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                                                                 Increased
                                                                 Detention
                                                                     Space
                                                                         Negative
                                                              Compiled by Silas Hathaway



Increasing detention space is part of a comprehensive Government effort to remove
illegal immigrants from the US
     Department of Homeland Security, August 1, 2006, “DHS continues progress to
detain all illegal aliens apprehended at the Southwest border”,
http://www.ice.gov/pi/news/newsreleases/articles/060801SanAntonio.htm

Increasing the number of detention beds is part of the Secure Border Initiative (SBI), a
comprehensive multi-year plan by the Department of Homeland Security to secure
America‟s borders and reduce illegal migration. Under SBI, Homeland Security seeks to
gain operational control of both the northern and southern borders, while re-engineering
the detention and removal system to ensure that illegal aliens are removed from the
country quickly and efficiently. SBI also involves strong interior enforcement efforts,
including enhanced worksite enforcement investigations and intensified efforts to track
down and remove illegal aliens inside the country.


Table of Contents
No Harm: No illegal immigrants are released due to a lack of detention space
1) 2006: 96% of non-Mexican illegal immigrants caught are detained – no illegal
immigrants released due to lack of prison space
2) No overcrowding in ICE detention centers
3) ICE addressed the problem of a lack of detention space
No Substantial Change in Policy – Government already making it a priority to
expand detention space
Government tripled funding for detention in the last three years
Private prisons are contracted to meet demand
1) United States is turning to private contractors to solve detention shortages
2) ICE can get more detention bed-space whenever they need it
Advantages of Private contractors
1. Cost Less
Private detention centers on average cost $31 dollars daily for each inmate than
government ones
2. Speed & Flexibility
1) Private facilities are more flexible
2) Current detention system is flexible



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3) Private prisons are more cost effective
Backup Evidence: The Company’s hired to provide the detention space Illegal
immigrants can be held in private prisons
1) ICE is letting the private industry build all new faculties
2) Private prison firms have been contracted to meet demand of increase detentions
3) Halliburton subsidiary received contract to build & support detention faculties
2008: Examples of current expansion of detention space
1) Private sector is meeting the demand for prison space
2) Contracts are adding more beds to the facilities they have currently
3) New detention center just built in Dartmouth Massachusetts
4) Willacy County Detention Center: Expanded to meet demand
AT: Illegal immigrants are caught & released
1) Catch & Release policy was ended
2) Illegal immigrants caught on the border are no longer released back into society
AT: All the detention facilities are on the border
1) A proposed detention facility is under consideration in Georgia
2) Virginia is considering building a detention center
AT: Private prisons are overcrowded/abuse
1) Government is increasing accountability for private detention centers
2) ICE is adding more oversight to inspect private prisons
3) At worst – Government run detention centers have the same problems as private
Solvency/Minor Repair: Standards too high
1) The problem is detention standards
2) Standards for jailing illegal immigrants are too high
Solvency: ICE doesn’t pick up illegal immigrants
ICE doesn‟t pick up incarcerated illegal immigrants
Solvency: Deported illegal immigrants come back
1, Why deported illegal immigrants come back
Family ties & upbringing make deported illegal immigrants return
2, Deported Illegal Immigrants Come Back
1) Border Patrol often catches immigrants deported 3 or 4 times
2) Some deported illegal immigrants return in less than a week
3) Deportation of criminals doesn‟t prevent them from coming back
4) Example of a deported illegal immigrant who keeps on coming back
3, Deported illegal immigrants can easily get back into the United States
1) Link. In 2006, 75% of those deported were Mexican
2) Many illegal immigrants are deported to border cities where they can easily cross
again into the US
3) More then 90% of illegal aliens make it past the border on second tries
4, Deportation in some cases helps illegal immigrant criminals
Deportation gives gangs a free ride home to recruit
AT: Criminals given first priority in deportation procedures
1) ICE reforms include a new database and priority deportation for dangerous illegal
immigrants
2) ICE deported 95,000 criminal illegal immigrants last year
3) ICE is making criminal illegal immigrant deportation a priority



