons but is a separate                  Federal judicial districts nationwide,
budget entity.                                       from Guam to Puerto Rico, and from
   The Program Review Division oversees              Alaska to Florida.
agency review functions, ensures internal
                                                        The Marshals Service performs tasks
controls, and coordinates the year-end
                                                     that are essential to the operation of
assurance statement to the Attorney
General. This division also conducts in-             virtually every aspect of the Federal
depth analyses of review outcomes, and               justice system. The Service is responsible
tracks and monitors management                       for:
changes made in accord with those                       —providing support and protection for
findings.                                            the Federal courts, including security for
   The Information, Policy and Public                over 700 judicial facilities and nearly
Affairs Division encompasses the                     2,000 judges and magistrates, as well as
Bureau’s Information Systems; Policy                 countless other trial participants such as
Review; Information Resources                        jurors and attorneys;
Management; Research and Evaluation;                    —apprehending most Federal fugitives;
Security Technology; Documents
Control; External Liaison; Archives; and                —operating the Federal Witness
Office of Public Affairs.                            Security program, ensuring the safety of
   The Community Corrections and                     endangered government witnesses;
Detention Division is responsible for the               —maintaining custody of and
Bureau’s Community Corrections and                   transporting thousands of Federal
Detention Programs, Contract Services,               prisoners annually;
Administration, and Program
Development.                                            —executing court orders and arrest
   The Bureau is subdivided into six                 warrants;
geographic regions, each staffed with                   —seizing, managing, and selling
field-qualified personnel who are                    property forfeited to the Government by
responsible for policy development and               drug traffickers and other criminals, and
oversight, providing operational                     assisting the Justice Department’s Seizure
guidance to field locations, and                     and Forfeiture Program; and
providing support functions in areas such               —responding to emergency
as auditing, technical assistance, budget,           circumstances, including civil
and personnel. Each regional office is               disturbances, terrorist incidents, and
headed by an experienced career Bureau               other crisis situations, through its Special
manager who is a full member of the                  Operations Group, and restoring order in
Bureau’s executive staff.                            riot and mob-violence situations.
For further information, contact the Public             The Director of the U.S. Marshals
Information Officer, Bureau of Prisons, Department
of Justice, Washington, DC 20534. Phone, 202–        Service, who is appointed by the
307–3198.                                            President, supervises the operations of
                                                     the Service throughout the United States
United States Marshals Service                       and its territories. The Deputy Director
                                                     for Operations oversees the Service’s
600 Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202–
                                                     enforcement, court security, witness
4210. Phone, 202–307–9065
                                                     protection, prisoner transportation, and
The United States Marshals Service is the            asset seizure and forfeiture activities. The
Nation’s oldest Federal law enforcement              Deputy Director for Administration is
agency, having served as a vital link                responsible for personnel management;
between the executive and judicial                   procurement and property management;
branches of the Government since 1789.               space, transportation, and
Today, the Presidentially appointed                  communications; information systems;
                                                        DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE         363

and the U.S. Marshals Service Training            designates the Attorney General as the
Academy.                                          permanent representative to INTERPOL
For further information, contact the Office of
                                                  and the Secretary of the Treasury as the
Congressional and Public Affairs, U.S. Marshals   alternate representative.
Service, Department of Justice, Suite 1260, 600      The Bureau operates through
Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202. Phone,
202–307–9065.                                     cooperative efforts with Federal, State,
                                                  and local law enforcement agencies.
United States National Central                    Programs and initiatives, such as the
Bureau–International Criminal                     State Liaison Program and the Canadian
Police Organization                               Interface Project, broaden the scope of
                                                  U.S. investigative resources to include
Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–272–             the international community, thus
8383                                              forming an integral part of the United
The U.S. National Central Bureau                  States efforts to confront the problem of
(USNCB) represents the United States in           international crime.
INTERPOL, the International Criminal                 Federal and State law enforcement
Police Organization. Also known as                agencies represented at the USNCB
INTERPOL—Washington, USNCB                        include the Federal Bureau of
provides an essential communications              Investigation; U.S. Marshals Service;
link between the U.S. police community            Drug Enforcement Administration;
and their counterparts in the foreign             Immigration and Naturalization Service;
member countries.                                 Criminal Division, U.S. Customs Service;
   INTERPOL is an association of 169              U.S. Secret Service; Internal Revenue
countries dedicated to promoting mutual           Service; Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
assistance among law enforcement                  Firearms; Office of the Comptroller of
authorities in the prevention and                 the Currency; Office of the Inspector
suppression of international crime. With          General, Department of Agriculture; U.S.
no police force of its own, INTERPOL              Postal Inspection Service; Bureau of
has no powers of arrest or search and             Diplomatic Security, Department of
seizure. Instead, INTERPOL serves as a            State; Naval Investigative Service;
channel of communication among the                Federal Law Enforcement Training
police of the member countries, and               Center; Financial Crimes Enforcement
provides a forum for discussions,                 Network; and the Massachusetts State
working group meetings, and symposia              Police.
to enable police to focus on specific
areas of criminal activity affecting their           Under the State Liaison Program,
countries.                                        States establish an office within their
   United States participation in                 own law enforcement community to
INTERPOL began in 1938 by                         serve as liaison to USNCB. International
congressional authorization, designating          leads developed in criminal
the Attorney General as the official              investigations being conducted by a
representative to the organization.               State or local police entity can be
INTERPOL operations were interrupted              pursued through their Liaison Office, and
during World War II, but resumed in               criminal investigative requests from
1947.                                             abroad are funneled through the relevant
   The Attorney General officially                State liaison office for action by the
designated the Secretary of the Treasury          appropriate State or local agency. All 50
as the U.S. representative to INTERPOL            States now participate in the liaison
in 1958, and the U.S. National Central            program, which is currently coordinated
Bureau was established within the                 by a representative from the
Treasury Department in 1969. In 1977,             Massachusetts State Police.
an arrangement was effected between                  USNCB has two sub-bureaus which
Justice and Treasury officials establishing       serve to more effectively address the law
dual authority in administering USNCB.            enforcement needs of U.S. territories.
This Memorandum of Understanding                  The sub-bureaus are located in San Juan,

