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					 Future Low Earth Observation Satellite - Radio Occultation Mission

     Nick L. Yen / Chen-Joe Fong                            Kendra L.B. Cook                               Peter Wilczynski
 National Space Organization (NSPO)                Integrity Applications Incorporated,                    NOAA/NESDIS
      F8, No. 9, Prosperity 1st Rd.                        5160 Parkstone Dr.,                    SSMC1, 1335 East West Hwy, Silver
    Hsinchu, Taiwan 30078, R.O.C.                          Chantilly, VA 20151                            Spring, MD 20910
     +886-3-578-4208x1053 / 9202                              703-652-4809                                  301-807-3524
 [longine] / [cjfong]@nspo.narl.org.tw                  kcook@c2iconsulting.com                      Peter.Wilczynski@noaa.gov


Abstract—The FORMOSAT-3 mission is also known as COSMIC                      of Global Positioning System (GPS) atmospheric remote
(Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and             sensing by using Radio Occultation (RO) technique.
Climate) in US. FORMOSAT-3 consisting of six Low-Earth-Orbit
(LEO) satellites is an experimental “Research Mission” for                   Due to the success of FORMOSAT-3, this mission become
demonstrating the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS)              the world’s first operational GPS-RO mission for global
Radio Occultation (RO) in operational numerical weather
                                                                             Earth weather forecasting; climate monitoring; and
prediction, climate monitoring, and space weather forecasting.
FORMOSAT-3 has proven to increase the accuracy of the                        atmospheric, ionospheric, and geodetic research (Liou,
predictions of hurricane/typhoon/cyclone behavior, significantly             2007). The FORMOSAT-3mission has retrieved 2.7 million
improve long-range weather forecasts, and monitor climate change             soundings, serving more than 1,600 registered users from 57
with unprecedented accuracy. The success of the FORMOSAT-3                   countries. On average, FORMOSAT-3 provides 1,500 ~
mission has initiated a new age for operational GPS RO soundings.            2,000 GPS-RO soundings per day, uniformly distributed
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has recommended                      around the globe. Approximately 90% of the data are
continuing RO observations operationally and the scientific                  available within 3hours of observations to support
community urges the continuation of the mission and the planning             operational numerical weather prediction. Several
for a follow-on “Operational Mission.” As a result in bridging the
                                                                             worldwide weather operation centers have ingested
global GPS RO data gap, NSPO and NOAA intend to jointly
develop and launch FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2, a high-reliability                   FORMOSAT-3 data into their operational weather forecast
next generation follow-on satellite system. FORMOSAT-7 is                    models and forecasting abilities have been significantly
intended to provide continuity of GPS RO data as well as provide             improved. These include the NOAA National Centers for
the next generation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)             Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the European Centre for
RO data to users. This paper will describe the goals and objectives          Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the
of FORMOSAT-7, as well as the constellation configuration and                European Organization for the Exploitation of
technology that will be used to meet those objectives.                       Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the Central
                                                                             Weather Bureau (CWB) of Taiwan, the United Kingdom
                    TABLE OF CONTENTS                                        Meteorological Office, the Japan Meteorological Agency
                                                                             (JMA), the United States Air Force Weather Agency
1. INTRODUCTION...................................................1          (AFWA), the Canadian Meteorological Centre (Canada
2. FORMOSAT-7 CONSTELLATION AND MISSION                                      Met), Météo-France, the Bureau of Meteorology of
    OVERVIEW ........................................................2       Australia and others (Liou, 2007). The FORMOSAT-3
3. FORMOSAT-7 CURRENT STATUS ........................3                       constellation has successfully improved global weather
4. CONCLUSION ......................................................4        analyses and predictions, the accuracy of weather prediction
                                                                             models, and the understanding of tropical, mid-latitude and
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...........................................4                 polar weather systems and their interactions.
REFERENCES ..........................................................5
BIOGRAPHIES .........................................................5       NOAA/NCEP started assimilating observations from the
                                                                             FORMOSAT-3 mission into its global data assimilation
                                                                             system in May 2007. Results demonstrated that the use of
                      1. INTRODUCTION                                        GPS RO observation provides information on the state of
                                                                             the atmosphere not contained in other satellite instruments.
FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (the Constellation Observing
                                                                             This is due to the unique characteristics of the GPS RO
System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission
                                                                             measurements: unbiased observations, high accuracy, high
is a joint Taiwan-U.S. experimental scientific “Research
                                                                             vertical resolution, and equal accuracy over land than over
Mission” for demonstrating the usefulness of Radio
                                                                             ocean, and all-weather capability. The benefits of
Occultation (RO) in near-real-time operational numerical
                                                                             FORMOSAT-3 are very significant in terms of weather
weather prediction, climate monitoring, and space weather
                                                                             forecast skill. The assimilation of GPS RO observations
forecasting. The FORMOSAT-3 constellation consisting of
                                                                             improved anomaly correlation scores for the geopotential
six satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at 72-degree
                                                                             heights and reduced model biases and root-mean-squared
inclination was launched in April 2006. The launch of the
                                                                             errors of temperature and wind fields. From Figure 1 it was
FORMOSAT-3 mission marked the beginning of a new era
 EUMETSAT 2011
                                                                         1
observed that 8 hours improvement at Forecast Day 4 and                                                                                                       2. FORMOSAT-7 CONSTELLATION AND MISSION
more than 5 hours improvement during Forecast Day 7.                                                                                                                         OVERVIEW
There are particularly significant improvements over the
oceans and in Southern Hemisphere. These benefits are                                                                                                        The objectives of the FORMOSAT-7**mission are similar
expected to increase with a larger constellation of GPS RO                                                                                                   to that of FORMOSAT-3: to reliably provide data for
satellites. (Cucurull, 2008).                                                                                                                                numerical weather prediction; to perform space weather
                                                                                                                                                             monitoring; and to trend climate change. FORMOSAT-
                                                                                                                                                             7/COSMIC-2 will meet its objectives by intercepting Global
                                                                                                                                                             Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals including
                                                                                                                                                             U.S.’s GPS, Europe’s Galileo, and Russian’s Global
                                                                                                                                                             Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) signals with an
                                                                                                                                                             advanced satellite-based RO receiver and inferring the
                                                                                                                                                             deviations in each signal's straight-line path caused by
                                                                                                                                                             temperature, pressure, moisture, and electron density
                                                                                                                                                             gradients, as illustrated in Figure 3 (Yen, 2010).




