Docstoc

and Low Agro-ecology Zones of the SNNPRS_ Ethiopia

Document Sample
and Low Agro-ecology Zones of the SNNPRS_ Ethiopia Powered By Docstoc
					Kamphaengsaen Acad. J. Vol. 2, No.1, 2004, Page 48 - 60                     วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547   48


     การใชปุยและการปลูก Tef ในพื้นที่การเขตกรรมที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับ
         น้ําทะเลระดับกลางและระดับลางในประเทศเอธิโอเปยตอนใต
    Tef Production and Fertilizer Use in the Mid – and Low - Agro-ecological
                         Zones of Southern Ethiopia
                                           Getachew Kassaye Game1 ศุภพร ไทยภักดี 2* กมลรัฐ อินทรทัศน 3
                                                                                   และ เอมอร อังสุรัตน 2
                                        Getachew Kassaye Game1 , Supaporn Thaipakdee2*, Kamolrat Intaratat3
                                                                               and Am-On Aungsuratana2

                                           ABSTRACT
          The study sought to determine factors affecting the production of tef (Eragrostis tef) and
fertilizer use in the mid and low agro-ecological zones. Purposive and multistage random sampling
techniques were used to select districts, peasant associations (PAs), and farmers. A total of 157
farmers were selected from 12 peasant associations, out of which 81 in the mid and 76 in the low
altitude zones were interviewed. About 8.6 – 13.6% of the respondents in the mid altitude zone hired
labor for weeding and harvesting. Approximately 29.6, 6.2, 4.9 and 59.3% of the respondents in both
agro-ecological zones were growing varieties Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354 and the local cultivars,
respectively. In 2000, about 90% of the mid and 70% of the low altitude zone farmers adopted tef
varieties. The rates of adoption in the period of 1970 to 2000 were 0.70 for the mid and 0.54 for the low
altitude zones. The major factors for the dissemination of improved tef varieties were extension agents
and mass media- radio. The study reveals that the majority of the farmers applied fertilizer less than the
recommended rate. In the year 2000, about 95% of the farmers in the mid and low altitude zones
adopted chemical fertilizer. The adoption of chemical fertilizer is consistently higher for tef farmers in
the mid altitude than those in the low ones. The regression analysis shows that the independent
variable, membership in an organization, agro-ecology, access to credit, distance from credit source
and household size influenced the demand for fertilizer use to tef cultivation.

Key words : tef production, fertilizer use, Ethiopian agriculture

                                                          บทคัดยอ
       วัต ถุป ระสงคการศึกษาคือ เพื่ อศึกษาปจจัยที่ สงผลตอการผลิต Tef และการใชปุยในเขตพื้ นที่ การ
เพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับน้ําทะเลระดับกลางและระดับลางในประเทศเอธิโอเปยตอนใต กลุมตัวอยางเปน
เกษตรกรจํานวน 157 คน จากการสุมตัวอยางแบบเฉพาะเจาะจงและการสุมหลายขั้นตอน ในการเลือก อําเภอ
เกษตรกรในระดับอําเภอและกลุมเกษตรกรในระดับหมูบาน โดย 81 คนเปนสมาชิกกลุมเกษตรกร และ 76 คน
1
  Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO), SNNPRS, Awassa 6, Ethiopia
2
  ภาควิชาสงเสริมและนิเทศศาสตรเกษตร คณะเกษตร กําแพงแสน มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร วิทยาเขตกําแพงแสน อ.กําแพงแสน
  จ.นครปฐม 73140
  Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Faculty of Agriculture at kamphaengsaen, Kasetsart University,
  Kamphaengsaen Campus, Kamphaengsaen, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand.
3
  สํานักสงเสริมและฝกอบรม มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร วิทยาเขตบางเขน กรุงเทพมหานคร 10900
  Extension and Training Center, Kasetsart University, Bangkhen Campus, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
* Corresponding author : Tel. 0-3435-1891, Fax. 0-3428-1425. E-mail address : agrspp@ku.ac.th
                                         วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547              __         ____ 49