Puerto Rico; and Pago Pago, American                 border patrol sectors throughout the
Samoa.                                               United States. INS also maintains three
For further information, contact the U.S. National
                                                     district offices in Bangkok, Thailand;
Central Bureau–INTERPOL, Washington, DC 20530.       Mexico City, Mexico; and Rome, Italy.
Phone, 202–272–8383.                                    INS carries out its mission through
                                                     operational programs in adjudications
Immigration and Naturalization                       and naturalization, inspections,
Service                                              investigations, and detention and
425 I Street NW., Washington, DC 20536.              deportation, as well as the U.S. Border
Phone, 202–514–4316, 4330, or 4354                   Patrol. These programs are divided into
                                                     the following mission responsibilities:
[For the Immigration and Naturalization Service         —facilitating the entry of persons
statement of organization, see the Code of Federal   legally admissible as immigrants or as
Regulations, Title 8, Aliens and Nationality]        visitors to the United States;
The Immigration and Naturalization                      —granting benefits under the
Service (INS) was created by act of                  Immigration and Nationality Act, as
March 3, 1891 (8 U.S.C. 1551 note),                  amended, including providing assistance
and its purpose and responsibilities were            to those seeking asylum, temporary or
further specified by the Immigration and             permanent resident status, or
Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C.                naturalization;
1101 note), which charges the Attorney                  —preventing unlawful entry,
General with the administration and                  employment, or receipt of benefits by
enforcement of its provisions. The                   those who are not entitled to them; and
Attorney General has delegated authority                —apprehending or removing those
to the Commissioner of the Immigration               aliens who enter or remain illegally in
and Naturalization service to carry out              the United States and/or whose stay is
these provisions of immigraion law.                  not in the public interest.
   Overall policy and executive direction               The Service also has a firm
flow from the Washington, DC,                        commitment to strengthen criminal
headquarters office through 3 regional               investigations and seek the most effective
offices to 33 district offices and 21                deterrents to illegal immigration.

For further information, contact the Office of Information, Immigration and Naturalization Service,
Department of Justice, 425 I Street NW., Washington, DC 20536. Phone, 202–514–4316, 4330, or 4354.

Drug Enforcement Administration                      any other competent jurisdiction—on
                                                     those significant organizations and their
600–700 Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA
                                                     members involved in cultivation,
22202. Phone, 202–307–1000; FTS, 367–
                                                     production, smuggling, distribution, or
                                                     diversion of controlled substances
The Drug Enforcement Administration                  appearing in or destined for illegal traffic
(DEA) is the lead Federal agency in                  in the United States. DEA immobilizes
enforcing narcotics and controlled                   these organizations by arresting their
substances laws and regulations. It was              members, confiscating their drugs, and
created in July 1973, by Reorganization              seizing their assets; and creates,
Plan No. 2 of 1973 (5 U.S.C. app.),                  manages, and supports enforcement-
which merged four separate drug law                  related programs—domestically and
enforcement agencies.                                internationally—aimed at reducing the
  DEA enforces the provisions of the                 availability of and demand for controlled
controlled substances and chemical                   substances.
diversion and trafficking laws and
regulations of the United States, and                   DEA’s responsibilities include:
operates on a worldwide basis. It                       —investigation of major narcotic
presents cases to the criminal and civil             violators who operate at interstate and
justice systems of the United States—or              international levels;
                                                            DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE          365

   —seizure and forfeiture of assets                  The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) was
derived from, traceable to, or intended               established by the Justice Assistance Act
to be used for illicit drug trafficking;              of 1984 and reauthorized in 1994 to
   —enforcement of regulations                        provide Federal leadership, coordination,
governing the legal manufacture,                      and assistance needed to make the
distribution, and dispensing of controlled            Nation’s justice system more efficient
substances;                                           and effective in preventing and
   —management of a national narcotics                controlling crime. OJP and its five
intelligence system;                                  program bureaus are responsible for
   —coordination with Federal, State,                 collecting statistical data and conducting
and local law enforcement authorities                 analyses; identifying emerging criminal
and cooperation with counterpart                      justice issues; developing and testing
agencies abroad; and                                  promising approaches to address these
   —training, scientific research, and                issues; evaluating program results, and
information exchange in support of drug               disseminating these findings and other
traffic prevention and control.                       information to State and local
   DEA manages the El Paso Intelligence               governments.
Center (EPIC), a 24-hour tactical drug                   The Office is headed by an Assistant
intelligence center, which utilizes DEA               Attorney General who, by statute and
and Federal personnel from 13 other                   delegation of authority from the Attorney
agencies.                                             General, establishes, guides, promotes,
   The Administration concentrates its                and coordinates policy; focuses efforts
efforts on high-level narcotics smuggling             on the priorities established by the
and distribution organizations in the                 President and the Attorney General; and
United States and abroad, working                     promotes coordination among the five
closely with such agencies as the                     major bureaus or offices within OJP.
                                                      These are: Bureau of Justice Assistance,
Customs Service, the Internal Revenue
                                                      Bureau of Justice Statistics, National
Service, and the Coast Guard. It also
                                                      Institute of Justice, Office of Juvenile
chairs the 11-agency National Narcotics
                                                      Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and
Intelligence Consumers Committee,
                                                      Office for Victims of Crime.
which develops an annual report on                       Through the programs developed and
drug production, trafficking, and abuse               financed by its bureaus and offices, OJP
trends.                                               works to form partnerships among
   Approximately 400 Administration                   Federal, State, and local government
compliance investigators enforce                      officials to control drug abuse and
regulation of the legal manufacture and               trafficking, rehabilitate crime-ridden
distribution of prescription drugs. The               neighborhoods, improve the
agency also maintains an active training              administration of justice in America,
program for narcotics officers in other               meet the needs of crime victims, and
Federal, State, and local agencies—as                 find innovative ways to address
well as foreign police.                               problems such as gang violence, prison
   The Administration maintains liaison               crowding, juvenile crime, and white-
with the United Nations, INTERPOL, and                collar crime. The functions of each
other organizations on matters relating to            bureau or office are interrelated. For
international narcotics control programs.             example, the statistics generated by the
It has offices throughout the United                  Bureau of Justice Statistics may drive the
States and in 50 foreign countries.                   research that is conducted through the
For further information, contact the Public Affairs   National Institute of Justice and the
Section, Drug Enforcement Administration,             Office of Juvenile Justice and
Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20537.          Delinquency Prevention. Research
Phone, 202–307–7977.
                                                      results may generate new programs that
                                                      receive support from the Bureau of
Office of Justice Programs                            Justice Assistance and the Office of
633 Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC                Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
20531. Phone, 202–307–0781                            Prevention.