Figure 1. Prediction Accuracy Improvement on Global
Prediction Model by Assimilating FORMOSAT-3 RO Data
into NOAA/NCEP’s Global Data Assimilation System.

Unfortunately, the FORMOSAT-3 mission has reached the
end of its 5-year design life in 2011, and the critical real-
time satellite observing capabilities have already begun to
degrade as satellites reach their end of life and become
inoperative (Fong, 2011). The World Meteorological
Organization (WMO) has recommended continuing RO
observations operationally and the scientific community                                                                                                      Figure 3. Illustration of FORMOSAT-3 GNSS Radio
urges the continuation of the current mission and the                                                                                                        Occultation Technique.
planning for a follow-on “Operational Mission.”
                                                                                                                                                             GALILEO or GLONASS-FDMA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               GPS


                                                                     Joint
                                                                   Program
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              High-inc

                                                                                               WBS 6.0
    WBS 1.0            WBS 2.0            WBS 3.0           WBS 4.0                                             WBS 7.0      WBS 8.0
                                                                               WBS 5.0        Ground &
    Program             System            Mission         Satellite (SL)                                          Data         Data
   Management         Management         Assurance        Development
                                                                               Launch          Mission
                                                                                              Operations
                                                                                                               Processing   Utilization
                                                                                                                                                                              Spare S/C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Low-inc

                                             NSPO                                                                                                                    FORMOSAT-7/
      Advisory &           System                                  SL for            Launch        Ground                                   US Data
      Supervision          Analysis
                                            Mission
                                           Assurance
                                                                 Launch #1             #1          System
                                                                                                                      US DPC
                                                                                                                                           Utilization                COSMIC-2

