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Texas Immigration Statistics by EndlessHallway

VIEWS: 195 PAGES: 7

									Publication Number: M1849

Publication Title: Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Yseleta, Texas, 1924-1954

Date Published: 1997


   MANIFESTS OF ALIEN ARRIVALS AT YSELETA, TEXAS, 1924-1954

                                     Introduction

On the 7 rolls of this microfilm publication, Ml849, are reproduced over 13,000
manifests and other records of alien arrivals at Yseleta, Texas, from July 1924-
1954. A few U.S. citizen arrivals and records of exclusion from entry are also
included. The records are arranged in three separate record series: (1) Statistical
and Permanent Manifests, July 1, 1924-July 27, 1952; (2) Manifests of Aliens
Admitted for Temporary Visits, 1924-1954; and (3) Applications for Nonresident
Alien's Border Crossing Identification Cards made before December 24, 1952.
These records are part of the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization
Service, Record Group (RG) 85.

                                     Background

Early records relating to immigration originated in regional customhouses. The
U.S. Customs Service conducted its business by designating collection districts.
Each district had a headquarters port with a customhouse and a collector of
customs, the chief officer of the district. An act of March 2, 1819 (3 Stat. 489)
required the captain or master of a vessel arriving at a port in the United States or
any of its territories from a foreign country to submit a list of passengers to the
collector of customs. The act also required that the collector submit a quarterly
report or abstract, consisting of copies of passenger lists, to the Secretary of State,
who was required to submit such information at each session of Congress. After
1874, collectors forwarded only statistical reports to the Treasury Department.
The lists themselves were retained by the collector of customs. Customs records
were maintained primarily for statistical purposes.

On August 3, 1882, Congress passed the first Federal law regulating immigration
(22 Stat. 214-215); the Secretary of the Treasury had general supervision over it
between 1882 and 1891. The Office of Superintendent of Immigration in the
Department of the Treasury was established under an act of March 3, 1891 (26
Stat. 1085), and was later designated a bureau in 1895 with responsibility for
administering the alien contract-labor laws. In 1900 administration of the
Chinese-exclusion laws was added. Initially the Bureau retained the same
administrative structure of ports of entry that the Customs Service had used. By
the turn of the century it began to designate its own immigration districts, the
numbers and boundaries of which changed over the years. In 1903 the Bureau
became part of the Department of Commerce and Labor; its name was changed to
the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization when functions relating to
naturalization were added in 1906. In 1933 the functions were transferred to the
Department of Labor and became the responsibility of the newly formed
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Under President Roosevelt's
Reorganization Plan V of 1940, the INS was moved to the Department, of Justice.

Keeping statistics on alien arrivals at U.S. land borders was not required by early
immigration acts. Thus, the statistical treatment of Canadian and Mexican border
immigrants at times has differed from that of other immigrants. When records of
arrivals began to be kept at the Canadian border in 1895 and at the Mexican
border, ca. 1906, the immigration authorities found it impractical to collect arrival
information on lists as they did for ship passengers. Therefore, separate cards or
"card manifests" for each person were used instead. These cards contained the
same information as that collected on the traditional ship passenger arrival lists,
such as full name, age, sex, marital status, occupation, point of arrival in the
United States, and final destination.

An act of March 2, 1929 (45 Stat. 1512), which became effective July 1, 1929,
and was amended on August 7, 1939 (53 Stat. 1243), allowed a record of lawful
arrival-called a record of registry-to be made for certain aliens who had lawfully
entered the United States at an earlier time but for whom the INS could find no
record of arrival. In particular, if an alien had entered the U.S. before July 1,
1924, resided in the country continuously since that entry, was of good moral
character, and was not subject to deportation, he or she could obtain a record of
registry by making application to the INS and paying the requisite fee. The
registry program was reauthorized by the Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1137)
under the name " Lawful Entry. " Registry files cover the years 1929 to 1944;
Lawful Entry paperwork after April 1. 1944, was placed in an alien's individual
"A-File. " As of 1996, both Registry/Lawful Entry Files and A-Files remain in the
legal custody of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and researchers
interested in examining those records should direct a Freedom of Information Act
request to that agency citing the Certificate of Registry number and, if available, a
Bureau file number.