   Although some research and technical       Comprehensive Communities Program.
assistance is provided directly by OJP’s      BJA also supports violence reduction
bureaus and offices, most of the work is      initiatives, such as homicide
accomplished through Federal financial        investigations and firearms control
assistance to scholars, practitioners, and    programs. Criminal justice agencies are
State and local governments.                  provided assistance in addressing new
   Program bureaus and offices award          issues and problems, such as the spread
formula grants to State agencies, which,      of drug-trafficking gangs; intermediate
in turn, subgrant funds to units of State     punishment, such as bootcamps; and
and local government. Formula grant           drug testing of criminal offenders. The
programs—drug control and system              Bureau also supports programs that are
improvement, juvenile justice, victims        national or multistate in scope, such as
compensation, and victims assistance—         Operation Weed and Seed, the Regional
are administered by State agencies            Information Sharing Systems, the
designated by each State’s Governor.          National White Collar Crime Center, and
Discretionary grant programs usually are      the National Crime Prevention (McGruff)
announced in the Federal Register, and        Campaign. Discretionary Grant funds are
applications are made directly to the         awarded directly by the Bureau and do
sponsoring Office of Justice Programs         not require matching funds.
bureau or office.
                                                 Direct assistance is also provided by
Bureau of Justice Assistance The
                                              the Bureau through the Emergency
Bureau provides financial and technical
                                              Federal Law Enforcement Assistance,
assistance to State and local units of
                                              Federal Surplus Property Transfer, Prison
government to control drug abuse, drug
                                              Industry Certification, Public Safety
trafficking, and violent crime and to
                                              Officers’ Death and Disability Benefits,
improve the criminal justice system.
   The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (42        and the State Criminal Alien Assistance
U.S.C. 3750), which established the           Programs.
Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local         Bureau of Justice Statistics The Bureau
Law Enforcement Assistance Programs,          is responsible for collecting, analyzing,
authorizes the Bureau to make grants for      publishing, and disseminating statistical
the purpose of enforcing State and local      information on crime, its perpetrators
laws that establish offenses similar to       and victims, and the operation of justice
those designated in the Controlled            systems at all levels of government and
Substances Act and to improve the             internationally.
functioning of the criminal justice              The Bureau also assists State
system, with emphasis on violent crime        governments in developing capabilities
and serious offenders. The States are         in criminal justice statistics and
required to prepare a statewide anti-drug     improving their criminal justice records
and violent crime strategy as part of their   and information systems.
applications for Formula Grant funds.            The Bureau provides the President, the
Federal funds may be used for up to 75        Congress, other officials, and the public
percent of the total project costs.           with timely and accurate data about
   The Bureau uses the Discretionary          crime and the administration of justice.
Grant Program to provide State and local      The Bureau publishes concise Special
criminal justice agencies with state-of-      Reports and periodic Bulletins that
the-art information on innovative and         provide up-to-date statistical information
effective programs, practices, and            on various aspects of criminal justice. In
techniques through demonstration              addition, lengthier volumes present
projects, training, and technical             detailed analyses of specific topics.
assistance. For example, the Bureau is           The National Crime Victimization
developing and implementing                   Survey is the largest ongoing statistical
comprehensive crime control and crime         series currently conducted by the
prevention strategies for communities         Bureau. Using interviews from a large
faced with high rates of violence and         sample of U.S. households, the Survey
drug-related crime through the                measures the rates at which the Nation’s
                                                      DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                 367

population is victimized by crimes of          community anti-drug initiatives,
violence and theft.                            multijurisdictional task forces, and drug
   Other statistical series cover civil        testing programs.
justice, prison and jail inmates,                 NIJ’s evaluations of new approaches
probation and parole, adjudication,            for holding offenders accountable for
processing offenders as they move              their crimes has provided invaluable
through the criminal justice system,           information regarding such programs as
criminal justice expenditure and               bootcamps, youth challenge camps,
employment, law enforcement                    intensive community supervision,
management and administration, and the         specialized probation, and prison work-
Federal justice system.                        release programs. The corrections
   The Bureau supports a statistical           information sharing system at NIJ assists
component in the National Criminal             State and local officials in exchanging
Justice Reference Service. The Bureau of       information on innovative and cost-
Justice Statistics Clearinghouse provides      effective concepts and techniques for
reference services for people requesting       planning, financing, and constructing
information, maintains a mailing list, and     new prisons and jails.
distributes Bureau publications. The              In addition, NIJ works to fulfill the
Bureau may be contacted on 800–732–            information needs of the criminal justice
3277 (toll-free).                              system by publishing and disseminating
   The Bureau also manages the Drugs           reports and other materials from its
and Crime Data Center and                      research, demonstration, evaluation, and
Clearinghouse, funded by the Office of         other programs; provides training and
National Drug Control Policy, which            technical assistance to justice officials on
gathers and evaluates existing data on         innovations developed through its
drugs and the justice system; identifies       programs; and serves as the national and
drug enforcement data gaps; operates a         international clearinghouse of justice
clearinghouse/reference center that            information for Federal, State, and local
serves as a single source for those in         governments.
need of drug statistics; and prepares
special reports and tabulations of             For further information, contact the National
                                               Criminal Justice Reference Service. Phone, 1–800–
existing drug data. The Drugs and Crime        851–3420.
Data Center and Clearinghouse may be
contacted on 800–666–3332 (toll-free).         Office of Juvenile Justice and
National Institute of Justice The              Delinquency Prevention The Office
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) sponsors   was created by the Juvenile Justice and
special projects and research and              Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (42
development programs designed to               U.S.C. 5601) in response to national
improve and strengthen the criminal            concern about juvenile crime. It is the
justice system and reduce or prevent           primary Federal agency for addressing
crime. It also conducts national               juvenile crime and delinquency and the
demonstration projects that employ             problem of missing and exploited
innovative or promising approaches for         children. The Office is comprised of five
improving criminal justice, and develops       divisions.
new technologies to fight crime and               The State Relations and Assistance
improve criminal justice.                      Division oversees the Formula Grants
   NIJ conducts evaluations to determine       Program. States can receive formula
the effectiveness of criminal justice          grants to help implement delinquency
programs, particularly programs funded         prevention, control, and system
by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, and       improvement programs, including the
identifies programs that promise to be         core requirements of the Juvenile Justice
successful if continued or replicated in       and Deliquency Prevention Act. These
other jurisdictions. For example, it has       core requirements include
evaluated the effectiveness of innovative      deinstitutionalizing status offenders,
drug control programs, including               separating juveniles from adult offenders
neighborhood-oriented policing,                in institutions, removing juveniles from

