speedbumps by Knowledge-Quest


									  How to reach 100 years old feeling good, looking
     good and with ALL your wits about you.
You need to be clear about something: you could very likely reach 100 years old. The
number of people that do is going up rapidly all the time. Recent figures show life
expectancy is greater than ever in the US, now around 78 years (females 80.8; males
75.7). However, these are figures from birth. If you have already made it to 50 or 60,
you’ve proved you’re a survivor. You will live much longer than the average for all
ages—well into the 80s! But again these are averages. As many as half of us will
reach 100!

The general trend is similar in all the Western world. However America's lengthier life
span still lags behind life expectancy in dozens of countries. 26 countries have higher
life expectancies than the US for both men and women, according to the World Health
Organization. Japan has the world's greatest life expectancy for women (86 years) and
the European republic of San Marino has the world's greatest life expectancy for men
(80 years).

Top Causes of Death
The Center for Disease Control reported the top 10 causes of death for 2005 were as
                1. Heart disease
                2. Cancer
                3. Stroke
                4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases (lung diseases)
                5. Accidents
                6. Diabetes
                7. Alzheimer's disease
                8. Influenza and pneumonia
                9. Kidney disease
               10. Septicemia (a serious infection that affects the blood)

These were closely followed by suicide, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, high blood
pressure, Parkinson's disease and homicide.

The CDC also reports that the top three causes of death -- heart disease, cancer, and
stroke -- declined in 2005, compared with 2004, leading to greater life expectancy.

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However, heart disease, cancer, and stroke remain the country's top killers. The life
expectancy statistics are based on the CDC's preliminary data on more than 2.4 million
deaths nationwide in 2005.

Statistics can lie

Don’t let statistics bog you down. The really important thing is what will happen to
YOU, not what happens to everybody else. You’re not a statistic, you’re not even
average. Nobody is average. We are all different. I only want you to understand that
the old-fashioned idea of a generation ago—that you were pretty well finished by your
70s and there was nothing much you could do about it—is false and has always been

If you go to other supposedly less fortunate societies, you find that living beyond 100 is
pretty common and always has been. I first noticed this among my Scottish ancestors,
living to 90- 100 years, on a diet of herring and oatmeal (good reasons why these
would help you live long). They also had plenty of exercise, walked long distances and,
by the way, drank plenty of whisky.

But if you go to societies like the Okinawans of Japan, the Hunzas of Pakistan or the
Georgians of Azerbaijan, the picture really is dramatic: many men and women live to be
100 years old, can still work, ride a horse and father children. Unfortunately the ladies
cannot match this last but they are right up there as sprightly centegenarians, along
with the men). One picture in National Geographic, Jan 1973, shows a woman the
researchers know to be at least 130 years old. She’s lucid and lively and—wait for it—
has a cigarette in one hand and a glass of vodka in the other!

I took one look at that photograph and thought “What do we doctors know, really?”

So my first piece of advice for living healthy and long is IGNORE EVERYTHING YOU ARE
TOLD BY REGULAR DOCTORS. Medical science is crude, simplistic, biased, ignorant,
narrow-minded and dangerous. Most of it is, after all, centered around drug company
profits, not patient care in the true sense of the word.

You need renegade doctors that can think outside the box. Yes, I’m putting myself
forward. I can’t think of anyone better qualified to do it! My Wholesome Living
Letter distils the best of what I know, based on nearly 40 years at the top of my game,

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plus avid reading of all new scientific discoveries and trends. You can’t be better
informed that the subscribe to the Wholesome Living Letter.

How many bumps did you say?

But wait—didn’t I say there were just 6 main speed bumps in the road?

Yes, that’s right. A lot of these figures are quite complicated and don’t necessarily speak
the truth. For example, someone who had a paralyzing stroke but survived, only to die
in bed of pneumonia (a very common outcome), would not show up as a stroke death.
But really a stroke was the cause of the fatality; pneumonia and respiratory disease is
thus exaggerated. In any case 4 and 8 are pretty similar (lungs).

Stroke and heart disease are also pretty much the same thing, under different names.
The actual disease is arteriosclerosis or bad arteries, whether the heart is most affected
or the brain. Even Alzheimer’s can be seen as a disease of the circulatory system, since
the main problem seems to be poor nutrient blood supply to the brain, caused by aging

We can rule out accidents, since avoiding them is hardly a medical matter. To die in a
car crash has nothing to do with the aging process! It’s just tough luck.