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4) ICE is going to screen large city jails for illegal immigrants in 2009
Feds are getting tougher on returning illegal immigrants
Government is beginning to charge returning previously deported illegal immigrants with
felonies
Disadvantage: Overexpansion
1) Overexpansion of the prison system creates problems
2) ICE can‟t manage the current amount of prisons
Source Critique: Joseph Summerill = Lobbyist
1) Who is Joseph Summerill
2) Private companies are competing to get government contracts
3) Private contractors spend lots of dough on lobbying
Number Critique: Need 35,000 beds for detention centers
The 35,000 more beds were a projection based on how much detention space would be
needed to end catch & release




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No Harm: No illegal immigrants are released due to a lack of detention
space
2006: 96% of non-Mexican illegal immigrants caught are detained – no illegal
immigrants released due to lack of prison space
     Department of Homeland Security, August 1, 2006, “DHS continues progress to
detain all illegal aliens apprehended at the Southwest border”,
http://www.ice.gov/pi/news/newsreleases/articles/060801SanAntonio.htm

On Thursday, Secretary Michael Chertoff announced that ICE began detaining 96 percent
of all non-Mexican illegal aliens apprehended at the Southwest border; 4 percent were
not detained due to the Orantes decision by the U.S. Supreme Court or other unique
circumstances; no aliens were released due to a lack of bed space.

No overcrowding in ICE detention centers
     The Baltimore Sun, Paul West, November 9, 2007, “Immigrants in detention”
http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nation/bal-te.infocus09nov09,0,7243610.story

ICE officials defended conditions and said there is no overcrowding. In fiscal 2007, they
said, the centers run by ICE were at 95 percent capacity and the contracted private centers
were at 98 percent capacity.

ICE addressed the problem of a lack of detention space
    Anna Gorman, Los Angeles Times, November 5, 2007, “Immigration detainees are at
record levels”, http://www.icirr.org/stories/latimesnov0507.htm

"The administration has finally realized they needed to dramatically ramp up their
detention capacity if immigration enforcement is ever to be credible," said Mark
Krikorian, executive director of the conservative Center for Immigration Studies.




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No Substantial Change in Policy – Government already making it a priority
to expand detention space
Government tripled funding for detention in the last three years
     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein,” Immigration agency, contractors are
accused of mistreating detainees” May 4, 2008
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20080504-9999-1n4detain.html

In the past three years, Immigration and Customs Enforcement has more than tripled
what it spends on detention. Its annual appropriation for custody has grown to $1.6
billion this year from $504 million in 2005.

Private prisons are contracted to meet demand
United States is turning to private contractors to solve detention shortages
     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein,” Immigration agency, contractors are
accused of mistreating detainees” May 4, 2008
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20080504-9999-1n4detain.html

As immigration laws have become tougher, the federal government has found itself with
a logistical challenge: where to house a population that has swollen to more than 30,000
detainees. The solution? Turn them over to the private sector. Detention contracts
have helped turn once-ailing private prison companies into a multibillion-dollar growth
industry with record revenues, healthy stock prices and ambitious expansion plans.

ICE can get more detention bed-space whenever they need it
     Meredith Kolonder The Carnegie Corporation of New York( A national initiative led
by five of America's leading research universities with the support of two major
foundations will advance the U.S. news business by helping revitalize schools of
journalism) July 26, 2007, “Private prisons expect a boom”
http://newsinitiative.org/story/2006/07/26/private_prisons_expect_a_boom

"We can use the beds whenever and wherever we like," said Jamie Zuieback, a
spokeswoman for United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement. "We are funded
for a certain number of beds but there are many beds around the country that are available
and it depends where and when we need them if we use them."




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Advantages of Private contractors

1. Cost Less
Private detention centers on average cost $31 dollars less daily for each inmate than
government ones
     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein, May 4, 2008, “Tougher immigration
laws turn the ailing private prison sector into a revenue maker”,
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20080504-9999-lz1b4dollars.html

For the federal government, the appeal of contractors is obvious: According to ICE, the
agency spent $119.28 per day on average last year to house a detainee at an agency-run
facility, compared with $87.99 per day at a contract detention facility.

2. Speed & Flexibility
Private facilities are more flexible
     The Baltimore Sun, Paul West, November 9, 2007, “Immigrants in detention”
http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nation/bal-te.infocus09nov09,0,7243610.story

Contracting with private facilities provides two main benefits: flexibility in placing
centers where they are needed and speed in opening them, Gary Mead, assistant director
of ICE Detention and Removal Operations said.