         Joint                               NOAA
                           System &                                SL for            Launch         Frequency          Taiwan             Taiwan Data
       Program                              Mission
                           Interface                             Launch #2             #2          Coordination         DPC                Utilization
      Management                           Assurance

                                                                                                                                                                                                               TT&C stations (overseas)   Fiducial
      International                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Network
      Cooperation
                            System                               NSPO self-                         Mission            DPC IF              US Data                                        TT&C stations (Taiwan)
                          Verification                           reliant SL                        Operations                             Application
      Management


        NSPO
                           System                                                                                                         Taiwan Data
       Program
                          Operations                                                                                                      Application
      Management
                                                                                                                        Both
                                             Bus
                                                     Mission   Science     Launch   SL
                                                                                                Bus
                                                                                                           Mission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 US DPC        Taiwan DPC
                                                       PL        PL          IF     AIT                      PL
        NOAA
       Program                                                                                                         NSPO                                                                        Satellite Operations
      Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and Control Center
                                                                                                                       NOAA                                                                                                 Users
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Users               Researchers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Researchers
                                                                                                                                                                Minotaur IV or Falcon 9
Figure 2. Joint Mission Collaboration framework of
NSPO& NOAA                                                                                                                                                   Figure 4. The FORMOSAT-7mission architecture

As a result and in an effort to reduce the global GPS-RO                                                                                                     FORMOSAT-7 is a much improved constellation system
data gap, Taiwan and the U.S. collaborate to jointly develop,                                                                                                consisting of a new constellation of 12 satellites for an
launch and operate a follow-on satellite mission to                                                                                                          “operational mission” transition from FORMOSAT-3. The
FORMOSAT-3, referred to as FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2                                                                                                               FORMOSAT-7 mission is a high-reliability next generation
mission, through their agencies the National Space                                                                                                           follow-on satellite system to FORMOSAT-3. The
Organization (NSPO) and the National Oceanic and                                                                                                             FORMOSAT-7 mission architecture is shown in Figure 4.
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), respectively. Figure                                                                                                      The constellation is comprised of 6 satellites at 72-degree
2 depicts the joint mission collaborative framework (Cook,                                                                                                   inclination, and 6 satellites at 24-degree inclination, which
2011).                                                                                                                                                       will enhance observations in the equatorial region over what

                                                                                                                                                         2
is currently being collected with FORMOSAT-3. In                                           science payloads of the second six satellites will be provided
addition, NSPO will develop one self-reliant satellite as an                               by NSPO.
in-orbit spare satellite. This constellation will produce more
than 8,000 soundings per day, compared to the approximate                                  Similar to the current FORMOSAT-3 satellites, the current
1,500~2,000 soundings per day currently produced by                                        plan is to use 2 launch vehicles with 6 satellites on each
FORMOSAT-3 due to the increase of the number of                                            vehicle – either in the class of Minotaur-IV plus, or Falcon-
satellites in the FORMOSAT-7 constellation and the                                         9. They will be launched and then positioned into their final
system’s ability to track three navigation systems’ signals                                orbits. In order to achieve the data latency requirement of 45
versus FORMOSAT-3’s ability to track one.                                                  minutes, it is planned that there will 2 data downlinks per
                                                                                           orbit, which will reduce the data latency considerably.
Figure 5 illustrates the comparison of sounding distribution                               Consequently, FORMOSAT-7requires more satellite ground
over a 3-hour period between FORMOSAT-3 and                                                stations for receiving the data. As with FORMOSAT-3, the
FORMOSAT-7. The constellation configuration was chosen                                     data collected by FORMOSAT-7will be downlinked to the
because it provides the most uniform global coverage.                                      tracking station, then transferred to the U.S. Data Processing
Figure 6 compares the constellation configuration of                                       Center (DPC) as well as to the Taiwan Data Processing
FORMOSAT-3 and FORMOSAT-7. The more dense                                                  Center (TDPC). The processed products will then be
GNSS-RO distribution will enhance the societal and                                         provided to NOAA Global Transmission System (GTS) for
scientific impacts for weather/climate research and                                        distribution to the worldwide weather prediction centers.
forecasting worldwide, with particularly enhanced benefits                                 The NSPO Satellite Operations Control Center (SOCC) will
in the equatorial region. The expected average data latency                                provide command and control of the FORMOSAT-7
of radio occultation profiles for the FORMOSAT-7mission                                    constellation. In summary, the current FORMOSAT-
is 45 minutes.                                                                             7mission baseline is shown in Table 1. Table 2 shows the
                                                                                           satellite design requirements comparison for FORMOSAT-
FORMOSAT-3 Occultations – 3 Hrs Coverage   FORMOSAT-7 Occultations – 3 Hrs Coverage        7 and FORMOSAT-3.