We can actually boil the top of the list down to this:

       1.   Aging circulation
       2.   Cancer
       3.   Diabetes
       4.   Kidney disease
       5.   Septicemia.

But that’s only 5 you say. What about the 6th?

This is what they didn’t tell you in the report: doctors are the 3rd leading cause of death
in the US! They account for over 225,000 deaths per year [Journal American Medical

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Association 2000 Jul 26;284(4):483-5 ]*. These show up as “iatrogenic” causes, a
Greek word which means “caused by doctors”.

Doctors are the number one killer

*According to Dr Barbara Starfield, who prepared the report for The Journal of the
American Medical Association (JAMA is the largest and one of the most respected
medical journals in the entire world), doctors are actually the number one killer,
because they do not inform patients properly of the hazards of the procedures they
offer (why would they? The patient might have second thoughts and that would lose
income for the doctor!)

A fuller report of her findings are available in Appendix A, with significant references.

My first piece of critical advice therefore, if you want to live a long and healthy life, is
STAY AWAY FROM DOCTORS AND HOSPITALS. They are by far the biggest speed
bump in your way. In fact when doctors go on strike, ironically, the death rate always

I will guide you through the minefield of lies and disinformation that abounds in health
care. Some of it comes from ignorant doctors and scientists but plenty comes from
alternative “health practitioners”, many of who are on the make and speak falsely to
make dollars. Believe me!

Heart disease (heart attacks, blood pressure, strokes, aging)

Now we get to the core of things. The circulatory system brings food and oxygen to the
tissues and removes waste and toxins. Any slowing or damage to the circulatory system
is thus damaging for the entire body. Lack of blood supply reduces sexual performance
(an erect penis is just a blood-filled tube; women’s sexual organs similarly swell if she
has any pleasure).

Slow blood supply effectively defines aging. You may have heard a saying “A man is as
old as his arteries” (same for women, of course).

You can’t afford to have this happen to you.

You will hear a lot about cholesterol. Forget about it. It’s a massive red herring. Statins,
which are designed to lower cholesterol, are no different in principle than blanking out

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the warning light on the dashboard of your car. Blood health is more about the quality
of fats, not the quantity. Blood vitality cannot be measured just in cholesterol,
triglycerides and clotting time. It’s a dynamic living medium.

It all boils down to diet. You can influence cholesterol and blood fats far more by what
you eat than by taking pills. And I don’t mean a low fat diet; that’s very unhealthy
indeed. We need certain fats, particularly omega-3s, for health and longevity and also
to absorb fat soluble vitamins, such as A, D3 and K. D3 protects against cancer and
vitamin K2 is one of the best artery protectors you have. So a low fat diet is potentially
a disaster.

For the very best diet program, work out your own system. The only book in the world
that tells you how to do that is my “Diet Wise”. You can get it at:
www.dietwisebook.com. You should also get and read Dean Ornish’s comprehensive
and informative guide: “Dr Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart Disease” (he
really means artery disease). He boasts it’s the only scientifically-proven program for
reversing heart disease.

Cancer, now the number #1 killer

In 2005 cancer overtook heart disease as the number one killer in the US. Yet,
ironically, it’s very treatable. You wouldn’t think so to judge by the panic that doctors
like to promote when someone gets cancer. Again, remember, the doctor is looking at a
very lucrative ticket: but only if he or she can frighten you into believing that theirs is
the ONLY way.

The fact is that chemotherapy and radiation is useless for the majority of cancers and
only makes the patient sicker. It does not increase average survival. All the propaganda
you hear about winning the war against cancer comes from massaged statistics, not
reality. Look at the definition of “survival”: they mean you lived 5 more years—not 10 or
20. I don’t call that a success, do you?

The best way to beat cancer is not to get it. A few simple steps will reduce your risk
dramatically, say down by over 70%.

Eat no artificial fats, no refined carbohydrates and no sugar. That will do for a start.
Numerous studies have shown that these 3 food NO-NOs seriously aggravate cancer
and predispose to getting it.

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The reverse is also true: if you eat lots of fresh food, especially fruits and greens, you
will be less likely to get cancer. Bags of anti-oxidants, that’s the secret. Again, don’t be
distracted and confused by the endless war against healthy alternatives and vitamins
that is corrupt science paid for by the pharmaceutical industry.

In my Wholesome Living Letter I tell you plenty of things you can do, whether
preventative or what to do if you or a loved one actually gets cancer. But it’s an irony
really: there is no special strategy for cancer. It’s a Scott-Mumby rule that ALL GOOD
you slimmer, it reduces the risk of cancer, according to recent scientific trials.