Current detention system is flexible
    Anna Gorman, Los Angeles Times, November 5, 2007, “Immigration detainees are at
record levels”, http://www.icirr.org/stories/latimesnov0507.htm

The immigration agency began transferring large numbers of detainees at the end of
2006, when it created a center to coordinate the movement of detainees. In 2007, the
agency spent more than $10 million to transfer nearly 19,400 detainees. The transfer
system enables the agency to balance the population and plan enforcement operations.
For example, when more than 1,300 fugitives and criminals were arrested in the Los
Angeles area this fall, immigration agents prepared for the influx by locating open beds
around the country.

Private prisons are more cost effective
     San Diago Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein,” Immigration agency, contractors are
accused of mistreating detainees” May 4, 2008
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20080504-9999-1n4detain.html

The immigration agency has no plans to build any more of its own detention centers, of
which there are eight in the nation, including one in El Centro. Officials say it's easier to
contract the beds. “It just provides us with a quicker way to provide detention space,”
said Gary Mead, acting director of ICE detention and removal operations in Washington,
D.C.




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Backup Evidence: The Company’s hired to provide the detention space
Illegal immigrants can be held in private prisons, local jails or Fed facilities
     Ian Urbina, New York Times, October 17, 2007, "Panel Rejects Detention Center for
Illegal Immigrants", http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/17/us/17prison.html

Illegal immigrants who are arrested are currently placed in local jails, federal facilities or
private prisons.

ICE is letting the private industry build all new faculties
     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein, May 4, 2008, “Tougher immigration
laws turn the ailing private prison sector into a revenue maker”,
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20080504-9999-lz1b4dollars.html

Agency [ICE] officials said there are no plans to build any more federally run detention
centers, leaving contractors to fill the void.

Private prison firms have been contracted to meet demand of increase detentions
    Teresa Miller [Associate Professor of Law, State University of New York at
Buffalo.] “Immigration Law and Human Rights, Legal Line Drawing Post-Sep. 11…”,
Boston College Third World Law Journal, Winter 2005 (25 B.C. Third World L.J. 81)

The Absconder Apprehension Initiative typifies the economic boost to private prisons
produced by counterterrorism after 9/11. Seeking to deport within five years an estimated
400,000 noncitizens ordered deported but still present, in December 2003, the DHS
undertook an 8,000 bed expansion of its detention capacity, bringing the number of beds
up to 30,000. Private prison firms Wackenhut and Corrections Corporation of America
were both awarded contracts to meet the demand.

Halliburton subsidiary received contract to build & support detention faculties
[Conspiracy theorist believed that was building concentration camps]
    Fox News, Kelley Beaucar Vlahos, June 07, 2006, “Critics Fear Emergency Centers
Could Be Used for Immigration Round-Ups”, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,29
33,198456,00.html
 “Our national immigration reform debate is going on real hot and heavy and there are
conspiracy theories out there that we are building concentration camps,” said Clay
Church, spokesman for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. “This contract has nothing to
do with that whatsoever.” The contract, awarded in January to Kellogg, Brown and Root
(KBR), a subsidiary of defense contractor Halliburton Co., pays the company to establish
and provide support for “temporary detention and processing capabilities to augment
existing ICE (Immigration Customs Enforcement) Detention and Removal Operations
(DRO) Program facilities in the event of an emergency influx of immigrants into the
U.S., or to support the rapid development of new programs,” according to a Halliburton
press release.




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2008: Examples of current expansion of detention space
Private sector is meeting the demand for prison space
     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein, May 4, 2008, “Tougher immigration
laws turn the ailing private prison sector into a revenue maker”,
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20080504-9999-lz1b4dollars.html

As increasingly tough immigration laws have called for the detention and deportation of
ever more immigrants, the demand for bed space by immigration authorities has helped
turn what was once a dying business into a multibillion-dollar industry with record
revenue and stock prices several times higher than they were eight years ago. In San
Diego, CCA is in the permitting process to build a nearly 3,000-bed facility that the
company hopes will be used by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or ICE. It
would hold more than four times the detainees held in Otay Mesa now.

Colorado detention center expanding by 1,100 beds
    Adam Goldstein, The Aurora Sentinel, April 16, 2008, “Expansion approved for
private detention center”, http://www.aurorasentinel.com/main.asp?SectionID=8&
SubSectionID=8&ArticleID=18964&TM=50343

During its April 9 regular session, the commission voted unanimously to approve the
extension of the current Colorado Immigration and Customs Enforcement center, a
project that would add capacity for approximately 1,100 new prisoners. The current
ICE structure, which is approximately 200,000 square feet and holds beds for about 400
prisoners, is owned and operated by The GEO Group, Inc., a privatized correctional and
detention management firm based in Boca Raton, Fla. The firm has estimated the
expansion would cost about $72 million.

