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Causes of Slip Falls and How to Control Them - CleanScene

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					Causes of Slip Falls and
 How to Control Them
          Clean Scene
      Thursday 7th April 2011
     Dr Gary Martin MIEAust CPEng CMP
     David Lake General Manager ATTAR
    Why S/T/F? - Accident Statistics
• One in five workers suffers an ‘unseen’ injury as
  a result of a slip, trip or fall at work, and most
  of these occur at ground level. They can
  happen in any part of the workplace that people
  have access to – at the front door, in the loading
  dock, a kitchen, stairwell or car park. Worksafe Vic
• cost of deaths and injuries due to slips,
  trips and falls in Australian buildings is
  around $1.3 billion per year (hospitalisation
  costs alone (2008)!) – ABCB report
 Estimated at $4billion annually!
            Cost to the Australian economy.


• Does the selected floor material match the
  intended use?

• Does the floor surface “in use” allow for
  the local environment?

• With an aging population...........................
As the population ages?
              Slips and Falls
Pedestrians cover millions of kilometres each
  day.
How many slip and fall each day?
A very small percentage.
In a shopping centre it might be 1 per day, less than 0.01%.

Why do they slip and fall?
Is it because, “The floor was inherently slippery”?
If it is, how did all the other people manage to cross it
    without falling?
                Slips and Falls
How many of the claims are genuine? How many are bogus?
Does the claimant have to be badly injured to be genuine?

It will never be possible to avoid all slip accidents because
   there are a wide range of factors that contribute to them.

The slip resistance of the floor is only one of them.

It is possible to minimise the likelihood of a slip accident
    occurring, as well as minimise the likelihood of a successful
    claim should a slip accident occur.
        Factors contributing to Slip accidents
1. The Floor Surface:
   (i)   The coefficient of friction value of the floor versus the sole/heel of the
         shoe.
   (ii) Presence of foreign substances - water, oil, dust, food deposits or
         other liquids.
   (iii) Condition of the floor - wear, damage, changes in gradient, changes in
         slip resistance.
2. The Individual’s Footwear:
   (i)   The coefficient of friction value of the sole/heel of the shoe versus that
         of the floor.
   (ii) Presence of foreign substances between the sole/heel of the shoe and
         floor.
   (iii) Condition or state of repair of the shoe: worn heels, spike heels.
       Factors contributing to Slip accidents
3. Physical Features of the Individual:
   (i)   Method of walking.
   (ii) Distribution of forces.
   (iii) Physical condition: lameness, etc.
4. State of Mind of the Individual:
   (i)   Sanity.
   (ii) Psychology ie: gloss = slipperiness in the minds of many.
   (iii) Accident proneness.
   (iv) Influence of drugs, eg: alcohol, etc.
5. Surrounding Environment:
   (i)   Distractions offered by shop displays or signage.
   (ii) Movement of other pedestrians.
   (iii) Presence of other objects.
SLIP ACCIDENT LOCATIONS




         Dance Floors
SLIP ACCIDENT LOCATIONS




          Ramps
SLIP ACCIDENT LOCATIONS




         Stairs
SLIP ACCIDENT LOCATIONS




        Shopping Centres
         FLOOR SURFACE TYPES




TIMBER         CERAMIC         TERRAZZO
      WHY DO SLIP/TRIP ACCIDENTS OCCUR?
• Wet floor decreasing slip
  resistance
• Unexpected change in floor surface
• Dirty or contaminated floor
• Uneven step geometry causing
  Misstep
• Worn, old tiles
• Footwear
• Mindset
• Lack of familiarity
• Poor lighting
• Excessive speed
• Imbalanced
• Influence of alcohol
                 Slip Accidents
It will never be possible to avoid all slip accidents
   because there are a wide range of factors that
   contribute to them.

The slip resistance of the floor is only one of them.

It is possible to minimise the likelihood of a slip accident
    occurring, as well as minimising the likelihood of a
    successful claim, should a slip accident occur.
                   Slip Accidents
The Floor Surface:
    1.1 The coefficient of friction value of the floor versus the
        sole/heel of the shoe.

      Depends on: Footwear worn, flat shoes, joggers, thongs or high
                  heels?
                  Sole material - was the material soft and flexible or
                  hard and rigid?
                  Steel tips on high heels generate very low
                  coefficients of friction with most non-resilient floor
                  surface materials.
                  Sole form, e.g. flat sole or textured, deep tread or
                  shallow lines.
                  Sole wear, does it show an unusual wear pattern?
                     Slip Accidents
The Floor Surface:

  Hard polymeric shoe soles also develop low coefficients of friction with a
  wide range of floor surface materials.

  In an accident  investigation, where the accident has occurred under
  dry conditions it is possible to substitute the shoe sole material
  for the Four S rubber slider to obtain an indication of the performance
  of the shoe sole and floor surface material combination.