                                                                                           Table 1 FORMOSAT-7Mission Baseline.

                                                                                              FORMOSAT-7                   First Launch                 Second Launch

                                                                                                                  To be achieved after Full Operational Capability:
Figure 5. Sounding Distribution                            Comparison            for         Mission Objectives   •   8,000 atmospheric sounding profiles per day
FORMOSAT-3 vs. FORMOSAT-7.                                                                                        •   45-min data latency

                                                                                                                  6 spacecraft to low-           6+1 spacecraft to high-
                                                                                                                  inclination-angle orbit        inclination-angle orbit
                                                                                               Constellation
                                                                                                                  (mission altitude 520~550      (mission altitude 720~750
                                                                                                                  km)                            km)


                                                                                             GNSS RO Payload      TriG                           TriG

                                                                                                                  •      Velocity, Ion Density
 FORMOSAT-3                                 FORMOSAT-7
                                                                                                                         and Irregularities
Figure 6. Constellation Configuration for FORMOSAT-3 vs.                                     Scientific Payload          Instrument              To be determined
FORMOSAT-7.                                                                                                       •      RF Beacon
                                                                                                                         Instrument
The spacecraft design and mission payload instrument are
                                                                                              Launch Vehicle      Minotaur IV+ or Falcon 9       Minotaur IV+ or Falcon 9
improved from the current FORMOSAT-3 system with
operational robustness. The mission payload is a TriG                                       Launch Schedule (as
                                                                                                                  2015 Q3-Q4                     2017 Q3-Q4
GNSS-RO receiver and will collect more RO data points by                                          a goal)
adding GALILEO and GLONASS tracking capability,                                               Communication
                                                                                                                                      Via ground station
which will produce a significantly higher spatial and                                          Architecture
temporal density of profiles over tracking GPS signals alone.
These will be much more useful for weather prediction
models and for severe weather forecasting (including                                                  3. FORMOSAT-7 CURRENT STATUS
typhoons and hurricane forecasting), as well as for related
research in the fields of meteorology, ionosphere, and                                     Both of the U.S.-Taiwan parties signed the TECRO-AIT
climate. The planned science payloads of the first six                                     agreement that is the authorizing document for the joint
satellites are the VIDI (Velocity, Ion Density and                                         program in May 2010. The joint mission is anticipated to be
Irregularities Instrument) Instruments and RF Beacon                                       a collaborative mission and both parties will implement the
instrument for space weather application. The planned                                      mission with work share based on equitable contribution.
                                                                                           Each party will contribute to the funding in proportion to

                                                                                       3
their respective participation in such activities. The Joint                         Development Mid-Term Program.” The detailed statement
FORMOSAT-7 Program Office had held the Feasibility                                   of work and responsibilities is specified the “Joint
Design Review (FDR) in May 2010, the Mission Definition                              Management Control Plan.” The responsibilities on the
Review (MDR) in August 2010, the Systems Requirements                                Taiwan parties include systems engineering and design,
Review (SRR) in April 2011, and the Systems Design                                   spacecraft bus development, satellite operation and control,
Review (SDR) in June of 2011, respectively. Three major                              and satellite data processing and utilization.          The
documents, which are including the Joint Level One                                   responsibilities on the U.S. parties include launch, ground
Performance Requirements Document (JL1PRD), the Joint                                systems, mission payload, and satellite data processing and
Management Control Plan (JMCP), and Joint Mission                                    utilization. The main execution strategies of this program
Requirements Documents (JMRD), are complete and are in                               will be focused in the following four areas: increase of the
the final approval process.       Also the Joint Systems                             international research cooperation, establishment of core
Requirements Document (JSRD) has been drafted and is                                 technology capabilities, strengthening of satellite data
currently being edited and approved.                                                 processing, and enhancement of data utilization.