ไมไดเปนสมาชิกกลุมเกษตรกร การเก็บขอมูลใชวิธีการสัมภาษณ
            จากการศึ ก ษา พบว า เกษตรกร 8.6 -13.6% จากทั้ งสองเขตพื้ น ที่ ก ารเพาะปลู ก จ างแรงงานในการ
เก็ บ เกี่ ย วและกํ า จั ด วั ช พื ช ในเรื่ อ งพั น ธุ 29.6%, 6.2%, 4.9%, และ 59.3% ปลู ก Tef พั น ธุ Dz.Cr .37,
Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354 และพันธุพื้นเมืองตามลําดับ เกษตรกร 90% ในเขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือ
ระดับน้ําทะเลในระดับกลางและเกษตรกร 70% ในเขตพื้นที่เพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับน้ําทะเลในระดับ
กลาง เลือกใช Tef พันธุปรับปรุงในป ค.ศ. 2000 สวนปจจัยสําคัญที่ทําใหเกษตรกรการเลือกใช Tef พันธุปรับ
ปรุงที่เปนสื่อบุคคลคือ เจาหนาที่สงเสริม และสื่อมวลชนคือ วิทยุกระจายเสียง ในเรื่องการใชปุย เกษตรกรสวน
ใหญใชนอยกวาอัตราที่กําหนด ใน ป ค.ศ. 2000 เกษตรกร 95% จากทั้งสองเขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูก ใชปุยเคมี
โดยเกษตรกรในเขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับน้ําทะเลในระดับกลางจะมีการใชปุยเคมี มากกวา
นอกจากนั้นการศึกษาพบวาปจจัยเรื่อง การเปนสมาชิก เขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูก การมีเงินทุน ความหางไกลจาก
แหลงเงินทุนและขนาดของครัวเรือน มีอิทธิพลตอการใชปุยในการเพาะปลูก Tef

คําสําคัญ : การปลูก Tef การใชปุย การเกษตรในประเทศเอธิโอเปย


                INTRODUCTION
         Ethiopia attained about 65,3 million                   (Central Statistical Authority, 2002-2003).
populations with the growth rate of 3.1 % in                             Tef has an advantage to farmers, and
2002 (Central Statistical Authority, 2001 –                    as a result the cultivation increased year to
2002). Ethiopia is one of African countries                    year. It is one of the major cash sources for the
having highest proportions of employment                       majority of the farmers. High market value and
(85%). Agriculture plays a vital role for the                  many other desirable characteristics, including
growth of Ethiopian economy, employs 85% of                    higher nutritional value, low incidence of
labor forces, constitutes about 90% of exports                 damage by insects, better adaptation to
and 50% of gross domestic products (GDP)                       drought, adaptive to poor drainage and high
and provides about 70% of the county’s raw                     straw value have made tef attractive for
material requirement for large and medium                      cultivation (Ketema, 1997). According to
scale industries. In general, agriculture is                   Ketema (1997), it can be grown from sea level
notably characterized by low productivity.                     up to 2800 meters above level (masl) under
Different crops such as cereals like maize,                    various rainfall, temperature and soil regimes.
sorghum, tef, wheat and barley; pulses; oil                              Besides its advantage, the crop has
seeds; vegetables and root crops are grown in                  also some limitations like problems of sowing,
the country as well as in the region.                          weeding and threshing, since the size of the
         Tef (Eragrostis tef) is a significant crop            seed is very small. The uneven plant stand
only in Ethiopia. Its production exceeds that of               after germination become difficult for farmers to
most other cereals. Each year, farmers grow                    weed mechanically, so farmers are forced to
about two million hectares (29.4% of the total                 either hand weed or to use chemical herbicide
cereal area at national level) producing 1.68                  (Seifu, 1997). Most improved varieties of any
million tons of grain or about a quarter of the                crop need high rate of fertilizer to give optimum
country’s total cereals (Central Statistical                   yield per unit area. Studies revealed that the
Authority, 2002-2003). In the SNNPRS to about                  demand for fertilizer use for tef can be affected
163,670 hectares are devoted to tef and                        by farm size, household income, access to
constitutes 26.14% of the total cereal areas in                credit, distance from credit source, age and
the region and produces 0.164 million tons                     education level of the farmers as well as
                                      วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547               __        ____ 50