You need to take vitamin C, D3 and A. These all have proven value in preventing
cancer. You need 2 grams a day of vitamin C, 5000 units of vitamin A and 1500 units of
D3. The last one is particularly important. Only in 2007 have repeated studies been
published, showing that 1500 units a day will reduce the risk of your getting cancer by
over 2/3rds.

Get rid of personal chemical pollution, as far as is possible.

Diabetes, the fast-forward version of aging.

I especially encourage people not to get diabetes; it accelerates the aging process
uncontrollably. What’s worse is that studies show that even if the blood glucose levels
are kept near normal, the damage still takes place.

Guess what the number one risk factor for diabetes is? A waistline more than 40 inches.
There is no question that obesity and diabetes are linked (I’m talking here about type II
diabetes, which does not require insulin). Actually, diabetes is part of a process that
starts with eating too much sugary food. The regulation mechanism becomes stressed
up and eventually the person develops what we call “insulin resistance”.

Insulin is the main hormone which controls and lowers blood glucose. It does this by
getting cells to open up to glucose and metabolizing it. But when insulin can’t cope with
the excess sugar, and the cells start to pay less and less attention to the insulin, then
there is nowhere for the glucose to go.

So it gets converted to fat! It’s simple: your Mum knew the story. If you eat too much
sugary food it goes to fat. But we know a lot more about this than your Mum ever did.
Once glucose regulation is lost, you’re on the track to early death. It’s not just getting

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fat but bad stuff like blood pressure, crumbling arteries, going blind, poor circulation in
the legs (gangrene of the toes is common, often requiring amputation). Finally, you go
blind (caused but countless little hemorrhages in the back of the eye).

Yes, it’s a mess. Trust me, you do not want to get diabetes!

So how do you avoid it? You reduce or eliminate all refined carbohydrate from your diet
(it gets converted to sugar by digestion anyway). I tell patients “Avoid all white foods”.
That’s a good start. Remember milk is a white food; yes, it has fats—but milk is also a
SUGAR food. Did you realize? Skimmed milk is even worse because, with the fat gone,
the sugar is more concentrated. Did anyone ever tell you THAT?

You also need to exercise. This helps the whole process of calorie control and
metabolism. As little as 20 minutes brisk walking 3- 4 times a week will make a world of
difference. It has been shown to help insulin control. It extends lives.

Just do it! You’ll wish you had if you don’t! It’s little use trying to catch up, once you’ve
begun to ail and creak.


Little is taught about kidneys. Doctors rattle on about cholesterol, which is not
important and easily corrected without drugs.

But our kidneys are one of our most important assets and yet most people don’t know
what they are, even where they are exactly and what they do. Unfortunately, most
advice on kidney do’s and don’t is provided only for people with damaged kidneys.
While that is some help in deciding what is good for your kidneys, it’s still a long way
from saying anything is “bad” for a healthy person.

For example, it is stated over and over by ignorant doctors and textbooks that too
much protein is bad for the kidneys. Yet there is no scientific study anywhere to date
proving that high protein diets are harmful for normal healthy people.

In a nutshell, the kidneys cleanse your blood and dump all the toxic filth from your
messy lifestyle! Urine, incidentally, is not “dirty”. Remember, it was blood serum just a
few seconds before! However I would not drink my urine, at least not in quantity, as
some faddists do, because that defeats the attempt to excrete bad stuff! (there are

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competent antibodies in urine, straight from the blood, and those do work well in some
people with some conditions).

It must be mentioned that kidney function naturally declines with age due to the
gradual loss of nephrons which are the kidney's filtering units. This loss can be caused
by ailments like heart disease since in this case the blood flow to the kidneys is
reduced. Also untreated high blood pressure can lead to kidney damage as well as long
term use of prescription and non prescription pain relievers such as aspirin.

Kidney revitalizer

Do a kidney flush. This one comes from Dr Richard Schulze ND, (www.800herbdoc.com
that’s his phone number as well!)

Day 1: Upon arising drink 8 ounces of distilled water

Breakfast: This is a great way to start your day. The water rinses and flushes your
digestive tract of any leftover food and digestive juices. Within 1 hour prepare one of
the following Morning Drinks: Morning Drink #2 (Kidney & Bladder Flush )

  *   Juice of one Lemon and one Lime
  *   16 to 32 ounces of Distilled Water
  *   A pinch of Cayenne Pepper
  *   Optional - Maple Syrup (a little) to Taste

15 minutes after this drink, consume 2 cups of Kidney/Bladder - Dissolve Tea with 2
dropperfuls of Kidney/Bladder Tonic added per cup. Consume 2 more cups of this tea
with the tonic added 2 more times each day.

