VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 13 POSTED ON: 2/21/2013
Kamphaengsaen Acad. J. Vol. 2, No.1, 2004, Page 48 - 60 วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 48 การใชปุยและการปลูก Tef ในพื้นที่การเขตกรรมที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับ น้ําทะเลระดับกลางและระดับลางในประเทศเอธิโอเปยตอนใต Tef Production and Fertilizer Use in the Mid – and Low - Agro-ecological Zones of Southern Ethiopia Getachew Kassaye Game1 ศุภพร ไทยภักดี 2* กมลรัฐ อินทรทัศน 3 และ เอมอร อังสุรัตน 2 Getachew Kassaye Game1 , Supaporn Thaipakdee2*, Kamolrat Intaratat3 and Am-On Aungsuratana2 ABSTRACT The study sought to determine factors affecting the production of tef (Eragrostis tef) and fertilizer use in the mid and low agro-ecological zones. Purposive and multistage random sampling techniques were used to select districts, peasant associations (PAs), and farmers. A total of 157 farmers were selected from 12 peasant associations, out of which 81 in the mid and 76 in the low altitude zones were interviewed. About 8.6 – 13.6% of the respondents in the mid altitude zone hired labor for weeding and harvesting. Approximately 29.6, 6.2, 4.9 and 59.3% of the respondents in both agro-ecological zones were growing varieties Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354 and the local cultivars, respectively. In 2000, about 90% of the mid and 70% of the low altitude zone farmers adopted tef varieties. The rates of adoption in the period of 1970 to 2000 were 0.70 for the mid and 0.54 for the low altitude zones. The major factors for the dissemination of improved tef varieties were extension agents and mass media- radio. The study reveals that the majority of the farmers applied fertilizer less than the recommended rate. In the year 2000, about 95% of the farmers in the mid and low altitude zones adopted chemical fertilizer. The adoption of chemical fertilizer is consistently higher for tef farmers in the mid altitude than those in the low ones. The regression analysis shows that the independent variable, membership in an organization, agro-ecology, access to credit, distance from credit source and household size influenced the demand for fertilizer use to tef cultivation. Key words : tef production, fertilizer use, Ethiopian agriculture บทคัดยอ วัต ถุป ระสงคการศึกษาคือ เพื่ อศึกษาปจจัยที่ สงผลตอการผลิต Tef และการใชปุยในเขตพื้ นที่ การ เพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับน้ําทะเลระดับกลางและระดับลางในประเทศเอธิโอเปยตอนใต กลุมตัวอยางเปน เกษตรกรจํานวน 157 คน จากการสุมตัวอยางแบบเฉพาะเจาะจงและการสุมหลายขั้นตอน ในการเลือก อําเภอ เกษตรกรในระดับอําเภอและกลุมเกษตรกรในระดับหมูบาน โดย 81 คนเปนสมาชิกกลุมเกษตรกร และ 76 คน 1 Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO), SNNPRS, Awassa 6, Ethiopia 2 ภาควิชาสงเสริมและนิเทศศาสตรเกษตร คณะเกษตร กําแพงแสน มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร วิทยาเขตกําแพงแสน อ.กําแพงแสน จ.นครปฐม 73140 Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Faculty of Agriculture at kamphaengsaen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen Campus, Kamphaengsaen, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand. 3 สํานักสงเสริมและฝกอบรม มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร วิทยาเขตบางเขน กรุงเทพมหานคร 10900 Extension and Training Center, Kasetsart University, Bangkhen Campus, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. * Corresponding author : Tel. 0-3435-1891, Fax. 0-3428-1425. E-mail address : firstname.lastname@example.org วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 49 ไมไดเปนสมาชิกกลุมเกษตรกร การเก็บขอมูลใชวิธีการสัมภาษณ จากการศึ ก ษา พบว า เกษตรกร 8.6 -13.6% จากทั้ งสองเขตพื้ น ที่ ก ารเพาะปลู ก จ างแรงงานในการ เก็ บ เกี่ ย วและกํ า จั ด วั ช พื ช ในเรื่ อ งพั น ธุ 29.6%, 6.2%, 4.9%, และ 59.3% ปลู ก Tef พั น ธุ Dz.Cr .37, Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354 และพันธุพื้นเมืองตามลําดับ เกษตรกร 90% ในเขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือ ระดับน้ําทะเลในระดับกลางและเกษตรกร 70% ในเขตพื้นที่เพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับน้ําทะเลในระดับ กลาง เลือกใช Tef พันธุปรับปรุงในป ค.ศ. 2000 สวนปจจัยสําคัญที่ทําใหเกษตรกรการเลือกใช Tef พันธุปรับ ปรุงที่เปนสื่อบุคคลคือ เจาหนาที่สงเสริม และสื่อมวลชนคือ วิทยุกระจายเสียง ในเรื่องการใชปุย เกษตรกรสวน ใหญใชนอยกวาอัตราที่กําหนด ใน ป ค.