climatic conditions (Gezahegn and Tekalign,                 157 farmers were selected from 12 peasant
1995). Local land races and current cultivars               associations, out of which, 81 in the mid and 76
give low yield than the improved ones. The                  in the low altitude zones. Proportional random
national average yield of this crop is about 910            sampling techniques were applied to obtain
kg /ha, whereas the improved varieties give a               the sample on the number of households in
grain yield of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha on farmers               each PA using the list of the farmers. The
fields and 2,200 – 2,800 kg/ha on research                  survey was conducted from August 2002 to
managed large farms. This study was executed                June 2003.
to assess farmers’ tef grain production and                          Analytical techniques included t-test,
fertilizer use for the production of tef. Such              chi-square test, regression analysis and
types of study can contribute to improving the              descriptive statistics. The descriptive statistics
efficiency of agricultural research, extension              such as frequency and means were used for
and input provision.                                        collecting background information for the
                                                            farmers in both agro-ecological zones. The
                  OBJECTIVES                                t-test was used to analyze the use of variety
      1. To identify demographic and socio-                 and chemical fertilizer between mid and low
economic factors affecting the production of                agro-ecological zones. The chi-square test was
tef,                                                        run to analyze the division of labor and the
      2. To identify factors that affect farmers’           constraints of adoption and to detect if there is
use of fertilizer to tef and its constraints to             any systematic association between the two
adoption of tef technologies in mid and low                 agro-ecologies. Whereas the regression
agro-ecological zones of the study areas.                   analysis was used to predict the variables that
                                                            determine the rate of fertilizer.
                METHODOLOGY
          Among the total of 11 zones and 5                          RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
special districts in the two agro-ecological                Demographic Characteristics and Farmland
zones, 6 potential districts of tef producers                        The demographic characteristics of the
were selected by using purposive sampling                   respondents in both agro-ecological zones
techniques. They were selected on the basis of              indicated that most farmers were middle aged
agro-ecology differences, ownership of larger               (in the early forties). Farmers in the low altitude
tef production area, number of growers,                     zone tended to be younger than the mid
potential for tef production, accessibility and             altitude respondents (38 years). The study
representation of the farming system. From the              found significant differences in age between
6 districts twelve peasant associations (PAs)               farmers in mid and low agro-ecological zones
were selected by stratified random sampling                 (t = -41.6, P<0.001). Level of education was
methods using the same selection criteria                   also assumed to influence the adoption
including involvement in the extension program              decision, since literate farmers would have
and tribal differences. A two-stage sampling                greater chance to acquire, process and use
procedure was used to select farmers from the               available agricultural information on improved
study areas. Two PAs/district were selected                 technologies. However, significant difference
using random sampling procedure. From the 6                 was found in the level of education between
districts, the total numbers of households or               the two zones. About 32.1% of the farmers in
population in the 12 PAs were 3750 and were                 the mid and 42.1% in the low altitude zones
grouped under mid- and low-altitude zones.                  had elementary education. About 33.3% of the
Groups indicated the unit sample. A total of                mid and 21.1% of the low altitude respondents
                                      วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547                __      ____ 51