     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein, May 4, 2008, “Tougher immigration
laws turn the ailing private prison sector into a revenue maker”,
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20080504-9999-lz1b4dollars.html

In October, the GEO group announced it would add 1,100 beds to its ICE contract facility
in Aurora, Colo. According to its most recent financial report from 2006, the company
opened or expanded half a dozen facilities that year.

New detention center just built in Dartmouth Massachusetts
[and they plan on building another one as well]
    Aaron Nicodemus, Standard-Times, April 02, 2007, “New Dartmouth jail facility to
house illegal immigrants” http://www.southcoasttoday.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?
AID=/20070402/NEWS/704020337/-1/SPECIAL21
Next week, quietly and without much fanfare, Bristol County Sheriff Thomas M.
Hodgson plans to open a brand-new detention facility to hold federal immigration
detainees. Although the $3.2 million jail will officially have no name, the sheriff said it
will be referred to as the "ICE detention facility." It will be considered a state facility,
fully staffed by employees of the Bristol County Sheriff's Office. Sheriff Hodgson said



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there are plans in place to build another facility, identical to the first, right behind the new
one.

Willacy County Detention Center: Expanded to meet demand
    FERNANDO DEL VALLE, Valley Morning Star, April 11, 2008, “Inmate count
continues to climb at detention center”, http://www.brownsvilleherald.com/news/
detention_85833___article.html/center_count.html

Commissioner Aurelio Guerra said he hopes rising numbers justify the [Willacy County]
detention center's 1,000-bed expansion. "That's how much it should have been hitting the
first time around," Guerra said of March's inmate count. The original 2,000-bed detention
center fell short of developers' projections of an average head count of 1,800, Guerra
said. "Now we have 1,000 more beds," Guerra said.




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AT: Illegal immigrants are caught & released

Catch & Release policy was ended
    Anna Gorman, Los Angeles Times, November 5, 2007, “Immigration detainees are at
record levels”, http://www.icirr.org/stories/latimesnov0507.htm

The main reason cited for the upward trend [in detentions] is the government's decision to
end its practice of catching immigrants and immediately releasing them.

Illegal immigrants caught on the border are no longer released back into society
     CNS News Service, April 10, 2008, Penny Starr, “Illegal Alien deportations on the
rise”, http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewPolitics.asp?Page=/Politics/archive/200804/
POL20080410a.html

“Riley said there are several reasons for the increasing deportation numbers. One is a
policy change made by Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff to end the "catch
and release" policy on the U.S. border. Previously, suspected illegal immigrants detained
at the border were given a "notice to appear" in court for a deportation hearing. "We
called it a notice to disappear," Reilly said. Individuals who are stopped at the border for
illegal entry are now taken into custody by ICE instead of being released on a promise to
appear in court. In previous years, many individuals failed to show up for their
deportation hearings, and they became fugitives in the eyes of federal law.”

AT: All the new detention facilities are on the border

A proposed detention facility is under consideration in Georgia
    Lisa Zagaroli, McClatchy Newspapers, “Illegal immigrant detention center: Boost in
jobs vs. trouble moving in”, January 27, 2008,www.charlotte.com/630/story/464690.html

Officials in Gaston County [Georgia] are weighing whether to build a jail to hold
immigrants awaiting deportation or court proceedings.

Virginia is considering building a detention center
    Washington Post, Tim Craig, September 26, 2007, “Immigrant Detention Center
Proposed in Va.”, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007
/09/25/AR2007092502190.html

Virginia officials said Tuesday that they are considering a proposal to build a 1,000-bed
detention center where illegal immigrants arrested for certain crimes could be held until
federal officials deport them. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officials
said Tuesday night that such a center would be the country's first state-run facility built to
hold only illegal immigrants accused of crimes. Currently, illegal immigrants who are
arrested are held in local jails, federal facilities and private prisons.




