IFE Tracer Technology

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					                           IFE Tracer Technology
Jiri Muller (, Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway,

                            Tracer Injection             Tracer Monitoring

                                        Reservoir Modelling

             IFE Tracer Technology
                                                  CO2-Tracer Monitoring
                                                   - Tracer response in observation wells
                                                   - Monitoring of CO2 leakage



                           Long term behaviour of CO2
                           Multiphase Flow
                            IFE Tracer Technology
•   IFE co-operates in various R&D projects with leading Oil Companies:
    Statoil, Hydro, BP, PDVSA, ConocoPhilips, Wintershall, Maersk, DNO, Sincor, Total , Amerada Hess,
    Woodside, CEPSA
•   R&D-based innovative tracer technology
    is used by the oil companies to obtain improved knowledge of the fluid flow pattern, sweep
     volumes and the structure of reservoirs.
•   Reservoir modelling activities
    comprise modelling/history matching (using commercial reservoir simulators) of tracer
    flow in connection with laboratory and field scale studies within tracer technology activities
    mentioned above.
•   IFE provides a commercial worldwide field tracer service
    based on state-of-the-art tracer technology. Today, the institute has operations in Europe, North
    America, South-America Middle-East, North Africa and East Asia

           IFEs Contribution to CO2 Projects
•   Tracers and Tracer Handling (Injection and Monitoring)
     Availability of both radiolabelled (e.g. 14CO2) and chemical tracers to follow the CO2 molecule through
    the various processes (physical and chemical) involved during the storage of CO2
•   Tracer Injection
    Know-how in correct and safe handling of (radioactive) tracers during transport and injection
•   Tracer Monitoring
    State of the Art Technology for Tracer Monitoring and Analysis at lowest concentration levels.
•   Numerical Modelling and Simulation
    Participate in developing tools and models (an universal model?) that can simulate and predict the
    complex processes involved during the storage of CO2, based on IFEs Know-how and experience in
    this field
•   Lab Scale Experiments
    Determination of geological and geochemical parameters for aquifers of interest

          CO2 sequestration in oil reservoirs
  CO2 sequestration – tracing of displaced water

A passive and unique water tracer may be placed in front
of the CO2-plume (injected as a slug before starting
injection of CO2). The tracer will move with the water in
the CO2/water transition front. Detection of the tracer
gives an early warning on
the approach of the main
CO2 front. The tracer may
be radiolabelled (for in-
stance tritiated water,
HTO) or non-radioactive
(for instance parafluoro-
benzoic acid, p-FBA).
            CO2 sequestration – gas phase tracing
A gas tracer may be injected
as a slug along with CO2. In an
aquifer, the gas tracer will stay
in the CO2-phase (both in
supercritical and free gas
form) and not mix with water
as long as a CO2-phase is
present. In the mixing zone
where CO2 is dissolved in
water, the gas tracer will
dissolve in the water phase as
well. Detection of the gas
tracer gives a warning on the
approach of the main CO2-
             CO2 sequestration – gas phase tracing

The gas tracer will typically be a non-
radioactive perfluorinated cyclic organic
Several unique tracers may be injected
at different times to monitor eventual
changes in the flow field as a function of
time, which may be due to mineralization
of CO2 and collapse of the pore network.       PMCH
By injecting 14C-labelled CO2 (14CO2)
along with the primary tracer in the CO2-
phase, we can also study the degree of
water dissolution and mineralization
(precipitation) in the pore space.

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