adult jails and lockups, and addressing      Programs The Concentration of Federal
the disproportionate confinement of          Efforts Program and the Missing
minority youth. Technical assistance is      Children’s Program are also under the
provided to States and communities to        Office’s direction. The Concentration of
enhance their programs. The Division         Federal Efforts Program coordinates
also administers the Title V Prevention      Federal programs dealing with juvenile
Incentive Grants Program.                    delinquency and assists Federal agencies
   The Special Emphasis Division             that have responsibility for delinquency
provides funds directly to public and        prevention and treatment. It also
private nonprofit agencies and               promotes interagency cooperation in
individuals to foster new approaches to      eliminating duplicate efforts and
deliquency prevention and control and        provides direction for the use of Federal
the improvement of the juvenile justice      resources in facilitating a
system. The Division focuses on such         comprehensive, unified Federal juvenile
areas as serious, violent, and chronic       justice policy.
juvenile offenders; gangs; at-risk female       The Missing Children’s Program was
juvenile offenders; and school dropouts.     created in 1984 by the Missing
   The Research and Program                  Children’s Assistance Act to provide
Development Division sponsors research       Federal leadership in ensuring that every
and studies about national trends in         practical step is taken in recovering
juvenile deliquency and drug use,            missing children, reuniting them with
serious juvenile crime, the causes of        their families, and prosecuting abductors.
deliquency, prevention strategies,           The Program serves as a central focus for
program evaluation, and improvement of       research, data collection, policy
                                             development, training professionals in
the juvenile justice system. It is also
                                             the field, and providing information
responsible for program evaluation,
                                             about missing and exploited children. It
statistics, and demonstration programs.
                                             also funds the National Center for
   The Training and Technical Assistance     Missing and Exploited Children, which
Division sponsors training for juvenile      operates a national toll-free telephone
justice practitioners, policymakers, and     line and serves as a national information
organizations and provides technical         clearinghouse.
assistance in planning, funding,             Office for Victims of Crime The Office
establishing, operating, and evaluating      for Victims of Crime (OVC) serves as the
juvenile delinquency programs. In            Federal focal point for addressing the
addition, the Division administers           needs and improving the treatment of
juvenile court and prosecutor training,      crime victims. This includes carrying out
court-appointed special advocates, and       the activities mandated by the Victims of
children’s advocacy center programs          Crime Act of 1984 (VOCA), as amended
under the Victims of Child Abuse Act of      (42 U.S.C. 10601 note); monitoring
1990 (42 U.S.C. 13001).                      compliance with the provisions
   The Information Dissemination Unit        regarding assistance for Federal crime
conducts a wide variety of information       victims of the Victim and Witness
dissemination activities for the Office in   Protection Act of 1982; and
support of its statutory mandate to serve    implementing the recommendations of
as a clearinghouse and information           the President’s Task Force on Victims of
center for the preparation, publication,     Crime, the Attorney General’s Task Force
and dissemination of information on          on Family Violence, and the President’s
juvenile delinquency and missing             Child Safety Partnership.
children. The Unit also monitors the            VOCA created a Crime Victims Fund
operations of the juvenile justice           in the U.S. Treasury to provide Federal
clearinghouse, which collects, stores,       financial assistance to State governments
and disseminates the Office’s and other      to compensate and assist victims of
juvenile justice-related publications. The   crime. Monies in the fund come from
toll-free telephone number is 1–800–         fines and penalties assessed on
638–8736.                                    convicted Federal defendants. The Office
                                                   DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE         369