Table 2 FORMOSAT-7Satellite Design                                                   In the area of the core technology capabilities buildup,
                                                                                     NSPO also plans to develop an additional self-reliant
    Function          FORMOSAT-7 Design                 FORMOSAT-3 Design            spacecraft to be used as an on-orbit spare satellite as well as
                                                                                     for technology qualification. NSPO will use this satellite as
  Spacecraft Bus
                     >0.66 for 5 Years              >0.68 for 2 years                a spacecraft platform to test the NSPO-built newly
    Reliability
                                                                                     developed avionic devices and navigation key components
      Weight         150~200 kg                     61 kg (w/ Propellant)
                                                                                     for the next generation follow-on mission. As in the area of
                      3-axis linear control                                          GNSS-RO data processing and utilization, with the
                      Roll/Yaw/Pitch:+/-1o
                                                     3-axis nonlinear control        collaboration with US parties, NSPO will partner with CWB,
                      (3σ)
  Attitude Control                                   Roll/Yaw: +/-5o (1 σ)           Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (TTFRI),
                      Attitude Knowledge:
   Performance                                       Pitch: +/- 2 o (1 σ)            GPS Scientific Application Research Center (GPS-ARC),
                      better than 0.05o (3σ), all
                                                     GPS Bus Receiver PL x 1
                      axis                                                           and other institutes and organization, to build a Taiwan
                      GPS Bus Receiver x 1                                           GNSS-RO data processing center to process, archive and
                      Bus: > 256 Mbits                                               distribute data from the FORMOSAT-7. This system will
   Data Storage                                      128 Mbyte
                      Science: >2Gbit                                                serve as a verification platform for GNSS-RO data, and
                                                                                     enhance domestic independency of the GNSS-RO data
     Avionics         Centralized Architecture       Distributed Architecture
   Architecture       Radiation - Hardness           (Multiple Avionics Boxes)
                                                                                     processing and buildup capability, which will promote the
                                                                                     program to have greater societal impacts to the livelihood
                      10 % Power Margin                                              and civil benefits in Taiwan.
                                                     10 % Power Margin
                      Lithium Ion Battery
  Electrical Power                                   Ni-H2 Battery
                      Voltage Based
                                                     dMdC Charging Algorithm
                      Algorithm
                      Mission PL: TriG                                                                    4. CONCLUSION
                                                     Primary PL: GOX
 Payload Interface    Science PL: VIDI & RF
                                                     Secondary PL: TIP, TBB          FORMOSAT-3’s contribution to weather prediction is
                      Beacon
                                                                                     considered to be “significant” by the Taiwan CWB and U.S.
                                                                                     NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS, and represents
JSRD will be flown down to various segment requirements.                             an immense benefit to worldwide forecasting capability.
The Spacecraft Bus Systems Requirements Document                                     This data is not available globally from other sources, and
(BSRD), and the Mission and Science Payload to Spacecraft                            allowing this data to deteriorate due to the FORMOSAT-3
bus interface requirements documents (IRDs), Ground                                  satellites’ end-of-life will result in a significant diminution
Segment-to-Spacecraft IRD, and Launch Vehicle-to-                                    of performance of the NOAA and CWB’s Numerical
Spacecraft IRD are incorporated into the technical package                           Weather Prediction (NWP) models. This will result in
of spacecraft bus Request for Proposal (RFP).NSPO                                    diminished weather prediction capability that may lead to
officially sent out a Spacecraft Request for Information (RFI)                       increased costs and loss of life due to natural disasters. The
in July 2010 and Request for Quotation (RFQ) in March and                            realization of FORMOSAT-7 will continue to fulfill this
May 2011, respectively (Chu, 2011). NSPO is anticipating                             important mission and further increase weather forecast
releasing a Spacecraft Request for Proposal (RFP) in                                 capabilities.
September 2011 and also is planning on completion of the
spacecraft contractor selection process by end of 2011.                                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
                                                                                     The authors would like to thank the contributions of the
The FORMOSAT-7 program in Taiwan is executed and
                                                                                     FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC program, the FORMOSAT-
approved under the second phase of the 15-year “National
                                                                                     7/COSMIC-2 program, systems engineering team; the
Space Technology Long Term Development Program,” and
                                                                                     Taiwan science teams; and the following cooperation
it’s also listed as one of the two major axes depicted in the
                                                                                     partners: NSC, NARL, CWB, NSF, UCAR, NCAR,
“Year 2010-2014 Space Technology Long Term
                                                                                     JPL/NASA, USAF, Aerospace Corp., and NOAA.
                                                                                 4
                                                                                           BIOGRAPHIES
                      REFERENCES
                                                                                          Nick L. Yen has over 30 years of
[1] Chu, V., Ling, J., Lin, T., Fong, C.-J., Huang, F.-T., and                            experience in S/C design, analysis,
    Chang, G.-S., 2011. FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 System                                        manufacturing, integration, testing,
    Overview. 5th FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Data Users                                            launching, In-Orbit testing. He has
    Workshop and International Conf. on GPS Radio                                         over 18 years of direct experience in
    Occultation (ICGPSRO) 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, S9-03.                                    INTELSAT-7,             MABUHAY,
    (Invited Paper)                                                                       APSTAR-IIR, Europe*Star, Sirius
                                                                                          Program operations & management
[2] Cook, K., Wilczynski, P., Fong, C.-J., Yen, N. L., and                                at SS/L, and additional 6+ years
    Chang G.-S., 2011. The Constellation Observing System             FORMOSAT-3 Program operations & management at
    for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate Follow-On                  NSPO, Taiwan. He has spent over 9 years of directly
    Mission. 2011 IEEE Aerospace Conf. Proceedings, Big               responsible for S/C-to-L/V integration missions and
    Sky, MT.                                                          Launch Base Operations. Mr. Yen has worked at NSPO
                                                                      since 2004 as first the Deputy Program Director for
[3] Cucurull, L., 2008. Assimilation of GPS radio occultation         FORMOSAT-3 and then the Program Director for the
    measurements at NCEP. GRAS SAF Workshop on                        same Program. Before starting at NSPO, Mr. Yen worked
    Applications of GPSRO measurements, 16-18 June 2008.              at Space Systems Loral in Palo Alto, CA as an Antenna
    (Invited Paper)                                                   Design Engineer, Senior Systems Engineer, Deputy
                                                                      Executive Director, and MBSAT Antenna Subsystems
[4] Fong, C.-J., Whiteley, D., Yang, E., Cook, K., Chu, V.,           Manager. Mr. Yen obtained his B.S. in Mechanical
    Schreiner, B., Ector, D., Wilczynski, P., Liu, T.-Y., and         Engineering from Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan, in 1976
    Yen, N. L., 2011. Space and Ground Segment                        and his M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Oregon
    Performance and lessons learned of the FORMOSAT-                  State University, USA in 1980.
    3/COSMIC Mission: Four Years in Orbit. Atmos. Meas.
    Tech., 4, pp.1115–1132. doi:10.5194/amt-4-1115-2011.