Immigration Statistics and Definitions

Beginning in 1895, immigrants who arrived at Canadian seaports with the
declared intention of proceeding to the United States were recorded and included
in the immigration statistics. Other alien arrivals at land borders began to be
reported in 1906, and reporting was fully established in 1908 under authority of
an act of February 20, 1907 (34 Stat. 898).
Not all aliens entering via the Canadian and Mexican borders were necessarily
counted for inclusion in the immigration statistics. Before approximately 1930, no
count was made of residents of Canada, Newfoundland, or Mexico who had lived
in those countries for a year or more if they planned to enter the United States for
less than 6 months. However, from about 1930 to 1945, the following classes of
aliens entering via the land borders were included in immigration statistics:

(1)    Those who had not been in the U.S. within 6 months, who came to stay
       more than 6 months;


(2)    Those for whom straight head tax was a prerequisite to admission, or for
       whom head tax was specially deposited and subsequently converted to a
       straight head tax account; (A head tax was required to be paid by persons
       entering the U.S. who were not citizens of the U.S., the Dominion of
       Canada, Newfoundland, the Republic- of Cuba, or the Republic of
       Mexico.)

(3)    Those required by law or regulation to present an immigration visa or
       reentry permit, and those who surrendered either, regardless of whether
       they were required by law or regulation to do so;

(4)    Those announcing an intention to depart from a seaport in the United
       States for Hawaii or other insular possession of the U.S. or for a foreign
       country, except arrivals from Canada intending to return there by water;
       and

(5)    Those announcing an intention to depart across the other land boundary.

These classes were revised in 1945 so that the statistics of arriving aliens at land
border ports of entry for 1945-52 included arriving aliens who came into the
United States for 30 days or more, and returning alien residents who had been out
of the country more than 6 months. Arriving aliens who came into the United
States for 29 days or less were not counted except for those who were either
certified by public health officials, held for a board of special inquiry, excluded
and deported, or individuals in transit who announced an intention to depart
across another land boundary or by sea.

From 1953 to at least 1957, all arriving aliens at land border ports of entry were
counted for statistical purposes except Canadian citizens and British subjects
resident in Canada who were admitted for 6 months or less; Mexican citizens who
were admitted for 72 hours or less; and returning U.S. residents who had been out
of the country for more than 6 months. Beginning in February 1956, residents
returning from stays of less than 6 months in Western Hemisphere countries also
were not counted. Because of regulation changes in 1957, returning residents
without reentry permits or visas who had been abroad for I year or less were not
counted.

Summary: Statistical arrivals were immigrants or nonimmigrants who were
subject to the head tax and generally not from the Western Hemisphere. By
contrast, nonstatistical arrivals were immigrant or nonimmigrants who usually
were natives of the Western Hemisphere and not subject to the head tax. Although
arrival of the latter was not included in immigration statistics, a record of that
arrival may still have been made. It cannot be said with certainty that the
definitions of statistical and nonstatistical arrivals were applied uniformly at any
particular port on the Canadian or Mexican borders during the period covered by
this microfilm publication.

Definitions of Permanent and Nonimmigrants
From 1906 to 1932, arriving aliens were divided into two classes: (1) immigrants,
or those who intended to settle in the U.S.; and (2) nonimmigrants, who were
admitted aliens who declared an intention not to settle in the U.S., and all aliens
returning to resume domiciles formerly acquired in the U.S. From 1933 to at least
1957, aliens arriving to settle in the U.S. were further classified as quota or
nonquota immigrants. Quota immigrants were those admitted under quotas
established for countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Basin and the
colonies, dependencies, and protectorates belonging to those nations. Nonquota
immigrants were spouses and unmarried children of U.S. citizens; natives from
the independent countries of the Western Hemisphere, their spouses, and
unmarried children under 18 years of age; and members of the clergy who entered
with their families to carry on their profession. From 1933 to 1952, professors and
their spouses and children were also classified as nonquota immigrants.
Nonimmigrants were alien residents of the U.S. returning from a temporary visit
abroad, or nonresident aliens admitted to the U.S. for a temporary period, such as
tourists, students, foreign government officials, those engaged in business, people
representing international organizations, the spouses and unmarried children of all
these individuals, and agricultural laborers from the West Indies.