reached senior high school. Average                         Adoption of tef varieties
household size was 7 in the mid and 5 in the                         Definitions: Feder et al., (1985) defined
low altitude zone. The chi-square analysis                  adoption as the degree of a new innovation in
showed no systematic association between the                long-run equilibrium when a farmer had full
level of education and the two agro-ecologies.              information about the new technology and its
         The average farm size in mid and low               potential. The rate of adoption is defined as the
latitude zones were 1.8 timmads and 2.3                     proportion of farmers who have adopted an
timmad (1timmad = ¼ ha.), respectively. In the              improved a new technology over time. Thus
low altitude zone, the average cultivated land              adoption at the farm level describes the
was more than the mid ones (2.3 and 1.6                     realization of farmer decision to implement new
timmad, respectively). The statistical analysis             technologies. The basic assumption is the
showed no significant differences between                   adoption increases slowly at first then
landholdings in mid and low altitude zones (t =             increases rapidly as it approaches a maximum
-6.8, P<0.001).                                             level (CIMMYT, 1993). Mathematically, the rate
                                                            of adoption is given by the following formula:
Division of labor
         Table 1 indicates the division of labor                                         Κ
for tef production by family and hired labor. In                           Υi    =
                                                                                     1 + e a −bt
general the use of hired labor for various farm                 Where :
operations was low in both agro-ecological                             y t = The cumulative percentage of
zones. All farm operations were carried out by                             adoption at a time t
family labor (45 – 89%). About 13.6% in the                            k = The upper bound of adoption
mid altitude and 5.3% in the low altitude zones                        a = A constant, related to the time
farmers had hired labor for harvesting and land                            when adoption begins
preparation, respectively. The study revealed                          b = A constant, related to the rate of
that the division of labor mainly for weeding,                             adoption
harvesting and storing was significantly
associated with the adoption of tef varieties                        About 27.2% of the respondents in the
and fertilizer between two zones (χ2 = 13.16, P             mid altitude and 1.3% in the low altitude zones
< 0.01, χ2 = 6.8, P < 0.05).                                started growing improved tef varieties in 1970.
                                                            The trends of improved tef cultivars show an
Current tef varieties grown                                 increment in the year 1970 – 1990 and then
         Table 2 indicates tef varieties grown by           dropped from 1990 – 2000 in the mid altitude
the sample farmers in 2002 cropping season.                 zone, while in the low altitude zone the trends
In the mid agro-ecological zone, 29.6%, 6.2%,               of an increment shows from 1970 to 1990 and
4.9% and 59.3% of the farmers were growing                  then dropped in 2000 cropping season
Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354 and local                    (Table 2).
cultivars, whereas in the low altitude zone                          Figure 1 shows the rate of adoption of
17.1%, 5.3% and 77.6% of the respondents                    improved tef varieties in the mid and low agro-
grew Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.354 and the local land                 ecological zones of the study areas. In 2000
races, respectively. With the exception of                  about 90% of the mid altitude farmers and 70%
Dz.01.196, there were significant differences               low altitude zone farmers had adopted tef
(t = -17.51, P = .001) in the proportion of                 varieties. The rate of adoption for the period
farmers growing tef varieties between the two               1970 – 2000 was 0.70 and 0.54 for the mid and
zones.                                                      low altitude zones, respectively. The adoption
                                        วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547                __      ____ 52

rate had increased in 1991 onwards, since the                 (P < 0.01). Table 3 indicates the trend of
national extension package program was                        fertilizer use. Of the total respondents 17.10 –
started. In both agro-ecological zones farmers                50.60% increased, 15.8 – 24.7% reduced, 1.3
preferred improved varieties Dz.Cr.37,                        – 13.6% maintained, 11.1 – 42.1% stopped and
Dz.01.196 and Dz.01.354 (in descending order                  23.7% did not use fertilizer at all. This
of importance).                                               difference was significant (t = -10.95, P<0.01).
          The major means for the dissemination
of improved tef varieties were extension agents               Adoption of chemical fertilizer
(54.0%), and radio (32.1 – 42.1%).                                    Figure 2 shows the rate of fertilizer
Membership in an organization seemed to                       adoption among tef farmers in mid and low
facilitate the adoption of improved tef cultivars.            agro-ecological zones. In 2000 about 95% of
For example, most of the respondents in both                  the mid and low altitude zone farmers had
agro-ecological zones were members of an                      adopted chemical fertilizer. The rate of
organization, particularly the peasant                        adoption in 1970 – 2000 was 0.78 for both
association.                                                  agro-ecological zones. The adoption of
                                                              chemical fertilizer was consistently higher for
Current uses of chemical fertilizer                           tef farmers in the mid altitude than those in the
          Table 3 shows that 25.9% of the mid                 low one because farmers in the mid altitude
and 18.4% of the low altitude zone farmers                    zone used more fertilizer. The adoption rate
applied fertilizer at the rate of 25 kg/ha,                   had also increased due to the national
whereas 23.5% and 3.9% of the respondents in                  extension intervention in the area.
both agro-ecological zones applied at the rate
of 25 – 50 kg/ha. The result indicates that the               Regression analysis of the adoption of
farmers applied fertilizer at the rate far below              chemical fertilizer for tef production
that of the national recommended rate, which is                       Regression analysis was used to
100kg DAP/ha. Only 3.7% of the mid altitude                   examine the effect of predictor variables on the
farmers applied fertilizer at the rate of 50 – 100            demand for fertilizer use for tef in both agro-
kg/ha. In both agro-ecological zones, 47–78%                  ecological zones (Table 4). The following
of the respondents did not apply fertilizer at all.           model was used to predict the variables that
The t-test (t = -16.02) shows the difference in               determine the rate of fertilizer for tef :
fertilizer application between the two agro-
ecologies is significant (P = 0.01).                           Υi = a + β1 Χ1 + β 2 Χ 2 + ... + β k Χk