[5] Liou, Y.-A., Pavelyev, A. G., Liu, S.-F., Pavelyev, A. A.,                          Chen-Joe Fong received his BSEE,
    Yen, N. L., Huang, C.-Y., and Fong, C.-J.,2007.                                     MSEE, and PhD degree in Electro-
    FORMOSAT-3 GPS Radio Occultation Mission:                                           physics       and       Electro-Optical
    Preliminary Results. IEEE Trans. on Geosci. and Rem.                                Engineering from National Chiao-Tung
    Sens.,       45       (10),        pp.       3813-38826.                            University (NCTU), Taiwan, in 1983,
    doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.903365.                                                       1985, and 2009, respectively. He is the
                                                                                        FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 program
[6] Yen, N. L., Fong, C.-J., Chu, C.-H., Miau, J.-J., Liou, Y.-                         Systems Lead of National Space
    A., and Kuo, Y.-H., 2010. Global GNSS Radio                       Organization (NSPO), National Applied Research
    Occultation Mission for Meteorology, Ionosphere &                 Laboratory (NARL), Taiwan. He leads a system team to
    Climate. In: Aerospace Technologies Advancements,                 develop a 12 spacecraft constellation mission for global
    edited by Arif, T. T., ISBN 978-953-7619-96-1, pp. 241-           GNSS Radio Occultation (RO) mission for Meteorology,
    258,      INTECH,         online      available       from        Ionosphere & Climate. During the FORMOSAT-
    http://www.sciyo.com/. (Invited Paper)                            3/COSMIC mission operation phase he is a spacecraft
                                                                      lead and responsible for the anomaly resolution team. He
                                                                      joined NSPO in 1993 and later acted as satellite
                                                                      Integration & Test (I&T) project manager of ROCSAT-1
                                                                      program and I&T division director. From 1987 to 1993 he
                                                                      worked at Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) as a
                                                                      Microwave Lab head and systems engineer in Center for
                                                                      Aviation and Space Technology (CAST) of Industrial
                                                                      Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for ROCSAT-1
                                                                      program. His current research interests include Hilbert-
                                                                      Huang Transformation (HHT) for satellite data trending
                                                                      analysis, Front-to-End Process, systems engineering,
                                                                      mission simulation. He is a member of IEEE, AIAA,
                                                                      OSA, AASRC and Phi Tau Phi.