awards grants to States to compensate        discretionary grant programs authorized
crime victims for expenses, such as          by the Violence Against Women Act of
medical costs, resulting from their          1994.
victimization. Grants also are awarded to       The program assists the Nation’s
State governments to support State and       criminal justice system to respond to the
local programs that provide direct           needs and concerns of women who have
assistance to crime victims and their        been, or potentially could be, victimized
families. Priority for victim assistance     by violence. The program emphasizes
funds is given to programs providing         enhanced delivery of services to women
direct services to victims of sexual         victimized by violence, and will work to
assualt, spouse abuse, and child abuse.      strengthen outreach efforts to minorities
States also must use grant funds to assist   and disabled women. The Office
previously underserved victim                provides technical assistance to State
populations, such as victims of drunk        and tribal government officials in
drivers or the families of homicide          plannimg innovative and effective
victims.                                     criminal justice responses to violent
   A small portion of the Crime Victims      crimes committed against women. The
Fund is available to support services for    Office provides Indian tribal
victims of Federal crimes. Programs          governments with funds to develop and
under this initiative have focused on        strengthen the tribal justice system’s
developing victim assistance services for    response to violent crimes committed
Federal crime victims in Indian country,     against Native American women through
creating an emergency fund for use by        a discretionary grant program.
U.S. attorneys offices to pay for               States that receive Violence Against
emergency services for Federal crime         Women Program formula grant funds are
victims, and assisting Native American       required to engage in a multidisciplinary
child abuse victims.                         planning process involving law
   In collaboration with other agencies      enforcement; prosecution; nonprofit,
and groups, OVC administers numerous         nongovernmental victim service
projects serving the victims of drug-        providers including domestic violence
related crimes. The Office also supports     and sexual assault coalitions; key
national programs to improve and             criminal justice practitioners; and
coordinate services to crime victims and     community leaders to develop a
sponsors conferences and training for        coordinated and integrated strategy to
criminal justice practitioners, medical      address to address violence against
and mental health personnel, the clergy,     women. Funds may be used to support
and others who work with crime victims       seven broad purpose areas including
and their families. In addition, each year   training for law enforcement officers and
OVC sponsors National Crime Victims’         prosecutors to identify and respond more
Rights Week to increase public               effectively to violent crimes against
awareness of crime victims’ special          women; developing, training, or
needs and to honor those who work on         expanding special units of law
behalf of victims. The OVC Resource          enforcement officers and prosecutors to
Center, which provides information           respond to violent crimes against
concerning victims issues to victims         women; developing, training, or
advocates, criminal justice practitioners,   expanding special units of law
and the public, is funded by OVC. The        enforcement officers and prosecutors to
Center may be reached toll-free on 1–        respond to violent crimes against
800–627–6872.                                women; developing and improving data
Violence Against Women Program               collection and communications systems
Office The Violence Against Women            linking police, prosecutors, and courts,
Program Office coordinates the activities    or to identify and track arrests,
of the Bureaus within OJP relating to        protection orders, violations of
violence against women. It also              protection orders; creating or enhancing
establishes the policy for and administers   victim services programs and programs
the Department’s formula and                 addressing stalking; and developing and

enhancing programs which focus on the                   administration for the corrections
special needs of Indian tribes in                       programs authorized by the Violent
addressing violent crimes.                              Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act
Drug Court Program Office The Drug                      of 1994. In particular, the Office is
Court Program Office was established to                 responsible for the following grant
support the development and                             programs: Violent Offender
implementation of effective Drug Court                  Incarceration; Truth in Sentencing;
programming at the State, local, and                    Punishment of Young Offenders Formula
tribal level. The Office coordinates the                Grants; Family Unity Demonstration
Drug Court activities of OJP’s five                     Projects; and Residential Substance
component bureaus and administers the                   Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners.
Drug Court Grant Program as authorized                     The largest grant programs--the Violent
by Title V of the Violent Crime Control                 Offender and Truth in Sentencing
and Law Enforcement Act of 1994.                        Incentive Grants--provide assistance
   This discretionary grant program                     through formula grants to States, and
assists local units of government in the                States organized as multi-State compacts,
planning, implementation, and                           for adult and juvenile correctional
improvement of Drug Courts which                        systems. The program recognizes that
target non-violent, drug-involved                       States and local jurisdictions have
offenders. The Office strives to                        experienced substantial increases in jail,
strengthen existing Drug Courts and                     prison, and juvenile confinement
develop new Drug Courts, encouraging                    populations in recent years, resulting in
them to provide continuing judicial                     escalating costs and serious difficulties in
supervision, mandatory periodic testing                 managing overcapacity correctional
for substance abuse among clients,                      populations. This program provides
substance abuse treatment, offender                     funds for States to construct, expand,
supervision, management and aftercare,                  modify, operate, and improve
combined with appropriate sanctions for                 correctional facilities, including boot
failure to comply with program                          camp facilities and other alternative
requirements. The Office will work                      correctional programs that will free
closely with agencies and organizations                 secure prison space for the confinement
involved in the areas of justice and                    of violent offenders.
recovery. The Office also will develop                     The Corrections Program Office
and deliver appropriate technical                       emphasizes comprehensive correctional
assistance, training, and research                      planning and State/local coordination in
findings in order to enhance the                        the provision of correctional services to
effectiveness and operation of both                     offenders. States participating in the
existing and new Drug Courts.                           grant program will receive technical
Corrections Program Office The                          assistance and training and be expected
Corrections Program Office provides                     to participate in a comprehensive
policy direction, coordination, and                     national evaluation.

For further information, contact the Office of Congressional and Public Affairs, Office of Justice Programs,
Department of Justice, 633 Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20531. Phone, 202–307–0781.

Executive Office for Immigration                        the Immigration and Nationality Act of
Review                                                  1952 (8 U.S.C. 1101) and all other laws
                                                        relating to the immigration and
Falls Church, VA 22041
                                                        naturalization of aliens. Certain powers
The Attorney General is responsible for                 and authorities of the Attorney General
the administration and enforcement of                   for the administration and interpretation
                                                      DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE           371