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AT: Private prisons are overcrowded/abuse
1) Government is increasing accountability for private detention centers
    San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein,” Immigration agency, contractors are
accused of mistreating detainees” May 4, 2008, http://www.signonsandiego.com/news
/metro/20080504-9999-1n4detain.html

In February 2007, the month after the overcrowding lawsuit, Immigration and Customs
Enforcement created a new detention-inspection task force charged with responding to
complaints at all facilities where it houses detainees.

2) ICE is adding more oversight to inspect private prisons
     The Baltimore Sun, Paul West, November 9, 2007, “Immigrants in detention”
http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nation/bal-te.infocus09nov09,0,7243610.story

The agency also has taken steps to improve oversight, including working with a private
company that provides full-time inspectors and placing outside „quality assurance‟
specialists at the 40 largest centers, authorities said. Previously, inspections were done
once a year at each center. „When we find a deficiency, we correct it,‟ Gary Mead,
assistant director of ICE Detention and Removal Operations said. „I don‟t believe we
have any systemic problems.‟

3) At worst - Government run detention centers have the same problems as private
    San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein,” Immigration agency, contractors are
accused of mistreating detainees” May 4, 2008, http://www.signonsandiego.com/news
/metro/20080504-9999-1n4detain.html

A 2006 federal investigation of five facilities used by Immigration and Customs
Enforcement – an agency-run center, three San Diego County jails and the CCA facility
in Otay Mesa – found flaws with all. Last fall, an ICE-run detention center in San Pedro,
near Los Angeles, closed for repairs a few months after losing its prison accreditation.
“The problems are not by any stretch of the imagination limited to private
companies,” said Michele Deitch, a prisons expert with the Lyndon B. Johnson School
of Public Affairs at the University of Texas in Austin.




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Solvency/Minor Repair: Standards too high
The problem is detention standards
     The Washington Times, Jerry Seper, "Revolving door at border: Aliens often freed
for lack of detention space", July 21, 2004, www.cis.org/articles/Katz/katz2005.html

Others complain that "unrealistic detention standards" imposed by the federal
government, such as special ethnic meals and legal libraries, have made it impossible to
house the aliens.

Standards for jailing illegal immigrants are too high
     James R. Edwards, Jr., coauthor of The Congressional Politics of Immigration
Reform and an adjunct fellow with Hudson Institute, "The Role of State and Local Police
in Immigration Law Enforcement", July 2003,
http://www.mnforsustain.org/cis_immg_role_of_local_police.htm

In addition to the financial burden that jailing aliens places on state and local detention
facilities, other burdens exist that serve to exclude many local jails from being used at all.
According to congressional research, BICE regulations require that any county or
municipal jail where aliens are detained must meet absurd, unreasonable standards.
These requirements make little sense in most American counties and far exceed the
American Correctional Association standards, which 21,000 jail facilities meet. BICE
standards say aliens must have access to law books in their own language. Activist
lawyers and advocacy groups must have access to inform detainees about U.S.
immigration law and procedures. The BICE rules dictate two hot meals per day,
micromanage the contents of cold meals, and demand consideration of detainees'
ethnicity in meal planning. Further, the standards require detainee access to resources,
services, instruction, and counseling in their religion. The intent of such requirements is
to diminish the use of local jails for detaining illegal aliens.

Solvency: ICE doesn’t pick up illegal immigrants
ICE doesn’t pick up incarcerated illegal immigrants
    Washington Post, Tim Craig, September 26, 2007, “Immigrant Detention Center
Proposed in Va.”, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007
/09/25/AR2007092502190.html

In 2006, police and sheriff's departments in Virginia notified ICE of about 12,000 illegal
immigrants in their jails, but ICE picked up only 690, Stolle said. ICE officials could not
independently confirm the numbers. "It is not ICE's fault. They are dealing with the
resources they have," Stolle said. "But if Virginia wants ICE to be effective, we've got to
find creative ways for them to be effective."




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Solvency: ICE has difficulties hiring new employees
ICE has a hard time hiring employees
    Dana Priest and Amy Goldstein, Washington Post, May 11, 2008, “System of
Neglect”, www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/nation/specials/immigration/cwc_d1p1.html

The slow ICE security-clearance process forced many job applicants to go elsewhere,
Sampson wrote. Of the 312 people who applied for new positions over the past year, 200
withdrew, he wrote, because they found other jobs during the 250 days it took ICE, on
average, to conduct the required background investigations.