  Often, however, the shoes worn at the time of the accident are not available
  for examination.

  If it comes up lower than 0.40 then who should take
  responsibility for the accident?
The Floor Surface:
1.2 Presence of foreign substances

    Was any water, oil, dust, food deposits or other liquids present at the
time of the accident.

    Centre management reports usually cover this aspect.

1.3 Condition of the surface

    Does it show signs of wear, damage, changes in gradient,
    changes in slip resistance.

    Slopes require higher friction.

    Stepping from an area of higher to a lower area of friction cause slip
  SO AN ACCIDENT HAS OCCURRED –
              WHAT NOW?
• Gather as much information as possible
• Was it a slip        Or a trip?
 SO AN ACCIDENT HAS OCCURRED –
 WHAT NOW?
What is the actual allegation?
   Slippery floor, poor lighting, uneven floor, wet or dry floor.
On site investigation required to assess conditions and slip resistance of floor.
      SLIP RESISTANCE TESTING
Australian Standards:
• AS/NZS 3661.1:1993 Slip resistance of pedestrian
  surfaces, Part 1: Requirements, Appendix A (wet)
• AS/NZS 4586:1999 Slip resistance classification
  of new pedestrian surface materials. (Wet, dry and
  Ramp testing)
• AS/NZS 4663:2002 Slip resistance measurement
  (Wet and dry) of existing pedestrian surfaces.
• BS 7976.3:2002 Calibration of Skid Resistance Tester.
      CALIBRATED WET PENDULUM
Stanley, Munroe or
Wessex pendulum
used.

 Uses a specified rubber
slider, 96 (formerly 4S)
or 55 (formerly TRRL) to
strike a floor surface
over 125mm distance.
An average is made of
the results and the floor
surface is classified.
TORTUS II DRY FLOOR FRICTION
           TESTER
 TORTUS II DRY FLOOR FRICTION
            TESTING
• A WEIGHTED SLIDER 96-TYPE SLIDER IS PUSHED
  ALONG THE SURFACE AT A PRESET SPEED, OVER
  A PRESET DISTANCE.
SLIP RESISTANCE TEST RESULTS
• NOTIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE
  FLOOR SURFACE TO THE RISK OF
  SLIPPING
      WET           DRY
  –   VERY LOW    - MODERATE TO VERY LOW
  –   LOW         - HIGH TO VERY HIGH
  –   MODERATE
  –   HIGH
  –   VERY HIGH
SLIP RESISTANCE TEST RESULTS
• AS/NZS 4663 SPECIFICALLY HIGHLIGHTS THAT THE
  CONTRIBUTION OF THE FLOOR SURFACE TO THE
  RISK OF SLIPPING IS NOTIONAL, AND OTHER
  CONSIDERATIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO
  ACCOUNT.
• WET FLOOR decreases slip resistance
• Unexpected CHANGES IN FLOOR SURFACE
• DIRTY or CONTAMINATED floors
• UNEVEN STEP GEOMETRY CAUSING MISSTEP
• WORN, OLD TILES
• ETC
SLIP RESISTANCE TEST RESULTS
• SO A FLOOR MIGHT ACHIEVE A VERY
  HIGH RESULT, BUT WHERE DOES
  THAT FIT?
• HB 197 : 1999 AN INTRODUCTORY
  GUIDE TO THE SLIP RESISTANCE OF
  PEDESTRIAN SURFACE MATERIALS
• Provides recommendations for various
  locations
TABLE 3
PEDESTRIAN FLOORING SELECTION GUIDE – MINIMUM PENDULUM OR RAMP RECOMMENDATIONSFOR SPECIFIC LOCATIONS

                                               Location                Pendulum    Ramp

         External colonnade, walkways and pedestrian crossing             W         R10
         External ramps                                                   V         R11
         Entry foyers hotel, office, public buildings - wet               X         R10
         Entry foyers hotel, office, public buildings - dry               Z         R9
         Shopping centre excluding food court                             Z         R9
         Shopping centre – food court                                     X         R10
         Internal ramps, slopes (greater than 2 degrees) - dry            X         R10
         Lift lobbies above external entry foyer                          Z         R9
         Other separate shops inside shopping centres                     Z         R9
         Other shops with external entrances – entry area                 X         R10
         Fast food outlets, buffet food servery areas                     X         R10
         Hospitals and aged care facilities – dry areas                   Z         R9
         Hospital and aged care facilities – ensuites                     X       A or R10
         Supermarket aisles except fresh food areas                       Z         R9
         Shop and supermarket fresh fruit and vegetables areas            X         R10
         Communal changing rooms                                          X          A
         Swimming pool surrounds and communal shower rooms                W          B
         Swimming pool ramps and stairs leading into water                V          C
         Toilet facilities in offices, hotels, shopping centres           X         R10
         Undercover concourse areas of sports stadium                     X         R10
         Accessible internal stair nosings (dry) – handrails present      X         R10
         Accessible internal stair nosings (wet) – handrails present      W       B or R11
         External stair nosings                                           W         R11
 SLIP RESISTANCE TEST RESULTS
• POLISHED FLOORS LOOK GOOD
• Specifying a POLISHED SURFACE then REQUIRES
  RESPONSIBILITY be taken for it’s MANAGEMENT /
  CLEANING regime.
• Important to establish the flooring requirements BASED UPON
  EXPECTED USE (WET, DRY, INTERMEDIATE)
• Problems also arise with floor CONTAMINATION.
• Can also occur over time due to WEAR.
REPORTING
• TESTING to follow clearly defined procedures