of the immigration laws are delegated to        reconsideration of decisions previously
the Executive Office for Immigration            rendered.
Review. The Executive Office for                   Following a review of the record and
Immigration Review is completely                research into questions of law raised by
independent of the Immigration and              the parties, the attorney-adviser drafts a
Naturalization Service, the body charged        proposed order for consideration of the
with the enforcement of the immigration         Board members. He or she frequently
laws. It includes the Board of                  confers with individual Board members
Immigration Appeals, the Office of the          concerning the proposed order.
Chief Immigration Judge, and the Office         Attorney-advisers also assist in various
of the Chief Administrative Hearing             administrative and support functions. In
Officer. It operates under the supervision      addition to developing expertise in the
of the Deputy Attorney General and is           field of immigration law, the attorney-
headed by a Director, who is responsible        adviser is often called upon to analyze
for the immediate supervision of the            questions of constitutional law, State,
Board of Immigration Appeals, the Office        Federal, and foreign civil and criminal
of the Chief Immigration Judge, and the         law.
Office of the Chief Administrative              Office of the Chief Immigration Judge
Hearing Officer.                                The Office of the Chief Immigration
Board of Immigration Appeals The                Judge is responsible for the general
Board of Immigration Appeals is a quasi-        supervision and direction of the
judicial body composed of a Chairman,           immigration judges in the performance
Vice Chairman, and seven members, and           of their duties. It establishes operational
a Chief Attorney-Examiner, who is also          policies for the offices of the immigration
an alternate Board member.                      judges and evaluates the performance of
   Located in Falls Church, VA, the             those offices.
Board hears oral argument in that                  Located in Falls Church, VA, the
location. The Board is authorized a staff       Office of the Chief Immigration Judge
of attorney-advisers who assist the Board       includes a headquarters staff of
in the preparation of decisions.                management and legal personnel.
   The Board has been given nationwide          Office of the Immigration Judge The
jurisdiction to hear appeals from               offices of the immigration judges are
decisions entered by district and center        responsible for presiding at formal,
directors of the Immigration and                quasi-judicial deportation and exclusion
Naturalization Service and by                   proceedings. The immigration judges act
immigration judges. In addition, the            independently in their decisionmaking
Board is responsible for hearing appeals        capacity, and their decisions are
involving the suspension or barring from        administratively final unless appealed or
practice of attorneys and representatives       certified to the Board of Immigration
before the Service and the Board.               Appeals.
   Decisions of the Board are binding on           In exclusion proceedings, an
all Service officers and immigration            immigration judge determines whether
judges unless modified or overruled by          an individual arriving from a foreign
the Attorney General, and are subject to        country should be allowed to enter the
judicial review in the Federal courts. The      United States or should be excluded and
majority of appeals reaching the Board          deported. Located throughout the United
involves orders of deportation and              States, each judge has jurisdiction to
applications for relief from deportation.       consider various forms of relief available
Other cases before the Board include the        in exclusion proceedings, including
exclusion of aliens applying for                applications for asylum and relief under
admission to the United States, petitions       section 243(h) of the Immigration and
to classify the status of alien relatives for   Nationality Act of 1952 (8 U.S.C. 1158,
the issuance of preference immigrant            1253).
visas, fines imposed upon carriers for the         In deportation proceedings, the
violation of the immigration laws, and          immigration judge determines whether
motions for reopening and                       an individual who has already entered

the United States is deportable from this             serve as officials in the field of organized
country. In such proceedings the judge                labor or in labor-oriented management
also adjudicates applications for the                 positions; likewise, under the
various forms of relief available under               Employment Retirement Income and
this country’s immigration laws. These                Security Act of 1974, the Commission
include applications for adjustment of                determines whether or not such persons
status, suspension of deportation,                    may provide services to or be employed
voluntary departure, relief under section             by employment benefit plans.
212(c) of the act (8 U.S.C. 1182), and                   The Parole Commission presently
applications for asylum and withholding               consists of six members, appointed by
of deportation.                                       the President with the advice and
Office of the Chief Administrative                    consent of the Senate. It has sole
Hearing Officer The Office of the Chief               authority to grant, modify, or revoke
Administrative Hearing Officer is                     paroles of eligible U.S. prisoners serving
responsible for the general supervision of            sentences of more than 1 year and D.C.
administrative law judges in the                      Code prisoners housed in Federal
performance of their duties under 8                   institutions. It is responsible for the
U.S.C. 1324a–1324c. Administrative law                supervision of parolees and prisoners
judge proceedings are mandated by the                 released upon the expiration of their
Immigration and Nationality Act and                   sentences with allowances for statutory
concern allegations of unlawful                       good time, and the determination of
employment of aliens, unfair                          supervisory conditions and terms. U.S.
immigration-related employment                        probation officers supervise parolees and
discrimination, and immigration                       mandatory releasees under the direction
document fraud.                                       of the Commission.
For further information, contact the Counsel to the      The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988
Director, Executive Office for Immigration Review,    gave the Commission jurisdiction over
Department of Justice, Falls Church, VA 22041.        all foreign transfer treaty cases beginning
Phone, 703–305–0470.
                                                      January 1, 1989. For offenses committed
                                                      after November 1, 1987, the
United States Parole Commission                       Commission is to apply the guidelines of
5550 Friendship Boulevard, Chevy Chase,               the U.S. Sentencing Commission.
MD 20815. Phone, 301–492–5990
                                                      For further information, contact the Office of the
The granting, denying, or revocation of               Chairman, United States Parole Commission,
                                                      Department of Justice, 5550 Friendship Boulevard,
parole for eligible Federal offenders rests           Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Phone, 301–492–5990.
in the discretion of the U.S. Parole
Commission. The Commission will be                    Office of Community Oriented
abolished on November 1, 1997, 10                     Policing Services
years after the implementation of the
U.S. Sentencing Guidelines. (The                      The Office of Community Oriented
Comprehensive Crime Control Act of                    Policing Services (COPS) was created
1984 abolished the U.S. Parole                        with the passage of the Violent Crime
Commission and instituted mandatory                   Control and Law Enforcement Act of
sentencing for all offenders whose                    1994 to achieve several goals: to
crimes were committed after November                  advance the philosophy of community
1, 1987.) The Commission is also                      policing as a national law enforcement
responsible for the supervision of                    strategy; to deploy 100,000 new police
paroled or otherwise released offenders               officers in community policing roles; to
until expiration of their terms and may               reinforce partnerships that will sustain
discharge parolees early from                         community policing; and to evaluate and
supervision. Under the Labor                          demonstrate the effectiveness of
Management Reporting and Disclosure                   community policing to improve the
Act of 1959 (29 U.S.C. 401 note), the                 quality of life by reducing the levels of
Commission determines whether or not                  disorder, violence, and crime in our
persons convicted of certain crimes may               communities.
                                                     DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE          373