Day #1 Breakfast

Live, FRESH fruit or vegetable juice is the best way to get your Vitamins, Minerals and
other Essential Nutrients. They are also very important for cleansing and detoxification.
If you are hungry before lunch time you may have fruit, diluted fruit juices, and fruit
smoothies. Stop all fruit or fruit juices at least 1 hour before lunch. It is best while on
this program not to mix fruit and vegetables together.

Day #1 Lunch

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For lunch you can have diluted fresh raw vegetable juices, raw vegetables alone or in
salads, sprouts, potassium broth, and herb teas. You may make dressings for the salad
if you like using Olive oil, Avocado, Raw Apple Cider Vinegar, Lemon Juice, Garlic,
Onions and any Herbs and Spices.

Afternoon Snacks: Raw vegetables, raw vegetable salads, diluted vegetable juices,
sprouts, potassium broth and herb teas. All vegetable food must be stopped by 6 p.m.

Day #1 Dinner

Diluted fruit juices, fruits, fruit smoothies, fruit salads and herb teas.

Day #2, #3 and #4 Now we begin the 3 day fast. Start with your water, morning flush
drink and herbal tea. Diluted fruit juices and herb tea until noon, diluted vegetable
juices, Potassium Broth and herb tea mid-day and afternoon and diluted fruit juices and
herb tea again in the evening. Consume at least 1 gallon (128 ounces) of liquid. That is
8 ounces every hour! If you get hungry, DRINK MORE!!!

                                 Potassium Broth Recipe

   This is a great-tasting addition to your cleansing program. It will flush your
   system of toxins, poisons and unwanted salts and acids while giving you a
   concentrated amount of vitamins and minerals.

   Fill a large pot with 25% potato peelings, 25% carrot peelings and whole
   chopped beets, 25% chopped on-ions including 50 cloves of garlic , 25% celery
   and dark greens. Add hot peppers to taste. Add enough distilled water to cover
   vegetables and simmer on very low temperature for 1-2 hours. Strain, or just dip
   your mug in, and drink only the broth. Put the vegetables in your compost. Make
   enough for two days, refrigerating the leftover broth. It is important to use
   Organic vegetables. We do not want to consume any toxic insecticides, pesticides
   or inorganic chemical fertilizers while we are on a cleansing and detoxification

Day #5:

Today is the day to break your fast. Make this day the same as day #1. Continuation of
the fast with your morning drink and then you can have some fresh fruit. Chew it very
slowly and mix each mouthful with plenty of saliva. Remember, breaking your fast is a
very important part of this program. Chew your food well and eat until satisfied, not
full. You can always eat more later if you are still hungry. After 1:00 PM you may have
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a small vegetable salad, and fruit again in the evening, chewing everything to a liquid

Remember, this program restricts the types of food you will be eating, not the amount.
If you are hungry at any point during this detoxification program, drink and/or eat
more. The more you eat and drink, the more you will flush the toxins out of your body.
Also remember to have a fun time. Your positive, healing attitude is most important to
achieve maximum benefits out of this program; be loving to yourself. Take it easy when
returning to a new healthy food program. Choose lighter foods for a few days and be
careful not to overeat. Chew your food well. Eating smaller meals more often is better
than one or two large meals. Enjoy your new set of values on food choices and
amounts. For the best health, become a vegetarian.

Repeat this program until you are well but do it at least once every 3 months.


I am just a few years older than my wife Vivien. I’m 62 and just old enough to
remember as a kid people walking round without arms and legs and being told they had
them amputated because of infection. The great fear was gangrene or septicemia. If
organisms got into the blood they could spread like wildfire and infect every organ in
the body in just a few hours.

One kid on our block cut his finger on a tin food can and that was it—a week later his
arm had to come off.

Antibiotics came along within a couple of years and all that drama was at an end. Or
was it? The popular misconception that antibiotics are here to help us and do a grand
job is dangerous, lazy thinking. We’ve got away with it for 50 years but time is running
out. Careless and ineffective prescribing habits by the average doctor has created a
nightmare for us, in which DURING OUR LIFETIME antibiotics will lose their worth.