 Fertilizer use trends
          The study indicated that in 1970 46.5%              Where,          Υi = The criterion variable
and 18.8% of the respondents in mid and low                                        (fertilizer level)
altitude zones respectively started using                                      a = Constant
chemical fertilizer. In 1990 more tef farmers
(26.8% in the mid and 52.1% in the low altitude
                                                                       β1...β k = Regression coefficient
zones) used chemical fertilizer. In general the                        Χ1...Χk = Predictor variables
trend of using chemical fertilizer decreased in
                                                              (membership, agro-ecology, credit, distance
both agro-ecological zones, except in the year
1990. The paired t-test (t = -9.07) showed that               from credit source and household size)
the difference in the trends of fertilizer use in
both agro-ecological zones was significant,
                                        วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547               __        ____ 53


       Adoption rate = constant +                             of adoption of tef technologies will likely
 β 1 (Membership) + …+ β k (Household size)                   increases (χ2 = 24.95, P<0.05).
       The variables with multicollinearity were                               CONCLUSION
identified and dropped from the model.                                  Among the cereal crops, land
Farmers’ age was highly correlated with                       preparation, planting, weeding, and
household size (r = .884) and farming                         processing (threshing, winnowing and
experience (r = .948) and thus the age was                    grinding) of tef is very tedious and laborious,
eliminated from the model. The predictor                      since the seeds are so tiny. All family members
variables are not all equal to each other and                 mainly carried out land preparation, planting,
could be used to predict the dependent                        fertilizer application, weeding, insecticide
variable DAP kg/ha. The independent variable                  application, harvesting, and processing, In the
membership in an organization, agro-ecology,                  mid altitude zone 8.6 – 13.6% of respondents
access to credit, distance from credit source                 hired labor for weeding and harvesting. The
and household size influenced the demand for                  results were significant (χ2 = 12.70 and χ2 =
fertilizer use for tef significantly and positively.          13.16, P < 0.01 and χ2 = 6.8, P < 0.05).
Agro-ecology, membership, and better access                             In the mid agro-ecological zone,
to credit (distance and availability) were found              29.6%, 6.2%, 4.9% and 59.3% of the farmers
associated with high level of fertilizer use.                 used to grow Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354
Whereas low education level, less farm size                   and local cultivars, whereas in the low altitude
and less extension contact were also                          zone 17.1%, 5.3% and 77.6% of the
associated with low level of fertilizer use.                  respondents grew Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.354 and the
                                                              local land races, respectively. About 27.2% of
Constraints to adoption of tef technologies in                the respondents in the mid altitude and 1.3% in
mid and low agro-ecological zones                             the low altitude zones started growing
         Table 5 indicates the constraints and                improved tef varieties in 1970.
farmers’ reasons not to adopt the                                       In 2000 about 90% of the mid altitude
recommended tef technologies in the mid and                   farmers and 70% low land zone farmers had
low agro-ecological zones. High cost of inputs                adopted tef varieties. The major sources for the
was the major constraints for the 3.70% of the                dissemination of improved tef varieties were
mid and 13.20% of the low altitude                            extension agents (54.0%), and mass media like
respondents. Of the total respondents 7.90%,                  radio (32.1 – 42.1%). Membership in an
3.70 – 7.90%, 3.90% and 1.30% indicated lack                  organization seemed to facilitate the adoption
of credit, shortage of cash, high interest rate               of improved tef cultivars.
and shortage of farmland were the main                                  From this study it can be concluded
problems in both agro-ecological zones,                       that the majority of the farmers applied fertilizer
respectively. The study also proved that due to               at the lower rate than the recommended one. In
lack of knowledge 1.20% and 6.60% of the mid                  1970, 46.5% and 18.8% of the respondents in
and low altitude zone farmers, respectively                   mid and low altitude zones respectively started
were not able to use the recommended tef                      using chemical fertilizer. In 2000 about 95% of
technologies. About 90.10% of the mid and                     the mid and low altitude zone farmers had
59.20% of the low altitude zone farmers did not               adopted chemical fertilizer. The rate of
give any response. The results revealed that if               adoption of fertilizer for 1997 – 2000 was 0.78
the farmers have not much constraint, the rates               for both agro-ecological zones. The adoption of
                                        วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547               __         ____ 54