   The primary activity of the COPS            through every available channel of
Office is the awarding of competitive,         communication, including timely and
discretionary grants directly to law           accurate responses to media inquiries,
enforcement agencies across the United         interviews, public events, publications
States and its territories. Over the life of   and related materials produced by and
the COPS Office, approximately $8              for any telecommunication format.
billion in grant funding will be made             The Intergovernmental and Public
available to achieve these goals.              Liaison Division maintains channels for
   The COPS Office is headed by a              communication and feedback regarding
Director, appointed by the Attorney            COPS programs with representatives of
General, and is organized into several         interested local, State, and national
divisions. The Grants Administration           organizations and with local elected
Division is responsible for developing         officials.
and designing new programs to provide             Finally, the Administrative Division
resources for the hiring of new officers       provides support services to the COPS
and to further the adoption and                Office, including resource management
implementation of community policing,          to recruit, train, and maintain a
reviewing grant applications, maintaining      professional workforce; fiscal resource
liaison with the Office of Justice             management to perform the accounting
Programs for financial review of               and budget formulation and execution
applications, monitoring grant awards,         functions necessary to administer the
developing and maintaining databases to        COPS appropriation; facilities
support policymaking, participating in         management to acquire and maintain
the evaluation of the grant programs,          space, provide security, and procure
and coordination of the Office’s research      supplies, equipment, telephones, and
agenda. Within the Grants                      other services; and information resource
Administration Division are the Police         management.
Hiring section and the Program
Planning, Research and Evaluation              Foreign Claims Settlement
section.                                       Commission of the United States
   The Training and Technical Assistance
Division is responsible for coordinating       The Foreign Claims Settlement
the provision of training and technical        Commission of the United States is a
assistance to advance the adoption,            quasi-judicial, independent agency
implementation and sustaining of               within the Department of Justice which
community policing in the thousands of         adjudicates claims of U.S. nationals
communities served by the COPS Office.         against foreign governments, either
   The Legal Division is responsible for       under specific jurisdiction conferred by
providing legal advice to the Director         Congress or pursuant to international
and other functional areas of the COPS         claims settlement agreements. Funds for
Office, and for ensuring compliance with       payment of the Commission’s awards are
the legal requirements applicable to the       derived from congressional
activities of the COPS Office.                 appropriations, international claims
   The Congressional Relations Division        settlements, or the liquidation of foreign
assists Members of Congress in serving         assets in the United States by the
their constituents, thereby facilitating       Departments of Justice and the Treasury.
greater dissemination of information              The Commission recently started an
about COPS programs and activities, and        Albanian Claims Program, to adjudicate
provides input in program design and           claims and make awards compensating
development and policy formulation so          U.S. nationals for losses resulting from
that programs and policies reflect             nationalization, expropriation,
legislative intent and address                 intervention and other property-taking by
congressional needs.                           the Albanian regime which took power
   The Communications Division                 at the end of World War II.
provides ongoing information about                The Commission recently completed
community policing and COPS programs           the adjudication of more than 3,100

claims against the Government of Iran,      maintaining records and responding to
which arose out of the 1979 Islamic         inquiries related to the various claims
Revolution. The Iran Claims Program         programs it has conducted under the
resulted in total awards in excess of $86   International Claims Settlement Act of
million between 1991 and February           1949, as amended, involving the
1995, pursuant to the June 1990 Iran-       Governments of Yugoslavia, Panama,
U.S. Settlement Agreement and the Iran      Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania,
Claims Settlement Act (50 U.S.C. 1701       Italy, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia,
note).                                      Cuba, the German Democratic Republic,
   The Commission also has authority        the People’s Republic of China, Vietnam,
under the War Claims Act of 1948, as        Ethiopia, and Egypt, as well as those
amended (50 U.S.C. app. 2001 et seq.),      authorized under the War Claims Act of
to receive, determine the validity and      1948, and other statutes.
amount, and provide for the payment of         The Commission’s organization and
claims by U.S. servicemen and civilians     functions are defined in the International
held as prisoners of war or interned by     Claims Settlement Act of 1949, as
a hostile force in Southeast Asia during    amended (22 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), the
the Vietnam conflict, or by the survivors   War Claims Act of 1948, as amended
of such servicemen and civilians.           (50 U.S.C. app. 2001 et seq.), and the
   In addition, the Commission furnishes    Iran Claims Settlement Act (50 U.S.C.
technical assistance and advice to other    1701 note).
Federal agencies and offices in planning
new claims adjudication programs, and       For further information, contact the Office of the
                                            Chair, Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the
negotiating international claims            United States, Department of Justice, Suite 6002,
settlement agreements. In addition, the     600 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20579. Phone,
Commission is responsible for               202–616–6975; or fax, 202–616–6993.

Sources of Information
Controlled Substances Act Registration         Federal Bureau of Investigation:
Information about registration under the    Director, Washington, DC 20535, or any
Controlled Substances Act may be            of the field offices or resident agencies
obtained from the Registration Section of   whose addresses are listed in the front of
the Drug Enforcement Administration,        most local telephone directories.
P.O. Box 28083, Central Station,               Immigration and Naturalization
Washington, DC 20038. Phone, 202–           Service: Central Office, 425 I Street
307–7255.                                   NW., Washington, DC 20536 (phone,
Employment The Department maintains         202–514–2530); or any regional or
an agencywide job line. Phone, 202–         district office.
514–3397.                                      Drug Enforcement Administration:
   Attorneys’ applications: Director,       regional offices, laboratories, or
Office of Attorney Personnel                Washington Headquarters Office of
Management, Department of Justice,          Personnel.
Room 6150, Tenth Street and                    Bureau of Prisons: Central Office, 320
Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,        First Street NW., Washington, DC 20534
DC 20530. Phone, 202–514–1432.              (phone, 202–307–3082); or any regional
Assistant U.S. attorney applicants should   or field office.
apply to individual U.S. attorneys.            Office of Justice Programs, 633
   United States Marshals Service: Field    Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC
Staffing Branch, United States Marshals     20531. Phone, 202–307–0730.
Service, Department of Justice, 600            United States Trustee Program, Room
Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202–       770, 901 E Street NW., Washington, DC
4210.                                       20530. Phone, 202–616–1000.
                                                     DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE          375