                                                                  5
                     Kendra Cook is Director of
                     Corporate Compliance at Integrity
                     Applications Incorporated start from
                     2011. Before this job she works for
                     C2 International as an International
                     Technical Consultant. She resides in
                     Taipei, Taiwan, and provides
                     engineering and technical assistance
                     to    NOAA/NESDIS         on      the
COSMIC-2 Program, while serving as their liaison and
representative on-site at NSPO. Ms. Cook also provides
export compliance consulting for U.S. companies, which
entails developing and managing Export Compliance
Programs, providing ITAR and EAR Training, and
coordinating Agreements, Licenses, and Exemptions for
U.S. State Department and Department of Commerce
approval. Ms. Cook has a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering,
an M.S. in Astronautical Engineering, and an M.S. in
Computer Engineering. She is a Certified U.S. Export
Compliance Officer (CUSECO) and also a Project
Management Professional (PMP).

                     Peter Wilczynski is currently the
                     Deputy of Space & Ground System
                     Planning in the NOAA NESDIS,
                     Office of Systems Development. He
                     leads NOAA’s satellite programs that
                     are in the requirements definition
                     phase of development. He is also the
                     Co-Chair of the United States Group
                     for Earth Observation (USGEO)
                     Strategic Assessment Group (SAG).
He led the development of the first USGEO report to
examine nearterm opportunities and critical gaps in U.S.-
based Earth observations. The final report was published
by the White House Office of Science and Technology
Policy (OSTP) in August, 2010. Mr. Wilczynski led a
year-long White House mandated joint agency group of
space environmental experts from the Office of the
Federal Coordinator of Meteorology, NOAA and US Air
Force. He has extensive experience in joint space agency
and in joint international space program collaborations.
His 23 years of work in government space programs has
been recognized numerous times, notably: by the Vice
President Gore’s National Performance Review “Hammer
Award” as a member of the DoD, DOC, and NASA Tri-
Agency Ad-hoc Convergence Transition Team February
1996; U.S. Department of Commerce Gold Medal for
distinguished leadership in developing innovative systems
acquisition and contractor teaming methods to build the
next generation environmental satellites, September 2003,
the highest civilian honor in NOAA, DOC, and NASA.




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