chemical fertilizer was consistently higher for               disseminated in different agro-ecological zones
tef farmers in the mid altitude than the low                  without testing in that area. That is why most of
ones, because farmers in the mid altitude zone                the time such activities fail. It seems that, due
applied more fertilizer than the low ones.                    to high cost of inputs, lack of credit, high rate
Membership in an organization, agro-ecology,                  of interest, and removal of subsidy for
access to credit, distance from credit source                 agricultural inputs, farmers may reduce or stop
and household size influenced the demand for                  using chemical fertilizer. Thus further research
fertilizer use for tef significantly and positively.          on crops, which are early maturing and
           High cost inputs, lack of credit,                  drought tolerant for the dry land areas like
shortage of cash, high interest rate and                      Konso, as well as research on the type and
shortage of farmland were the major                           rates of fertilizer for different types of soils and
constraints to adoption of tef technology in mid              agro-ecologies should be developed.
and low agro-ecological zones.                                        Fertilizer is not much or highly important
                                                              to small- scale farmers, it rather puts an extra
          RECOMMENDATIONS                                     burden of loan to them. For small-scale
     The current government extension                         farmers, it is advisable for them to use organic
approach uses blanket package of                              fertilizer and compost.
recommendation, i.e. some of the packages
(crop varieties and management) are
                                                                      วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547                            __                 ____ 55


Table 1 Family and hired labor availability for tef production in mid and low agro-ecological zones of the study areas


                                             Mid altitude (n = 81)                                               Low altitude (n = 76)


       Activities                Hired                Family               Both                    Hired                  Family               Both            χ2

                             N           %        N            %      N           %            N            %        N              %      N           %

Land preparation             7         8.6       50        61.7       24       29.6            4           5.3       52            68.4   20          26.3     NS
Planting                     7         8.6       55        67.9       19       23.5            3           3.9       58            76.3   15          19.7     NS
Weeding                      7         8.6       53        65.4       21       25.9            2           2.6       34            44.7   40          52.6   12.7**
Harvesting                  11        13.6       48        59.3       22       27.2            1           1.3       38            50.0   37          48.7   13.16**
Storing                      4         4.9       72        88.9        5        6.2            2           2.6       59            77.6   15          19.7    6.8*


* = Significant at P < .05 level, ** = Significant at P < .01 level
                                           วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547              __           ____ 56


Table 2 Tef varieties used and year started planting by the farmers in mid and low agro- ecological
        zones


                                          Mid altitude                          Low altitude
                                           (n = 81)                               (n = 76)            t-statisticsa/

                                      N                 %                   N              %

Varieties grown in 2002                                                                                -17.51***
      Dz. Cr. 37                      24             29.60                 13           17.10
      Dz. 01. 196                      5              6.20                  0            0.00
      Dz. 01. 354                      4              4.90                  4            5.30
      Local                           48             59.30                 59           77.60
Year started growing                                                                                   -14.64***
     1970                             22             27.20                  1             1.30
     1980                             44             54.30                 11           14.50
     1990                              8              9.90                 36            47.4
     2000                              0              0.00                 10           13.20
     No response                       7              8.60                 18           23.70


a/
     Paired t-test used to compare the means of varieties, and percentage of tef adoption by
     farmers between mid and low agro-ecological zones

*** = Significant at P < .001 level
                                 วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547             __                   ____ 57


Table 3 The use of chemical fertilizer for tef and its trends in mid and low agro-ecological zones


                                      Mid altitude                          Low altitude
                                       (n = 81)                               (n = 76)

                                                                                            t-statistics
                                  N                %                   N               %