   Foreign Claims Settlement                      The Freedom of Information Act Guide
Commission: Attorneys: Office of the           and Privacy Act Overview and the
Chief Counsel, Suite 6002, 600 E Street        Freedom of Information Case List, both
NW., Washington, DC 20579 (phone,              published annually, are available from
202–616–6975); Other: Administrative           the Superintendent of Documents,
Officer, same address and phone.               Government Printing Office,
Reading Rooms Located in                       Washington, DC 20530; and in
Washington, DC, at: U.S. Department of         electronic format through INTERNET–
Justice, Room 6505, Tenth Street and           Library of Congress. ISBN 0–16–042921–
Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,           8.
DC 20530 (phone, 202–514–3775).                   FOIA Update (Stock No. 727–002–
Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street NW.,       00000–6), published quarterly, is
20534 (phone, 202–307–3029);                   available free of charge to FOIA offices
Immigration and Naturalization Service,        and other interested offices
425 I Street NW., 20536 (phone, 202–           Governmentwide. This publication is
514–2837); Foreign Claims Settlement           also available from the Superintendent of
Commission, 600 E Street NW., 20579            Documents, Government Printing Office,
(phone, 202–616–6975). Also at the U.S.        Washington, DC 20402; and in
Parole Commission, 5550 Friendship             electronic format through INTERNET–
Boulevard, Chevy Chase, MD 20815               Library of Congress.
(phone, 301–492–5959); Board of                   Guidelines for Effective Human
Immigration Appeals, Suite 2400, 5107          Relations Commissions, Annual Report
Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041          of the Community Relations Service,
(phone, 703–305–0168); some of the             Community Relations Service Brochure,
Immigration and Naturalization Service         CRS Hotline Brochure, Police Use of
district offices; and the National Institute   Deadly Force: A Conciliation Handbook
of Justice, 9th Floor, 633 Indiana Avenue      for Citizens and Police, Principles of
NW., Washington, DC 20531 (phone,              Good Policing: Avoiding Violence
202–307–5883).                                 Between Police and Citizens, Resolving
Publications and Films The FBI Law             Racial Conflict: A Guide for
Enforcement Bulletin and Uniform Crime         Municipalities, and Viewpoints and
Reports—Crime in the United States are         Guidelines on Court-Appointed Citizens
available from the Superintendent of           Monitoring Commissions in School
Documents, Government Printing Office,         Desegregation are available upon
Washington, DC 20402.                          request from the Public Information
   The Annual Report of the Attorney           Office, Community Relations Service,
General of the United States is published      Department of Justice, Washington, DC
each year by the Department of Justice,        20530.
Washington, DC 20530.                             A limited number of drug educational
   Approximately nine textbooks on             films are available, free of charge, to
citizenship, consisting of teachers            civic, educational, private, and religious
manuals and student textbooks at various       groups.
reading levels, are distributed free to           A limited selection of pamphlets and
public schools for applicants for              brochures is available. The most widely
citizenship and are on sale to all others      requested publication is Drugs of Abuse,
from the Superintendent of Documents,          an identification manual intended for
Government Printing Office,                    professional use. Single copies are free.
Washington, DC 20402. Public schools              Copies of the Foreign Claims
or organizations under the supervision of      Settlement Commission’s semiannual
public schools which are entitled to free      (through December 1966) and annual
textbooks should make their requests to        (from January 1967) reports to the
the appropriate Immigration and                Congress concerning its activities are
Naturalization Service Regional Office         available at the Commission in limited
(See appropriate section of this manual        quantities.
for mailing addresses.). For general           Reference Service In 1972, the
information, call 202–514–3946.                National Institute of Justice established

the National Criminal Justice Reference             referrals to other information sources.
Service (NCJRS). All five OJP bureaus               Under contracts with OJP bureaus, the
now support NCJRS, a clearinghouse of               National Criminal Justice Reference
information and publications concerning             Service also operates the Drugs and
OJP programs and other information of               Crime Data Center and Clearinghouse,
interest to the criminal justice                    the Bureau of Justice Assistance
community. The Office’s National                    Clearinghouse, the Justice Statistics
Institute of Justice, which has supported           Clearinghouse, the Juvenile Justice
the clearinghouse for almost 20 years,              Clearinghouse, the National Victims
provides most of the funding for the                Resource Center, and the Construction
National Criminal Justice Reference                 Information Exchange. All the Service’s
Service. Police, corrections agencies,              clearinghouses may be contacted on
courts, criminal justice planners, juvenile         800–851–3420 (toll-free); or in the
justice practitioners, community crime              Washington, DC, metropolitan area on
prevention groups, and others needing               301–251–5500.
information for planning and problem                   The NCJRS Electronic Bulletin Board,
solving in criminal justice can refer to            with 3,000 registered users, makes
this international information service              NCJRS’ services available online. The
specially designed to assist the justice            Bulletin Board may be accessed by
community.                                          modem on 301–738–8895.
   The National Criminal Justice
Reference Service provides information                 Organizations and individuals may
from its computerized data base system              register to receive information from the
free or at a minimal cost to users                  National Criminal Justice Reference
through a variety of products and                   Service by writing NCJRS, Box 6000,
services including the bimonthly NIJ                1600 Research Boulevard, Rockville,
Catalog, which contains abstracts of                MD 20850.
significant additions to the data base and          Small Business Activities Contract
pertinent information and a Calendar of             information for small businesses can be
Events announcing upcoming training                 obtained from the Office of Small and
courses and conferences; selected                   Disadvantaged Business Utilization,
hardcopy documents upon request; three              Department of Justice, Tenth Street and
types of data base search packages;                 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington,
various microfiche products; and                    DC 20530. Phone, 202–616–0521.

For further information concerning the Department of Justice, contact the Office of Public Affairs,
Department of Justice, Tenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20530. Phone, 202–
514–2007 (voice); 202–786–5731 (TDD).

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