CTAN 502a: Stereoscopic Animation and Virtual Reality Professor: Perry Hoberman Semester: Fall 2005 Time: Wednesday 3:00-5:00pm Interactive Media Lab, G142 Main Room (below the Carson Stage) COURSE OBJECTIVE & DESCRIPTION: This course is an intensive hands-on initiation into stereoscopic 3D imagemaking, exploring the aesthetic, conceptual and technical issues involved in the design and production of 3D images, animations, and experiences. Stereoscopic (3D) vision is both a basic (and often overlooked) feature of our perceptual experience, as well as a spectacular media technology that can push our view of the image from a mode of exterior contemplation to a sense of total immersion. It is also a key component of virtual reality. In this course, we will cover the basic principles of binocular vision, the history and development of stereoscopic methods and systems, and the various available methods for creating and displaying stereoscopic images. Each week you'll receive a hands-on introduction to another aspect of this amazingly rich field. With the development of new display technologies, interest in stereoscopic imaging is rapidly increasing, and this course is designed to help you take advantage of these exciting advances. Whether you are a filmmaker, animator, game designer or new media artist, this course will make your work "stand out" from the crowd. The principles of binocular vision are straightforward, but demand careful attention to the finer details of how we perceive the world. A stereoscopic image is a kind of hallucination, existing somewhere between two and three dimensions, and the effective use of stereo requires a thorough understanding of its techniques and methods. Stereoscopic imaging has typically been hyped as the ultimate in realism, but because it inevitably calls attention to itself, it often paradoxically foregrounds the artificiality of images. Ultimately, stereoscopy makes possible the direct experience of various non-realistic and even non-euclidean spaces. Virtual reality encompasses a set of techniques and apparatuses for making media experiences that exist not as screens or images but as immersive evironments and even entire worlds. We will examine the various components that can produce virtual experiences, including viewpoint-dependent imaging, wide field-of-view optics, visual and aural immersion, haptics, etc. We’ll look at the various available apparatuses for VR, including head-mounted and head-coupled displays, CAVEs and related projection systems, and other emerging alternatives. Course Schedule 1. August 24: Visual Space Introductions Overview of class Basic principles of vision & binocular vision Terms & definitions History of stereoscopic imaging Introduction to stereoscopic photography Basic stereoscopic formats Introduction to anaglyph imaging Assignment: create an analgyph 3D photographic slideshow Reading: excerpt from ‘Techniques of the Observer’ Jonathan Crary 2. August 31: The Perception of Depth Review of Week 1 Stereoscopic drawing + construction Methods Random dot stereograms History Ramifications Principles Stereoscopic formats in depth Side-by-side Overlapping Assignment: create an anaglyph 3D constructed stereoscopic slideshow Reading: from ‘The Perception of the Visual World’, James J Gibson 3. September 7: Motion in 3D Space Stereo and motion The ambient visual array (Gibson) Persistence of vision, frame rates Implied motion & change blindness Viewer vs Scene vs Object motion Stereo and size constancy Pulfrich phenomenon Polarized projection Stereoscopic shadowplay Basic principles & methods Polarized vs anaglyph projection Front vs rear projection Crossed vs uncrossed configurations Assignment: create a stereoscopic animation to be viewed with polarized projection Reading: from ‘Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema’, Lenny Lipton, 4. September 14: Virtual Space VR Concepts & definitions Virtuality Cyberspace Presence 3D modeling and animation software Available software packages Limitations of default on-axis projection Virtual camera setup Side-by-side displays Dual-monitor displays Assignment: create stereo 3D animation in a modeling program, to be viewed on a Wheatstone display Reading: , ‘Constructing Phantograms’, Raymond Nicyper 5. September 21: Perspective projection & anamorphic imaging History of perspective Fixed-point perspective (painting, photography) Moving-point perspective (motion pictures, animation) Viewpoint-driven perspective (virtual reality, computational imaging) Mathematics of perspective transformations Introduction to OpenGL Basic math for stereo imaging Anamorphosis History Perspective as a subset of anamorphic projection Off-axis transformations in openGL Virtual image projectors in 3D modeling software CAVEs Tabletop displays Assignment: create and print a tabletop (phantogram) image Reading: TBA 6. September 28: Navigation Rendered vs Realtime Iissues, strengths, limitations of each Available authoring software Scripting 3D modeling/animation programs Introduction to OpenGL Guest presentation: Mark Bolas (wide FOV HMD) Navigating Stereoscopic Space Camera vs world motion Cursors & pointers, 2D & 3D Time-multiplexed displays Principles, perception, limitations Assignment: create a navigable stereo 3D world Reading: TBA 7. October 5: Immersion Concepts and definitions Conceptual vs Perceptual immersion Etymology and history Passive vs active immersion Immersive Displays Head-mounted displays Head-coupled displays (BOOM) Panoramic displays Visit Velaslavasay Panorama (tentative) Assignment: design an immersive stereo 3D animation or world (platform TBA) Reading: ‘3D Filmmakers’, Ray Zone, 8. October 12: Guest Speaker: Ray Zone Ray Zone is the author of the recently published (Scarecrow Press) book "3-D Filmmakers: Conversations with Creators of Stereoscopic Motion Pictures," creator of over 130 3-D comic books, producer of a short IMAX 3-D film called "A Better Mousetrap" and a widely published film historian whose articles have appeared in The Los Angeles Times, The Hollywood Reporter, and American Cinematographer. Reading: TBA 9. October 19: Interaction Interaction vs Navigation vs Immersion Interaction in stereoscopic space Input devices Off-the-shelf Custom Assignment: create an interactive stereo 3D experience Reading: TBA 10. October 26: Spatial Tracking & First-Person POVs 1D, 2D, 3D, 4D trackers Marker & markerless trackers Tracking objects, tracking viewpoints Kinds of data to track Position Orientation Motion Presence Change Kinds of trackers Optical & camera based Magnetic Ultrasound Inertial Capacitance Single vs multiple trackers Assignment: design a viewpoint-driven stereo 3D experience (platform TBA) Reading: TBA 11. November 2: Telepresence & Spatial Audio Basic concepts of Telepresence vs Virtual Reality Sense of presence Robots with cameras Spatial Audio Formats Using audio: For immersion For interaction/feedback For presence Assignment: design a stereo 3D experience that includes a spatially-matched audio component Reading: TBA 12. November 9: Field Trip TBA: (Stereo 3D IMAX film, Universal Studios Shrek 4D, etc) Reading: ‘Spatial Augmented Reality’, Raskar & Bimber, 13. November 16: Augmented & Hybrid Worlds Concepts Mixed reality hybrid reality augmented reality Techniques see-through displays spatially augmented displays shader lamps Assignment: design an animation to be projected onto a three-dimensional object Reading: TBA 14. November 23: Multiple Views Multiple first-person displays Methods Guest presentation: Mark Bolas (MULE projector) Lenticular & barrier strip displays History Concepts Methods Techniques Still + moving image displays Assignment: design and execute a lenticular 3D image Reading: TBA 15. November 30: Wrap-Up Review & evaluation Final presentations workshop session Pick favorite project from assignments & develop further 16. December 7 Final presentations Open to CNTV community COURSE FORMAT Course Requirements: Open to USC undergraduate 3rd & 4th year & graduate students Grading Structure: Grades will be based on class participation and project work. There will be small-scale assigned projects each week. These assignments are designed to put into practice topics and techniques discussed that week. At the ende of the semester, each student will choose one of their weekly assignments to develop further for a final presentation. Criteria for grading will include conceptual clarity, creativity, and the application of concepts discussed in class to assigned projects. Grades will be allocated as follows: Weekly assignments (12): 6% each (72% total) Class participation: 10% Blog postings (reading & research reports) : 9% Final Presentation: 9% Attendance: Attendance at all classes is mandatory, and punctuality is expected. If a student misses a class, they must provide a valid excuse, and they must meet with the instructor to discuss a make-up assignment. Missing an Exam, Incompletes Both the mid-term and final exam in this seminar are projects rather than written exams. However, USC standards still hold: The only acceptable excuses for missing an exam or taking an incomplete in the course are personal illnesses or a family emergency. Students must inform the professor before the exam and present verifiable evidence in order for a make-up to be scheduled. Students who with to take incompletes must also present documentation of the problem to the instructor before final grades are due. Academic Integrity The School of Cinema-Television expects the highest standards of academic excellence and ethical performance from USC students. It is particularly important that you are aware of and avoid plagiarism, cheating on exams, submitting a paper to more than one instructor, or submitting a paper authored by anyone other than yourself. Violations of this policy will result in a failing grade and be reported to the Office of Student Judicial Affairs. If you have any doubts or questions about these policies, consult “SCAMPUS” and/or confer with the Professor or Department Chair. Students with Disabilities Any student requesting academic accommodations based on a disability is required to register with Disability Services and Programs (DSP) each semester. A letter of verification for approved accommodations can be obtained from DSP. Please be sure that the letter is delivered to the Professor as early in the semester as possible. DSP is located in STU 301 and is open 8:30am – 5:00pm, Monday through Friday. The phone number for DSP is (213) 740-0776.
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