ศ. 2000 เกษตรกร 95% จากทั้งสองเขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูก ใชปุยเคมี โดยเกษตรกรในเขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูกที่มีความสูงเหนือระดับน้ําทะเลในระดับกลางจะมีการใชปุยเคมี มากกวา นอกจากนั้นการศึกษาพบวาปจจัยเรื่อง การเปนสมาชิก เขตพื้นที่การเพาะปลูก การมีเงินทุน ความหางไกลจาก แหลงเงินทุนและขนาดของครัวเรือน มีอิทธิพลตอการใชปุยในการเพาะปลูก Tef คําสําคัญ : การปลูก Tef การใชปุย การเกษตรในประเทศเอธิโอเปย INTRODUCTION Ethiopia attained about 65,3 million (Central Statistical Authority, 2002-2003). populations with the growth rate of 3.1 % in Tef has an advantage to farmers, and 2002 (Central Statistical Authority, 2001 – as a result the cultivation increased year to 2002). Ethiopia is one of African countries year. It is one of the major cash sources for the having highest proportions of employment majority of the farmers. High market value and (85%). Agriculture plays a vital role for the many other desirable characteristics, including growth of Ethiopian economy, employs 85% of higher nutritional value, low incidence of labor forces, constitutes about 90% of exports damage by insects, better adaptation to and 50% of gross domestic products (GDP) drought, adaptive to poor drainage and high and provides about 70% of the county’s raw straw value have made tef attractive for material requirement for large and medium cultivation (Ketema, 1997). According to scale industries. In general, agriculture is Ketema (1997), it can be grown from sea level notably characterized by low productivity. up to 2800 meters above level (masl) under Different crops such as cereals like maize, various rainfall, temperature and soil regimes. sorghum, tef, wheat and barley; pulses; oil Besides its advantage, the crop has seeds; vegetables and root crops are grown in also some limitations like problems of sowing, the country as well as in the region. weeding and threshing, since the size of the Tef (Eragrostis tef) is a significant crop seed is very small. The uneven plant stand only in Ethiopia. Its production exceeds that of after germination become difficult for farmers to most other cereals. Each year, farmers grow weed mechanically, so farmers are forced to about two million hectares (29.4% of the total either hand weed or to use chemical herbicide cereal area at national level) producing 1.68 (Seifu, 1997). Most improved varieties of any million tons of grain or about a quarter of the crop need high rate of fertilizer to give optimum country’s total cereals (Central Statistical yield per unit area. Studies revealed that the Authority, 2002-2003). In the SNNPRS to about demand for fertilizer use for tef can be affected 163,670 hectares are devoted to tef and by farm size, household income, access to constitutes 26.14% of the total cereal areas in credit, distance from credit source, age and the region and produces 0.164 million tons education level of the farmers as well as วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 50 climatic conditions (Gezahegn and Tekalign, 157 farmers were selected from 12 peasant 1995). Local land races and current cultivars associations, out of which, 81 in the mid and 76 give low yield than the improved ones. The in the low altitude zones. Proportional random national average yield of this crop is about 910 sampling techniques were applied to obtain kg /ha, whereas the improved varieties give a the sample on the number of households in grain yield of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha on farmers each PA using the list of the farmers. The fields and 2,200 – 2,800 kg/ha on research survey was conducted from August 2002 to managed large farms. This study was executed June 2003. to assess farmers’ tef grain production and Analytical techniques included t-test, fertilizer use for the production of tef. Such chi-square test, regression analysis and types of study can contribute to improving the descriptive statistics. The descriptive statistics efficiency of agricultural research, extension such as frequency and means were used for and input provision. collecting background information for the farmers in both agro-ecological zones. The OBJECTIVES t-test was used to analyze the use of variety 1. To identify demographic and socio- and chemical fertilizer between mid and low economic factors affecting the production of agro-ecological zones. The chi-square test was tef, run to analyze the division of labor and the 2. To identify factors that affect farmers’ constraints of adoption and to detect if there is use of fertilizer to tef and its constraints to any systematic association between the two adoption of tef technologies in mid and low agro-ecologies. Whereas the regression agro-ecological zones of the study areas. analysis was used to predict the variables that determine the rate of fertilizer. METHODOLOGY Among the total of 11 zones and 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION special districts in the two agro-ecological Demographic Characteristics and Farmland zones, 6 potential districts of tef