Alexander The Greats Greatest Battles He was born at Pella in Macedonia in 356, the son of Philip II and Olympias (daughter of King Neoptolemus of Epirus). He was taught by Aristotle, who inspired him with an interest in philosophy, medicine, and scientific investigation; later he was advance beyond his teacher's narrow precept that non-Greeks should be treated as slaves. Alexanderonly 16 years old was Left in charge of Macedonia in 340 during Philip's attack on Byzantium, Alexander defeated the Maedi, a Thracian people; couple years later he commanded the left wing at the Battle of Chaeronea, in which Philip defeated the allied Greek states, and displayed personal courage in breaking the Sacred Band of Thebes. Philip divorced Olympias a yearlater ; Alexander and his mother fled to Epirus to celebrate his father's new marriage, , and Alexander later went to Illyria. Shortly afterward, father and son were reconciled and Alexander returned; but his position was jeopardized. On Philip's assassination in 336, Alexander was acclaimed by the army, succeeded without opposition. Quickly executed the princes of Lyncestis, alleged to be behind Philip's murder, along with all possible rivals. Philip’s death caused series of rebellions among the conquered nations and the Illyrians, Thracians, and Greeks saw a chance for independence. He marched south and assembly of the Greek League at Corinth for the forthcoming invasion of Asia, already planned and initiated by his father. In his return to Macedonia by way of Delphi (where the Pythian priestess acclaimed him “invincible”), In spring of 335 he advanced into Thrace and, after forcing the Shipka Pass and crushing the Triballi, crossed the Danube to disperse the Getae; turning west, he then defeated a coalition of Illyrians who had invaded Macedonia. Alexander marched to Thebes. When the Thebans refused to surrender, he made an entry and razed their city to the ground, sparing only temples and Pindar's house; 6,000 were killed and all survivors sold into slavery. The other Greek states were cowed by this severity and quickly rethought their quest for freedom and Greece remained under Mancedonia control. lAPA style Alexander the Great. (2010). Biography.com. Retrieved 07:49, Aug 29 2010 from http://www.biography.com/articles/Alexander-the-Great9180468 www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/AlexandertheGreat.html Alexander Greatest battles alexander-the-great-map.jpg Battle of Granicus Alexander start his war against the Persians in the spring of 334 BC .The battle between Macedonian king Alexander the Great and armies of the Persian Empire at the Granicus River in Asia Minor. When he was met at the granicus by rivers by an army of Persian soldiers army and Greek hoplites. The Persian force stationed itself at the top of the bank on the opposite side of the river. The Persian plan was to concentrate the attacks hoping the Alexander might get killed but Alexander led successful charge across the river and routed them. Alexander only loss 110 soldiers. After the battle of Granicus, all the states of Asia Minor submitted to Alexander the Great. Battle of Issus The engagement fought in 333 BC between the Macedonian King Alexander the Great and Persian King Darius III during Alexander’s conquest of the Persian Empire. After invading the northern Syria, Alexander left his wounded soldiers in a camp in the city of Issus, and the remainder of his army move southward in search of Darius’s armies. While Darius moved his army north. In the Syrian mountains, the two armies passed each other. Darius discovered Alexander’s camp at Issus and massacred the wounded Macedonian soldiers. After Alexander found himself cut off from communication with the north, he returned Issus and defeated Darius’s army. Darius fled to Babylonia, leaving Syria, Palestine, and Egypt open for conquest by Alexander. TheBattle of Tyre Storming defiant Tyre, Macedonian warriors charged through a breach in the inland-cities high walls in July, 332 B.C. seven months earlier, Tyre looked impregnable. Alexander used ships collected from other Phoenician cities, alexander engineers mounted siege machines-catapults and iron- headed battering rams. Alexander ships pounded the walls until a weak spot collapsed. The Macedonians reached shore and dropped a long gangplank to carry them over the rubble aftera rain of burning arrows by a hide tent,. After desperate hand to hand combat, Tyre fell and Alexander closed this main base of the Persian fleet, winning control of the eastern Mediterranean after the longest battle of his life. They massacred 8,000 Tyrians and sold 30,000 into slavery. Battle at Gaugamela Alexander the great and the Persian monarch Darias III , armies fought in 331 BC. Alexander, with 40,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry, invaded Persia from Egypt. The Persian army assembled in guagamela (what is now Iraq)about 250, ooo men . Alexander attacked the Persian left flank then broke through their center. Darius fled and the Persians retreated. The Persians lost tens of thousands of men in the battle, and the Macedonian’s lost fewer than 500. The Persians defeat opened the east to the Macedonians. www.angelfire.com/il/AlexanderTheGreat/battles.html Battle of the river Hyphasis . Alexander even subdued an In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into India invading Punjab as far as the river Hyphasis (modern Beas). The Macedonians rebelled and refused to go farther. The greatest battle of Alexander's in India was against Porus, one of the most powerful Indian leaders, at the river Hydaspes. On July 326 BC, Alexander's army crossed the heavily defended river in dramatic fashion during a violent thunderstorm to meet Porus' forces. In a fierce battle the Indians were defeated, even though they fought with war elephants, which the Macedonians had never before seen. Alexander defeated and captured Porus .Alexander allowed him to continue to govern his territory . ALEXANDER'S DEATH We will never know the truth of Alexander's mysterious death, Alexander the Great, the Macedonian king and the great conqueror, died at the age of 33, on June 10, 323 BC. Alexander died without designating a successor. His death opened the anarchic age of the Diadochi and the Macedonian Empire will eventually cease to exist. Alexander married at least two women, Roxana, daughter of a minor noble and the Persian princess Stateira, daughter of Darius III of Persia. His son by Roxana, Alexander IV, was born after Alexander the Great's death and was killed before the boy reached adulthood.
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