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Solvency: Deported illegal immigrants come back

   1. Why deported illegal immigrants come back

Family ties & upbringing make deported illegal immigrants return
    US IMMIGRATION SUPPORT, “Deported Immigrants Come Back to the United
States”, accessed April 28, 2008, www.usimmigrationsupport.org/deported_
immigrants.html

Some of the immigrants who are deported especially the younger ones have lived most of
their life in the United States. So, it is highly likely that they will attempt to get back
across the border. They are accustomed to the American way of life and some cannot
speak Spanish fluently. In addition, they tend to have family and friends in the United
States.

   2. Deported Illegal Immigrants Come Back

Border Patrol often catches immigrants deported 3 or 4 times
    US IMMIGRATION SUPPORT, “Deported Immigrants Come Back to the United
States”, accessed April 28, 2008, www.usimmigrationsupport.org/deported_
immigrants.html

The U.S. Border Patrol is often catching immigrants who were previously deported. For
many it is not their first time, but rather the third or fourth deportation or sometimes
more…

Some deported illegal immigrants return in less than a week
     SPERO News, [ISA is a nonprofit, independent consultancy that specializes in
providing analysis of developing issues in international relations to NGOs], “US:
Gangsters without borders”, November 30, 2007, http://www.speroforum.com/site/
article.asp?id=12648

The nature of illegal immigration dictates that many of these deported gang members will
return to the US within a relatively short time. Some manage to return within a week,
others in less time. And yet others lie about their country of origin, telling ICE agents
they are Mexican, for instance, so they will be deported to an airport that lies roughly at
the halfway point between their home country and the US-Mexican border.

Deportation of criminals doesn’t prevent them from coming back
     SPERO News, [ISA is a nonprofit, independent consultancy that specializes in
providing analysis of developing issues in international relations to NGOs], “US:
Gangsters without borders”, November 30, 2007, http://www.speroforum.com/site/
article.asp?id=12648

The deportation of illegal immigrants involved in criminal gangs, such as the pervasive
Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) street gang, is not working, and despite the efforts of



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nationwide sting operations in the US, most of these criminals find their way back across
the border with relative ease, having earned themselves a free visit home to take care of
unfinished business.

Example of a deported illegal immigrant who keeps on coming back
    US IMMIGRATION SUPPORT, “Deported Immigrants Come Back to the United
States”, accessed April 28, 2008, www.usimmigrationsupport.org/deported_
immigrants.html

One of these individuals is Jose Ricardo Garcia who has been deported four times and
served an equal amount of prison terms in the United States. His previous convictions
include illegal entry, vehicle theft, assault and drug possession. Garcia came into the
United States as a child legally but later lost his legal status. Each time he was deported
he made his way back into the country like many others.

   3. Deported illegal immigrants can easily get back into the United
      States

Link. In 2006, 75% of those deported were Mexican
    US IMMIGRATION SUPPORT, “Deported Immigrants Come Back to the United
States”, accessed April 28, 2008, www.usimmigrationsupport.org/deported_
immigrants.html

During the 2006 fiscal year, nearly 90,000 individuals were deported due to their criminal
past. The majority (nearly 75%) of these deportees were Mexicans.

Many illegal immigrants are deported to border cities where they can easily cross
again into the US
    US IMMIGRATION SUPPORT, “Deported Immigrants Come Back to the United
States”, accessed April 28, 2008, www.usimmigrationsupport.org/deported_
immigrants.html

Many times when the U.S. Border Patrol deports individuals they drop them off at a
border city. There are others who are flown further into Central Mexico or somewhere
equally distant, but for the most part they are released not too far away in a Mexican
border city. Officials in Mexican border cities have long voiced their concern for
immigrants being released in their cities because it tends to bring more crime. While
some immigrants will head back to the city where they came from after being
disillusioned in their attempts to get to the United States, many will remain in the border
city and wait for the “right” opportunity to come along to make another attempt.

More then 90% of illegal aliens make it past the border on second tries
    Wayne A. Cornelius, Founding director of the Center for Comparative Immigration
Studies at the University of California at San Diego, Business Week, February, 2008




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As reported in my book Impacts of Border Enforcement on Mexican Migration (Lynne
Rienner Publishers, 2007), interviews with undocumented Mexican migrants show that
the U.S. Border Patrol apprehends only about one third of illegal immigrants on a given
trip to the border, and of those, more than nine out of ten get through on their second or
third try.