producers The demographic characteristics of the were selected by using purposive sampling respondents in both agro-ecological zones techniques. They were selected on the basis of indicated that most farmers were middle aged agro-ecology differences, ownership of larger (in the early forties). Farmers in the low altitude tef production area, number of growers, zone tended to be younger than the mid potential for tef production, accessibility and altitude respondents (38 years). The study representation of the farming system. From the found significant differences in age between 6 districts twelve peasant associations (PAs) farmers in mid and low agro-ecological zones were selected by stratified random sampling (t = -41.6, P<0.001). Level of education was methods using the same selection criteria also assumed to influence the adoption including involvement in the extension program decision, since literate farmers would have and tribal differences. A two-stage sampling greater chance to acquire, process and use procedure was used to select farmers from the available agricultural information on improved study areas. Two PAs/district were selected technologies. However, significant difference using random sampling procedure. From the 6 was found in the level of education between districts, the total numbers of households or the two zones. About 32.1% of the farmers in population in the 12 PAs were 3750 and were the mid and 42.1% in the low altitude zones grouped under mid- and low-altitude zones. had elementary education. About 33.3% of the Groups indicated the unit sample. A total of mid and 21.1% of the low altitude respondents วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 51 reached senior high school. Average Adoption of tef varieties household size was 7 in the mid and 5 in the Definitions: Feder et al., (1985) defined low altitude zone. The chi-square analysis adoption as the degree of a new innovation in showed no systematic association between the long-run equilibrium when a farmer had full level of education and the two agro-ecologies. information about the new technology and its The average farm size in mid and low potential. The rate of adoption is defined as the latitude zones were 1.8 timmads and 2.3 proportion of farmers who have adopted an timmad (1timmad = ¼ ha.), respectively. In the improved a new technology over time. Thus low altitude zone, the average cultivated land adoption at the farm level describes the was more than the mid ones (2.3 and 1.6 realization of farmer decision to implement new timmad, respectively). The statistical analysis technologies. The basic assumption is the showed no significant differences between adoption increases slowly at first then landholdings in mid and low altitude zones (t = increases rapidly as it approaches a maximum -6.8, P<0.001). level (CIMMYT, 1993). Mathematically, the rate of adoption is given by the following formula: Division of labor Table 1 indicates the division of labor Κ for tef production by family and hired labor. In Υi = 1 + e a −bt general the use of hired labor for various farm Where : operations was low in both agro-ecological y t = The cumulative percentage of zones. All farm operations were carried out by adoption at a time t family labor (45 – 89%). About 13.6% in the k = The upper bound of adoption mid altitude and 5.3% in the low altitude zones a = A constant, related to the time farmers had hired labor for harvesting and land when adoption begins preparation, respectively. The study revealed b = A constant, related to the rate of that the division of labor mainly for weeding, adoption harvesting and storing was significantly associated with the adoption of tef varieties About 27.2% of the respondents in the and fertilizer between two zones (χ2 = 13.16, P mid altitude and 1.3% in the low altitude zones < 0.01, χ2 = 6.8, P < 0.05). started growing improved tef varieties in 1970. The trends of improved tef cultivars show an Current tef varieties grown increment in the year 1970 – 1990 and then Table 2 indicates tef varieties grown by dropped from 1990 – 2000 in the mid altitude the sample farmers in 2002 cropping season. zone, while in the low altitude zone the trends In the mid agro-ecological zone, 29.6%, 6.2%, of an increment shows from 1970 to 1990 and 4.9% and 59.3% of the farmers were growing then dropped in 2000 cropping season Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354 and local (Table 2). cultivars, whereas in the low altitude zone Figure 1 shows the rate of adoption of 17.1%, 5.3% and 77.6% of the respondents improved tef varieties in the mid and low agro- grew Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.354 and the