• RESULTS REPORTED against relevant
  STANDARDS AND CODES

• Accurate commentary made with reference to
  appropriate standards
LIGHTING
Light
measurements
made using
calibrated
equipment
LIGHTING
• Light measurements are made in
  accordance with the appropriate
  standards;
  – AS/NZS 1158 (SERIES) LIGHTING FOR
    ROADS AND PUBLIC PLACES.
  – AS/NZS 1680 (SERIES) INTERIOR AND
    WORKPLACE LIGHTING
  – AS 2293 (SERIES) Emergency escape
    lighting and exit signs Set
       AS/NZS 3661.2:1994
Australian/New Zealand Standard


Slip resistance of pedestrian surfaces

Part 2: Guide to the reduction of
slip hazards
                        AS 3661.2
      6.3 Design of cleaning systems Designers, in
      consultation with their clients, shall consider
a. at the design stage how the floors are to be cleaned and
    maintained and make adequate
b. provisions for same. Where necessary, advice may also be sought
    from material suppliers.
c. Examples of factors to take into account are:
d. (a) Decisions about what activities are performed in an area, e.g.
    food preparation.
    (b) What will fall on the floor? For example, fat and water.
    (c) What is the flooring surface? For example, quarry tile.
     (d) How are the contaminants to be removed from the floor? For
   example, detergent in hot
e. water applied by mop.
• ...........................etc....................PREVENTION!!!
AS 3661.2
 TRIP ACCIDENTS ON STAIRS
• Measure riser (r) and going (g)
• Stairs can be measured against the relevant
  building codes (BCA and UBR).


     R


         G
    TRIP ACCIDENTS ON STAIRS
• Handrail height
• Number of handrails
• Width of stairway
• Where possible, slip
  resistance testing.
• All relevant parameters
  examined.
CASE STUDY
• 8 months pregnant woman slips over in Coles
  Dandenong Store – on spilt drink
• Twin babies are born prematurely, both brain damaged,
  1 more than the other.
• Wet slip resistance testing showed that the floor was
  below acceptable value in Draft Standard (pre-AS/NZS
  3661.1)
• Reporting to the draft Standard
  allowed for the first time
  quantative interpretation
  of floor friction
OUTCOME:
• Settled, $2.7 Million
   CASE STUDY
• Alleged trip due to poor lighting,
  resulting in knee injury.
• Site inspected at night time.
• Step dimensions measured for
  compliance against UBR
• Light measurements made at each
  stair nosing.
• Compliance with UBR (pre-BCA) and
  AS 1680.0 (lighting) tested, failed on
  both accounts.


                             Result: Settled for the Plaintiff
      SLIP TESTING – AVOID A CLAIM
           BEFORE IT HAPPENS
• Slip resistance testing to AS/NZS 4663 for already-laid
  tiles and AS/NZS 4586 for new tiles in public buildings
  will determine whether there is a problem with the floor
  surface, and whether it meets its requirements
• Floor assessments using slip resistance test
  equipment and surface roughness gauge.
• Remedial action recommendations based upon tile
  type, age and budget.
• WEAR CAN BE MEASURED AS A LOSS OF
  ROUGHNESS
   ACCELERATED
   WEAR TESTING
• Know how a tile will wear
  before its placed in service!
• To help understand wear,
  ATTAR has developed an
  accelerated wear test rig.
• The rig, right, uses a
  Scotchbrite #96 pad, the
  same as used by
  professional cleaners
         Are you prepared?
• Do you know your floor condition?
• Are your treatments improving or diminishing
  its’ safety?
• Measurement will quantify the issues and
  enable you to make good decisions
• Ignorance is no excuse these days!
        NATA ACCREDITATIONS
• ATTAR Accreditation (Slip Testing):
• AS/NZS 3661.1:1993 Appendix A (wet)
• AS/NZS 4586:2004 Appendix A, B & D
  (wet, dry & ramp)
• AS/NZS 4663:2004 Appendix A & B (wet
  & dry)
• BS 7976.3:2002 Calibration of Skid
  Resistance Tester.
Thank-you for your time!
       Questions?
     www.attar.com.au

				
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