   4. Deportation in some cases helps illegal immigrant criminals

Deportation gives gangs a free ride home to recruit
     SPERO News, [ISA is a nonprofit, independent consultancy that specializes in
providing analysis of developing issues in international relations to NGOs], “US:
Gangsters without borders”, November 30, 2007, http://www.speroforum.com/site/
article.asp?id=12648

This process has been described as a “conveyer belt” between the US, Mexico and
Central America. It is a situation where, in some cases, gang members benefit from
deportation as a free ride home. Once there, they deliver messages and pick up new
recruits, or “clients”, before making the journey back to the US.




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No Substantial Change in Policy – Government already making it a priority
to deport criminal illegal immigrants
ICE has appropriated $2-$3 billion to deport illegal immigrant criminals
    Associated Press, P. Solomon Banda, May 14, 2008, “Immigrant crackdown creates
need for more detention beds”, http://www.examiner.com/a1391460%7eImmigrant_
crackdown_creates_need_for_more_detention_beds.html

In March, ICE announced a $2 billion to $3 billion initiative to identify and remove all
deportable immigrants in custody - not only in federal and state prisons but at all levels,
including the nation's 3,100 county jails. Under the "Secure Communities" initiative, a
criminal suspect's immigration status would be checked against a Department of
Homeland Security immigration database as part of the regular booking process at jails,
and ICE would automatically learn about potential violators.

AT: Criminals given first priority in deportation procedures

ICE reforms include a new database and priority deportation for dangerous illegal
immigrants
   Julia Preston, Associated Press, March 28, 2008, “IMMIGRANT CONVICTS ARE
ESTIMATED AT 10 PERCENT OF ALL PRISONERS”

The agency plans a major effort to use new technology and databases at local jails so law
enforcement officers can determine at booking whether immigrants have previously
committed serious crimes or immigration violations. ICE officers bring charges while
immigrants are serving their sentences so they can be deported as soon as they complete
their terms without being released from custody. "We will identify individuals who
pose the greatest risk as quickly as possible," Myers said, including in jails that the
agency cannot visit regularly.

ICE deported 95,000 criminal illegal immigrants last year
     Star Exponent [Virginia Newspaper], Allison Champion, April 2, 2008,
http://www.starexponent.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=CSE/MGArticle/CSE
_MGArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1173355168265

“ICE has made “considerable progress” in recent years in removing criminal aliens from
the U.S., she said, though, “this comprehensive initiative aims to identify and remove all
aliens convicted of a crime.” Last year, ICE charged a record 164,000 aliens in jails and
prisons with immigrant violations, according to the release, and deported about 95,000
aliens with criminal histories.”




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ICE is making criminal illegal immigrant deportation a priority
ICE is going to screen large city jails for illegal immigrants in 2009
    US IMMIGRATION SUPPORT, “Deported Immigrants Come Back to the United
States”, accessed April 28, 2008, www.usimmigrationsupport.org/deported_
immigrants.html

The Secure Border Initiative introduced in 2005 aims to have 90% of all federal inmates
and state inmates born outside the U.S. screened by the ICE by the fall of 2008. In the
second half of 2009 ICE is looking to have this similar screening set up at large city jails
across the nation. To achieve these goals, President Bush has requested nearly $30
million for the Department of Homeland Security, so that ICE can introduce 22 additional
teams that will focus on the Criminal Alien Program.

Feds are getting tougher on returning illegal immigrants
Government is beginning to charge returning previously deported illegal
immigrants with felonies
    US IMMIGRATION SUPPORT, “Deported Immigrants Come Back to the United
States”, accessed April 28, 2008, www.usimmigrationsupport.org/deported_
immigrants.html

In the past immigrants would have likely just have been deported again, but now the U.S.
government is taking a tougher stance and charging them with felonies for illegally
reentering the country after being deported. Officials are hoping that a longer prison term
will discourage many illegal immigrants with criminal offenses from returning.




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Disadvantage: Overexpansion

Overexpansion of the prison system creates problems
     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein, May 4, 2008, “Tougher immigration
laws turn the ailing private prison sector into a revenue maker”,
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20080504-9999-lz1b4dollars.html

The industry did well meeting this demand for several years, but it was almost done in a
decade later by overexpansion and other problems. By the end of the 1990s, the industry
was in “capital destruction mode,” said Hie, the analyst.