local land ecological zones of the study areas. In 2000 races, respectively. With the exception of about 90% of the mid altitude farmers and 70% Dz.01.196, there were significant differences low altitude zone farmers had adopted tef (t = -17.51, P = .001) in the proportion of varieties. The rate of adoption for the period farmers growing tef varieties between the two 1970 – 2000 was 0.70 and 0.54 for the mid and zones. low altitude zones, respectively. The adoption วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 52 rate had increased in 1991 onwards, since the (P < 0.01). Table 3 indicates the trend of national extension package program was fertilizer use. Of the total respondents 17.10 – started. In both agro-ecological zones farmers 50.60% increased, 15.8 – 24.7% reduced, 1.3 preferred improved varieties Dz.Cr.37, – 13.6% maintained, 11.1 – 42.1% stopped and Dz.01.196 and Dz.01.354 (in descending order 23.7% did not use fertilizer at all. This of importance). difference was significant (t = -10.95, P<0.01). The major means for the dissemination of improved tef varieties were extension agents Adoption of chemical fertilizer (54.0%), and radio (32.1 – 42.1%). Figure 2 shows the rate of fertilizer Membership in an organization seemed to adoption among tef farmers in mid and low facilitate the adoption of improved tef cultivars. agro-ecological zones. In 2000 about 95% of For example, most of the respondents in both the mid and low altitude zone farmers had agro-ecological zones were members of an adopted chemical fertilizer. The rate of organization, particularly the peasant adoption in 1970 – 2000 was 0.78 for both association. agro-ecological zones. The adoption of chemical fertilizer was consistently higher for Current uses of chemical fertilizer tef farmers in the mid altitude than those in the Table 3 shows that 25.9% of the mid low one because farmers in the mid altitude and 18.4% of the low altitude zone farmers zone used more fertilizer. The adoption rate applied fertilizer at the rate of 25 kg/ha, had also increased due to the national whereas 23.5% and 3.9% of the respondents in extension intervention in the area. both agro-ecological zones applied at the rate of 25 – 50 kg/ha. The result indicates that the Regression analysis of the adoption of farmers applied fertilizer at the rate far below chemical fertilizer for tef production that of the national recommended rate, which is Regression analysis was used to 100kg DAP/ha. Only 3.7% of the mid altitude examine the effect of predictor variables on the farmers applied fertilizer at the rate of 50 – 100 demand for fertilizer use for tef in both agro- kg/ha. In both agro-ecological zones, 47–78% ecological zones (Table 4). The following of the respondents did not apply fertilizer at all. model was used to predict the variables that The t-test (t = -16.02) shows the difference in determine the rate of fertilizer for tef : fertilizer application between the two agro- ecologies is significant (P = 0.01). Υi = a + β1 Χ1 + β 2 Χ 2 + ... + β k Χk Fertilizer use trends The study indicated that in 1970 46.5% Where, Υi = The criterion variable and 18.8% of the respondents in mid and low (fertilizer level) altitude zones respectively started using a = Constant chemical fertilizer. In 1990 more tef farmers (26.8% in the mid and 52.1% in the low altitude β1...β k = Regression coefficient zones) used chemical fertilizer. In general the Χ1...Χk = Predictor variables trend of using chemical fertilizer decreased in (membership, agro-ecology, credit, distance both agro-ecological zones, except in the year 1990. The paired t-test (t = -9.07) showed that from credit source and household size) the difference in the trends of fertilizer use in both agro-ecological zones was significant, วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 53 Adoption rate = constant + of adoption of tef technologies will likely β 1 (Membership) + …+ β k (Household size) increases (χ2 = 24.95, P<0.05). The variables with multicollinearity were CONCLUSION identified and dropped from the model. Among the cereal crops, land Farmers’ age was highly correlated with preparation, planting, weeding, and household size (r = .884) and farming processing (threshing, winnowing and experience (r = .948) and thus the age was grinding) of tef is very tedious and laborious, eliminated from the model. The predictor since the seeds are so tiny. All family members variables are not all equal to each other and mainly carried out land preparation, planting, could be used to predict the dependent fertilizer application, weeding, insecticide variable DAP kg/ha. The independent variable application, harvesting, and processing, In the membership in an organization, agro-ecology, mid altitude zone 8.6 – 13.6% of respondents access to credit, distance from credit source hired labor for weeding and harvesting. The and household size influenced the demand for results were significant (χ2 = 12.70 and χ2 = fertilizer use for tef significantly and positively. 