Early Conquistadors and Explorers by yaosaigeng

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									Los Conquistadores
               mercantilism
• Economic theory of the 16th- 18th centuries
• Wealth is actual gold and silver
• There is a finite amount of wealth
• nations get richer by taking wealth from
  other nations
• Markets are places to sell goods for wealth
• Colonies provide markets for mother
  country’s goods, plus raw materials to
  make finished goods from
Spices
         Tea




               Ceramics
                    Columbus
             What?
•   Quicker way to China
             How?
•   Go West
•   Avoid Portuguese
    Africa, India
•   Avoid Italy, Muslims in
    Mediterranean
             Why?
•   Time is money
            God, Glory, Gold
• Spreading God’s Word
  gains social status, plus
  salvation for yourself
• Gold buys social status
• Winning empire for Spain
  brings glory (fame)
• This was the plan for the....
Conquistadors: God Glory Gold
               • Usually hard working
                 professional soldiers
               • Not very diplomatic
               • Brave beyond modern
                 concepts
               • felt they were
                 continuing crusades
                 against non-believers
               • Most famous leader
                 was.....
         Hernando Cortez
• Professional soldier
• Intelligent
• Crafty
• Driven
• Wanted to make a
  name for himself
• Conquered……
                       Mexico




• Emperor is Montezuma*
* also spelled Moctecuzoma, Moctezuma
• Capital is Tenochtitlan……
•    …..Amazingly advanced yet….
•              …did not use the wheel
•
                 Tenochtitlan




Culture
• Could predict phases of sun, moon, eclipses
  years in advance - calendar running until 2012
• Had Schools, observatories, zoos, shopping
  markets, apartments
• Canals, bridges, straight roads!
• Bigger than Madrid, London, Paris in 1519
No “Happy astronomers club”
            The Aztec were a
            • Well organized-
            • Highly advanced-
            • Totalitarian-
            • Fascist-
            • Military dictatorship
            • That fed their gods
              with human blood
            • Up to 85,000 people
              murdered in one day
        Feathered serpent
• Aztec legend said
                        There’s
  Quetzalcoatl would    more?
  return
• Legendary
  description looked
  like Cortez
• Moctecuzoma
  welcomed Cortez
  as a god
• gave him gold to go
  away
         Spanish advantages
        Technology
•   Armor
•   steel weapons
•   horses
•   Guns
    Politics: wanted to
•   Change heathen
    religion
•   Conquer: so….
•    no deals and….
Mexico had enemies
         • Mexican Power
           struggle
         • some tribes
           welcomed
           Spanish
         • Sent soldiers,
           guides,
           equipment
             Cortez wins
• 300 Europeans beat 300,000 warriors and
  conquer about 2 million people
• They simply replace the Aztec lords with
  themselves
• The average Mexican sees little change
• Except- no sacrifices. Hurray!
                     malhado




• Panfilo de Narvaez-rival of Cortez-tried to explore
  Florida
• It was a horrible disaster
• The survivors crash-landed onto Galveston island-
• ......during a Hurricane
                                   salvation



•   Treated at first as slaves,
•   Beaten and starved by Indians
•   Only 4 Spaniards were alive after several years
•   Performed 1st aid on wounded Indian
•   He got well
•   They became Shamans-healers- and began to
    travel and live well
Cabeza de Vaca
      • Treasurer for Panfilo de
        Narvaez expedition
      • First European to live in
        Texas
      • Walked back to Mexico
      • Wrote book on travels
      • First European to
        describe a buffalo
                     Eesteban




•   Enslaved Moor
•   First African in North America and Texas
•   Became 1 of the 4 Spanish survivors
•   Later, guide to Texas for Father Marcos expedition
       What they accomplished



•   Explored most of Texas
•   Established claims for Spain
•   Wrote book that stirred European interest
•   Said Texas was only rich in land
•   Few believed them
•   Made it into the history books

								
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