For more information about the keeping of immigration statistics and definitions
used therein, see The Statistical History of the United States from Colonial Times
to the Present (Stamford, CT: Fairfield Publishers, Inc., ca.1965), pp. 48-52. For
further information about immigration and naturalization laws prior to 1953, see
Laws Applicable to Immigration and Nationality, Edwina A. Avery and Catherine
R. Gibson, eds., U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953).
                               Records Description

The arrivals included in this microfilm publication include permanent, temporary,
statistical, and nonstatistical arrivals. They are arranged by record series,
thereunder alphabetically by surname, and thereunder alphabetically by
first name. Double names are filed as if the second part of the double name were
not there. For example, "Jimenez De San Miguel, Petra" is found among other
persons named "Jimenez, Petra" and "Montalvo-Fernandez, Jose" is found among
other persons named "Montalvo, Jose."

Series 1: Statistical and Permanent Manifests, July I. 1924-July 27, 1952.

This series consists primarily of card manifests, INS Form 548 or 1-448
(described below under "Forms Used"). One card was used for each alien's
arrival. Some cards include notations on the reverse side showing multiple
arrivals and departures by the same person. A few cards were created under the
record of registry or Lawful Entry programs described above.

Series 2: Manifests of Aliens Admitted for Temporary Visits, 1924-1954.

This series consists primarily of card manifests, INS Form 548 or 1-448, although
a few 1-94, 1-94(C), 1-94(E), and 257D forms are also included (described below
under "Forms Used"). One card was used for each alien's arrival. A few U.S.
citizen arrivals and records of exclusion from entry are also included.

Series 3: Applications for Nonresident Alien’s Border Crossing Identification
Cards made before December 24. 1952.

This series consists of INS Form 1-190, Application for Nonresident Alien's
Border Crossing Identification Card (described below under "Forms Used").

Forms Used

The manifest cards consist of several types of Immigration and Naturalization
Service (INS) forms. Both the front and reverse side of each card-size form were
filmed. The most common forms are described below.

Form 548 or Form 1-448, Manifest, generally includes the person's name, age,
sex, marital status, place of birth, physical description, occupation, citizenship
("nationality"), race, ability to read and write and in what language, place of last
permanent residence, port and date of arrival, destination, purpose for entering the
U.S., intention of becoming a U.S. citizen or of returning to country of previous
residence, head tax status, and previous citizenships. It also includes the name and
address of the friend or relative whom the alien intended to join, persons
accompanying the alien, and the name and address of the alien's nearest relative or
friend in the country from which he or she came. If the alien had ever been in the
U.S. in the past, the dates and places of such residence or visitation are indicated.
Additional information may be recorded if the alien appealed a decision deporting
or barring him or her from entering the U.S. Form 548 or 1-448 is generally a card
manifest. However, during some periods at some ports, the INS used an entire
sheet of paper for the Form 548 manifest. Both sizes of manifests generally
included the same information.

Form 1-190, Application for Nonresident's Alien Border Crossing
Identification Card, includes the alien's name, date and place of birth, sex,
marital status, occupation, ability to read and write, place of residence, citizenship
("nationality"), physical description, purpose of U.S. visit, and fingerprint of right
index finger. The number, date of issuance, and place of issuance of the person's
passport may also be noted.

Form 1-94, 1-94(C), 1-94(E), or 257D, Record of Alien Admitted for
Temporary Stay, includes the alien's name, date and place of birth, sex, marital
status, occupation, citizenship ("nationality"), physical description, names of
accompanying alien children under age 14, name and address of nearest relative at
home, name and address of person to whom destined, purpose and intended length
of U.S. visit, port and, date of arrival, and means of transportation. The purpose of
the U.S. visit may be described in English (such as "pleasure I month") or as the
section of U.S. immigration law (such as "B-2 72 hours" or "P1/3/2/3/8 days").

General Remarks

These records were finned by the INS on September 24-25, 1956, and May 10-14,
1957, and subsequently transferred to the National Archives on microfilm.
Although some of the film may be difficult to read, it is impossible to correct the
situation since the INS destroyed the original records.

                                   CONTENTS

           All rolls except 4 and 7 begin with a short "retakes" section.

Roll   Description

1      Statistical and Permanent Manifests, July 1, 1924-July 27, 1952
           Acosta, Enrique - Zueco, Maria
2      Manifests of Aliens Admitted for Temporary Visits, 1924-1954
           Abeitia, Daniel - Ortega, Soledad
3          Ortiz, Antonia - Zuniga, Timoteo
4      Applications for Nonresident Alien's Border Crossing Identification Cards
    made before December 24, 1952
    Abeita, Florencia - Garcia, Dolores
5   Garcia, Eduviges - Nuñez, Trinidad
6   O, Eugenio - Trujillo, Ramona
7   Ubiña, Matilde - Zuniga, Octaviano

								
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