13.16, P < 0.01 and χ2 = 6.8, P < 0.05). Agro-ecology, membership, and better access In the mid agro-ecological zone, to credit (distance and availability) were found 29.6%, 6.2%, 4.9% and 59.3% of the farmers associated with high level of fertilizer use. used to grow Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.196, Dz.01.354 Whereas low education level, less farm size and local cultivars, whereas in the low altitude and less extension contact were also zone 17.1%, 5.3% and 77.6% of the associated with low level of fertilizer use. respondents grew Dz.Cr.37, Dz.01.354 and the local land races, respectively. About 27.2% of Constraints to adoption of tef technologies in the respondents in the mid altitude and 1.3% in mid and low agro-ecological zones the low altitude zones started growing Table 5 indicates the constraints and improved tef varieties in 1970. farmers’ reasons not to adopt the In 2000 about 90% of the mid altitude recommended tef technologies in the mid and farmers and 70% low land zone farmers had low agro-ecological zones. High cost of inputs adopted tef varieties. The major sources for the was the major constraints for the 3.70% of the dissemination of improved tef varieties were mid and 13.20% of the low altitude extension agents (54.0%), and mass media like respondents. Of the total respondents 7.90%, radio (32.1 – 42.1%). Membership in an 3.70 – 7.90%, 3.90% and 1.30% indicated lack organization seemed to facilitate the adoption of credit, shortage of cash, high interest rate of improved tef cultivars. and shortage of farmland were the main From this study it can be concluded problems in both agro-ecological zones, that the majority of the farmers applied fertilizer respectively. The study also proved that due to at the lower rate than the recommended one. In lack of knowledge 1.20% and 6.60% of the mid 1970, 46.5% and 18.8% of the respondents in and low altitude zone farmers, respectively mid and low altitude zones respectively started were not able to use the recommended tef using chemical fertilizer. In 2000 about 95% of technologies. About 90.10% of the mid and the mid and low altitude zone farmers had 59.20% of the low altitude zone farmers did not adopted chemical fertilizer. The rate of give any response. The results revealed that if adoption of fertilizer for 1997 – 2000 was 0.78 the farmers have not much constraint, the rates for both agro-ecological zones. The adoption of วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 54 chemical fertilizer was consistently higher for disseminated in different agro-ecological zones tef farmers in the mid altitude than the low without testing in that area. That is why most of ones, because farmers in the mid altitude zone the time such activities fail. It seems that, due applied more fertilizer than the low ones. to high cost of inputs, lack of credit, high rate Membership in an organization, agro-ecology, of interest, and removal of subsidy for access to credit, distance from credit source agricultural inputs, farmers may reduce or stop and household size influenced the demand for using chemical fertilizer. Thus further research fertilizer use for tef significantly and positively. on crops, which are early maturing and High cost inputs, lack of credit, drought tolerant for the dry land areas like shortage of cash, high interest rate and Konso, as well as research on the type and shortage of farmland were the major rates of fertilizer for different types of soils and constraints to adoption of tef technology in mid agro-ecologies should be developed. and low agro-ecological zones. Fertilizer is not much or highly important to small- scale farmers, it rather puts an extra RECOMMENDATIONS burden of loan to them. For small-scale The current government extension farmers, it is advisable for them to use organic approach uses blanket package of fertilizer and compost. recommendation, i.e. some of the packages (crop varieties and management) are วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 55 Table 1 Family and hired labor availability for tef production in mid and low agro-ecological zones of the study areas Mid altitude (n = 81) Low altitude (n = 76) Activities Hired Family Both Hired Family Both χ2 N % N % N % N % N % N % Land preparation 7 8.6 50 61.7 24 29.6 4 5.3 52 68.4 20 26.3 NS Planting 7 8.6 55 67.9 19 23.5 3 3.9 58 76.3 15 19.7 NS Weeding 7 8.6 53 65.4 21 25.9 2 2.6 34 44.7 40 52.6 12.7** Harvesting 11 13.6 48 59.3 22 27.2 1 1.3 38 50.0 37 48.7 13.16** Storing 4 4.9 72 88.9 5 6.2 2 2.6 59 77.6 15 19.7 6.8* * = Significant at P < .05 level, ** = Significant at P < .01 level วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 56 Table 2 Tef varieties used and year started planting by the farmers in mid and low agro- ecological zones Mid altitude Low altitude (n = 81) (n = 76) t-statisticsa/ N % N % Varieties grown in 2002 -17.51*** Dz. Cr. 37 24 29.60 13 17.10 Dz. 01. 