ICE can’t manage the current amount of prisons
   Associated Press June 22, 2006, “Immigrant detention plan dismays critics”

“ICE hasn‟t done a good job with the facilities they directly manage, much less the ones
they contract out,” said Judith Greene, a New York-based prison expert. “Talking about
doubling or tripling this system, without some kind of restructuring, is a recipe for a
nightmare.”




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Source Critique: Joseph Summerill = Lobbyist
Who is Joseph Summerill
   “The Federal Lawyer”, May 2007

Joseph Summerill is a former attorney for the Federal Bureau of Prisons who now
practices in the Washington, D.C., office of Greenberg Traurig LLP where he represents
private companies and local governments that are doing business with the BOP, the U.S.
Marshals Service, and the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

Private companies are competing to get government contracts
     Meredith Kolonder, July 26, 2007, The Carnegie Corporation of New York, (A
national initiative led by five of America's leading research universities with the support
of two major foundations will advance the U.S. news business by helping revitalize
schools of journalism), “Private prisons expect a boom”,
http://newsinitiative.org/story/2006/07/26/private_prisons_expect_a_boom

“The Corrections Corporation of America and the Geo Group (formerly the Wackenhut
Corrections Corporation) -- the two biggest prison operators -- now house a total of fewer
than 20 percent of the immigrants in detention. But along with several smaller
companies, they are jockeying for a bigger piece of the growing business. Corrections
Corp. and Geo are already running 8 of the 16 federal detention centers.

Private contractors spend lots of dough on lobbying
     San Diego Union Tribune, Leslie Berestein, May 4, 2008, “Tougher immigration
laws turn the ailing private prison sector into a revenue maker”,
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20080504-9999-lz1b4dollars.html

Meanwhile, the industry has broadened its political influence, spending more to lobby
agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security and the Bureau of Prisons. CCA
alone boosted its federal lobbying expenses from $410,000 to $3 million between 2000
and 2004, according to the Center for Public Integrity.

Local governments make money off detention facilities
    FERNANDO DEL VALLE, Valley Morning Star, April 11, 2008, “Inmate count
continues to climb at detention center”, http://www.brownsvilleherald.com/news/
detention_85833___article.html/center_count.html

"The population for any of our facilities is always going to fluctuate," she said. "It all
depends on the number of apprehensions and the numbers being transferred to the
facilities." For the county, it means more money in the coffers, Vera said. The county is
paid $2.25 a day for every inmate under the terms of a federal contract, he said. Last year,
the contract paid the county about $1 million, officials said. The detention center's
expansion will generate more money, [Willacy County Commissioner Eddie] Chapa
said. "Any time the numbers are high, it's good for the county because it brings more
income," Chapa said.




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Number Critique: Need 35,000 beds for detention centers
The 35,000 more beds were a projection based on how much detention space would
be needed to end catch & release
    Associated Press, May 20, 2006, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060520/ap_on_
go_ca_st_pe/immigration_homeland_security_1

It will take nearly 35,000 more jail beds to end a much-criticized "catch and release"
program for dangerous illegal immigrants in the United States, but the Bush
administration has not budgeted enough to do that, the Homeland Security Department's
internal watchdog said Friday.

AT: Prisons have to reject illegal immigrants due to lack of space
Response Spike: System is adjustable
    Associated Press, P. Solomon Banda, May 14, 2008, “Immigrant crackdown creates
need for more detention beds”, http://www.examiner.com/a1391460%7eImmigrant_
crackdown_creates_need_for_more_detention_beds.html

That program hit a snag when at least two jails in western Colorado couldn't accept
detainees because the facilities didn't meet federal standards, which don't allow deputies
to be equipped with stun guns or detainees to sleep on floors, and also require access to
phone calls. The patrol solved the problem by getting a van to transport detainees to the
Aurora center, said Lance Clem, a spokesman for the Colorado Department of Public
Safety.

Bed-space is near the limit but not overflowing
    Dana Priest and Amy Goldstein, Washington Post, May 11, 2008, “System of
Neglect”, www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/nation/specials/immigration/cwc_d1p1.html

Government professionals provide health care at 23 facilities, which house roughly half
of the 33,000 detainees. Seven of those sites are owned by private prison companies. Last
year, the government also housed detainees in 279 local and county jails. To handle the
influx of detainees, ICE added 6,300 beds in 2006 and an additional 4,200 since then.
They too are nearly full.




Increased Detention Space Negative                                                       21

				
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