We already have the notorious MRSA, the hospital “super bug”. Penicillin-resistant
syphilis has been around since the Vietnam War. But it’s more common than that. Any
simple infection could turn nasty, if your immune system is weakened for any reason.
The simplest thing. In the 1980s one of my patients lost her beloved husband from a
tooth abscess, of all things. The microbes got into the blood and suddenly there was
septicemia and massive doses of antibiotics could not hold it. He died.

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But it can be more subtle than that. Our modern understanding of the aging process is
that it all boils down to inflammation. Arthritis is inflammation but so is diabetes,
arterial disease, Alzheimer’s—in fact most conditions associated with aging. Even cancer
has an inflammatory component.

 What you may now know is that our bodies harbor hidden pathogens which quietly
work away, upsetting and inflaming our tissues, so that we later pay with ill-health and
early death. We call these little troublemakers “stealth pathogens”.

Number one nasty is a little beast called Chlamydia. As much as 70% of the population
may be infected and, not surprisingly, the rates go up with age. It’s easily passed on
during sex and so psychiatrist R D Laing’s old joke that “Life is a sexually transmitted
disease” may just have a ring of scientific truth. He should have said that death is a
sexually transmitted disease; we could all agree with that.

I’m not suggesting we don’t have sex. I’m suggesting we eat right, take good nutrients
and treasure our immune system. You must look after yours in every way you can.

Other stealth pathogens include Herpes variants, Epstein-Barr and a ruthless one called

The last speed bump therefore is hidden infections in your body. You must keep clean
but I don’t mean the soap and water kind. Washing your hands in every kind of
chemical poison is just another way to contract cancer (all chemicals, ALL chemicals,
are absorbed through the skin). Keep your immune system in peak condition, do NOT
rely on antibiotics, otherwise you might find they are not there for you when you need
them most. Remember, antibiotics breed resistance. It doesn’t happen randomly.

Subscribe to Wholesome Living Letter

The final prescription for health and longevity is to subscribe to my Wholesome Living
Letter. For just a few dollars a month you can learn everything you need to know to
avoid the worst speed bumps in health’s highway.

Remember, if you don’t act, you will end up paying $1000s a month, so it’s a good

Sincerely, Keith Scott-Mumby MD, MB ChB, PhD, FRCP (MA)

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Dr. Barbara Starfield of the Johns Hopkins School of
Hygiene and Public Health describes how the US health care system
may contribute to poor health.


             12,000 -----unnecessary surgery (8)

             7,000 -----medication errors in hospitals (9)

             20,000 -----other errors in hospitals (10)

             80,000 -----infections in hospitals (10)

             106,000 ----non-error, negative effects of drugs (2)

These total to 250,000 deaths per year from iatrogenic causes!!
What does the word "iatrogenic" mean? This term is defined as induced in a
patient by a physician's activity, manner, or therapy. Used especially of a
complication of treatment.

Dr. Starfield offers several warnings in interpreting these numbers:
First, most of the data are derived from studies in hospitalized patients.
Second, these estimates are for deaths only and do not include negative
effects that are associated with disability or discomfort. Third, the
estimates of death due to error are lower than those in the IOM report.

[Remember, only 60,000 Americans lost their life in the entire Vietnam war!- KSM]

If the higher estimates are used, the deaths due to iatrogenic causes
would range from 230,000 to 284,000. In any case, 225,000 deaths per year
constitutes the third leading cause of death in the United States, after
deaths from heart disease and cancer. Even if these figures are
overestimated, there is a wide margin between these numbers of deaths and
the next leading cause of death (cerebrovascular disease).

Another analysis (11) concluded that between 4% and 18% of consecutive
patients experience negative effects in outpatient settings, with:

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              116 million extra physician visits
              77 million extra prescriptions
              17 million emergency department visits
              8 million hospitalizations
              3 million long-term admissions
              199,000 additional deaths
              $77 billion in extra costs

The high cost of the health care system is considered to be a deficit, but
seems to be tolerated under the assumption that better health results from
more expensive care.

However, evidence from a few studies indicates that as many as 20% to 30%
of patients receive inappropriate care.

An estimated 44,000 to 98,000 among them die each year as a result of
medical errors. (2)

This might be tolerated if it resulted in better health, but does it? Of 13
countries in a recent comparison, the United States ranks an average of
12th (second from the bottom) for 16 available health indicators. More
specifically, the ranking of the US on several indicators was:

              13th (last) for low-birth-weight percentages
              13th for neonatal mortality and infant mortality overall 14
              11th for post neonatal mortality
              13th for years of potential life lost (excluding external causes)
              11th for life expectancy at 1 year for females, 12th for males
              10th for life expectancy at 15 years for females, 12th for males
              10th for life expectancy at 40 years for females, 9th for males
              7th for life expectancy at 65 years for females, 7th for males
              3rd for life expectancy at 80 years for females, 3rd for males
              10th for age-adjusted mortality

The poor performance of the US was recently confirmed by a World Health
Organization study, which used different data and ranked the United States

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as 15th among 25 industrialized countries.