196 5 6.20 0 0.00 Dz. 01. 354 4 4.90 4 5.30 Local 48 59.30 59 77.60 Year started growing -14.64*** 1970 22 27.20 1 1.30 1980 44 54.30 11 14.50 1990 8 9.90 36 47.4 2000 0 0.00 10 13.20 No response 7 8.60 18 23.70 a/ Paired t-test used to compare the means of varieties, and percentage of tef adoption by farmers between mid and low agro-ecological zones *** = Significant at P < .001 level วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 57 Table 3 The use of chemical fertilizer for tef and its trends in mid and low agro-ecological zones Mid altitude Low altitude (n = 81) (n = 76) t-statistics N % N % Fertilizer use in 2002 -16.02*** DAP: 25 kg/ha 21 25.90 14 18.40 25 – 50 kg/ha 19 23.50 3 3.90 50 – 100 kg/ha 3 3.70 0 0.00 Not used 38 46.90 59 77.60 Year started fertilizer -9.07*** application 1970 38 46.50 14 18.80 1980 19 23.90 9 12.50 1990 22 26.80 40 52.10 2000 2 2.80 13 16.70 Trends of fertilizer use -10.95*** Increased 41 50.60 13 17.10 Reduced 20 24.70 12 15.80 Maintained 11 13.60 1 1.30 Stopped 9 11.10 32 42.10 Not used at all 0 0.00 18 23.70 a/ Paired t-test used to compare the means of fertilize, and percentage of tef adoption by farmers between the two agro-ecological zones *** = Significant at P < .001 level วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 58 Table 4 Regression analysis of the variation in levels of fertilizer application to tef due to agro-ecological and crop management factors Factors Regression coefficient Std. Error Constant -.863 1.567 Membership in the organization 1.552 1.215 Agro-ecology .971 .305 Access to credit .390 .292 Distance from credit source .269 151 Household size .107 .047 R2 .148 n 8 Dependent variable: DAP kg/ha for tef Table 5 Constraints to adoption of tef technologies in mid and low agro-ecological zones Agro-ecology Constraints Mid altitude Low altitude χ2 (n = 81 (n = 76) N % N % 24.95* Lack of credit 0 0.00 6 7.90 Shortage of cash 3 3.70 6 7.90 High cost of inputs 3 3.70 10 13.20 High interest rate 0 0.00 3 3.90 Shortage of farm land 0 0.00 1 1.30 Lack of knowledge 1 1.20 5 6.60 Started using organic fertilizer 1 1.20 0 0.00 No response 73 90.10 45 59.20 * = Significant at P < .05 level วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 59 Figure 1. Adoption of improved tef varieties in mid and low altitudes 100 80 Cumulative frequency 60 of adopters Mid altitude 40 Low altitude 20 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of planting tef Figure 2. Adoption of chemical fertilizer in mid and low altitudes 110 100 Cumulative frequency 90 80 of adopters Mid altitude 70 60 Low altitude 50 40 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of fertilizer application วิทยาสารกําแพงแสน ปที่ 2 ฉบับที่ 1 2547 __ ____ 60 LITERATUREITED MEDAC (Ministry of Economic Development Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 72, and Planning), 1999. Survey of the 165 -169. Ethiopian Economy. Review of Past Feder, G., R. E. Just and D. Zilberman. 1985. Reform Development (1992/93 – Adoption of agricultural innovation in 1997/98), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. developing countries: A Survey BOPED (Bureau of Planning and Economic Economic Development and Cultural Development), 1998. A Socio- Change. 33(2): 255-297. economic Profile SNNPRS, Awassa, Seifu, K. 1997. Tef, Eragrostis tef (zucc), Ethiopia. Trotter: Promoting the Conservation CSA (Central Statistical Authority), 2002. and Use of Under Utilized and Statistical Abstracts. Addis Ababa. Neglected Crops. p.12. Institute of CSA (Central Statistical Authority), 2003. Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Statistical Abstracts. Addis Ababa. Research; Gater Sleben/Int. Plant CIMMYT, 1993. The Adoption of Agricultural Genetic Research Institute (IPRRI), Technology: A Guide for Survey Rome, Italy. Design, Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT. Gezahegn A., and M. Tekalign, 1995. Received 30 April 2004 Determinants of Fertilizer Demand in Accepted 11 June 2004 Adha and Lume Areas of Ethiopia.
Pages to are hidden for
"and Low Agro-ecology Zones of the SNNPRS_ Ethiopia"Please download to view full document