Fertilizer use in 2002                                                                      -16.02***
DAP: 25 kg/ha                    21             25.90                 14            18.40
        25 – 50 kg/ha            19             23.50                  3             3.90
        50 – 100 kg/ha            3              3.70                  0             0.00
        Not used                 38             46.90                 59            77.60
Year started fertilizer                                                                      -9.07***
application
  1970                           38             46.50                14             18.80
  1980                           19             23.90                 9             12.50
  1990                           22             26.80                40             52.10
  2000                            2              2.80                13             16.70
Trends of fertilizer use                                                                    -10.95***
  Increased                      41             50.60                13             17.10
  Reduced                        20             24.70                12             15.80
  Maintained                     11             13.60                 1              1.30
  Stopped                         9             11.10                32             42.10
  Not used at all                 0              0.00                18             23.70




a/
 Paired t-test used to compare the means of fertilize, and percentage of tef adoption by farmers
between the two agro-ecological zones

*** = Significant at P < .001 level
                                   วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547        __                          ____ 58


Table 4 Regression analysis of the variation in levels of fertilizer application to tef due to
        agro-ecological and crop management factors

                  Factors                             Regression coefficient                Std. Error

Constant                                                         -.863                        1.567
Membership in the organization                                   1.552                        1.215
Agro-ecology                                                     .971                         .305
Access to credit                                                 .390                         .292
Distance from credit source                                      .269                          151
Household size                                                   .107                         .047
R2                                                               .148
n                                                                  8

Dependent variable: DAP kg/ha for tef


Table 5 Constraints to adoption of tef technologies in mid and low agro-ecological zones

                                                            Agro-ecology
            Constraints                          Mid altitude            Low altitude                    χ2
                                                   (n = 81                 (n = 76)

                                                N               %             N         %

                                                                                                      24.95*
  Lack of credit                               0             0.00             6     7.90
  Shortage of cash                             3             3.70             6     7.90
  High cost of inputs                          3             3.70             10    13.20
  High interest rate                           0             0.00             3     3.90
  Shortage of farm land                        0             0.00             1     1.30
  Lack of knowledge                            1             1.20             5     6.60
  Started using organic fertilizer             1             1.20             0     0.00
  No response                                  73            90.10            45    59.20



* = Significant at P < .05 level
                                            วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547          __              ____ 59



Figure 1. Adoption of improved tef varieties in mid and low altitudes
                             100


                              80
     Cumulative frequency




                              60
        of adopters




                                                                                               Mid altitude
                              40


                                                                                               Low altitude
                              20


                                  0
                                  1970             1980                  1990            2000

                                                Year of planting tef




         Figure 2. Adoption of chemical fertilizer in mid and low altitudes

                            110

                            100
Cumulative frequency




                            90

                            80
   of adopters




                                                                                          Mid altitude

                            70

                            60                                                            Low altitude


                            50

                            40
                             1970              1980                  1990              2000

                                         Year of fertilizer application
                                วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547            __       ____ 60


            LITERATUREITED
MEDAC (Ministry of Economic Development                        Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 72,
      and Planning), 1999. Survey of the                       165 -169.
      Ethiopian Economy. Review of Past                Feder, G., R. E. Just and D. Zilberman. 1985.
      Reform Development (1992/93 –                            Adoption of agricultural innovation in
      1997/98), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.                         developing countries: A Survey
BOPED (Bureau of Planning and Economic                         Economic Development and Cultural
      Development), 1998. A Socio-                             Change. 33(2): 255-297.
      economic Profile SNNPRS, Awassa,                 Seifu, K. 1997. Tef, Eragrostis tef (zucc),
      Ethiopia.                                                Trotter: Promoting the Conservation
CSA (Central Statistical Authority), 2002.                     and Use of Under Utilized and
      Statistical Abstracts. Addis Ababa.                      Neglected Crops. p.12. Institute of
CSA (Central Statistical Authority), 2003.                     Plant Genetics and Crop Plant
      Statistical Abstracts. Addis Ababa.                      Research; Gater Sleben/Int. Plant
CIMMYT, 1993. The Adoption of Agricultural                     Genetic Research Institute (IPRRI),
      Technology: A Guide for Survey                           Rome, Italy.
      Design, Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
Gezahegn A., and M. Tekalign, 1995.                                 Received 30 April 2004
      Determinants of Fertilizer Demand in                          Accepted 11 June 2004
      Adha and Lume Areas of Ethiopia.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:2/21/2013
language:Thai
pages:13