There is a perception that the American public "behaves badly" by smoking,
drinking, and perpetrating violence." However the data does not support
this assertion.

The proportion of females who smoke ranges from 14% in Japan to 41% in
Denmark; in the United States, it is 24% (fifth best). For males, the range
is from 26% in Sweden to 61% in Japan; it is 28% in the United States (third

The US ranks fifth best for alcoholic beverage consumption.

The US has relatively low consumption of animal fats (fifth lowest in men
aged 55-64 years in 20 industrialized countries) and the third lowest mean
cholesterol concentrations among men aged 50 to 70 years among 13
industrialized countries.

[Yet dying early. That alone should prove to you what I am saying, which is that
chasing cholesterol is a waste of time! – KSM]

These estimates of death due to error are lower than those in a recent
Institutes of Medicine report (and as said if higher estimates are used,
deaths due to iatrogenic causes would range from 230,000 to 284,000).
Even at the lower estimate of 225,000 deaths per year, this constitutes the
third leading cause of death in the US, following heart disease and cancer.
Lack of technology is certainly not a contributing factor to the US's low

Among 29 countries, the United States is second only to Japan in the
availability of magnetic resonance imaging units and computed tomography
scanners per million population. Japan, however, ranks highest on health,
whereas the US ranks among the lowest.

It is possible that the high use of technology in Japan is limited to
diagnostic technology not matched by high rates of treatment, whereas in

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the US, high use of diagnostic technology may be linked to more treatment.
Supporting this possibility are data showing that the number of employees
per bed (full-time equivalents) in the United States is highest among the
countries ranked, whereas they are very low in Japan, far lower than can be
accounted for by the common practice of having family members rather than
hospital staff provide the amenities of hospital care.

[Journal American Medical Association, (Vol. 284), July 26, 2000]

1. Schuster M, McGlynn E, Brook R. "How good is the quality of health
care in the United States?" Milbank Q. 1998;76:517-563.
2. Kohn L, ed, Corrigan J, ed, Donaldson M, ed. "To Err Is Human:
Building a Safer Health System." Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1999.
3. Starfield B. "Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and
Technology." New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1998.
4. World Health Report 2000. Available at:
Accessed June 28, 2000.
5. Kunst A. "Cross-national Comparisons of Socioeconomic Differences in
Mortality." Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Erasmus University; 1997.
6. Law M, Wald N. "Why heart disease mortality is low in France: the
time lag explanation." BMJ. 1999;313:1471-1480.
7. Starfield B. "Evaluating the State Children's Health Insurance
Program: critical considerations." Annu Rev Public Health. 2000;21:569-585.
8. Leape L. "Unecessarsary surgery." Annu Rev Public Health.
9. Phillips D, Christenfeld N, Glynn L. "Increase in US medication-error
deaths between 1983 and 1993." Lancet. 1998;351:643-644.
10. Lazarou J, Pomeranz B, Corey P. "Incidence of adverse drug reactions
in hospitalized patients." JAMA. 1998;279:1200-1205.
11. Weingart SN, Wilson RM, Gibberd RW, Harrison B. "Epidemiology and
medical error." BMJ. 2000;320:774-777.
12. Wilkinson R. "Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality."
London, England: Routledge; 1996.
13. Evans R, Roos N. "What is right about the Canadian health system?"

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Milbank Q. 1999;77:393-399.
14. Guyer B, Hoyert D, Martin J, Ventura S, MacDorman M, Strobino D.
"Annual summary of vital statistics 1998." Pediatrics.
15. Harrold LR, Field TS, Gurwitz JH. "Knowledge, patterns of care, and
outcomes of care for generalists and specialists." J Gen Intern Med.
16. Donahoe MT. "Comparing generalist and specialty care: discrepancies,
deficiencies, and excesses." Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:1596-1607.
17. Anderson G, Poullier J-P. "Health Spending, Access, and Outcomes:
Trends in Industrialized Countries." New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund;
18. Mold J, Stein H. "The cascade effect in the clinical care of
patients." N Engl J Med. 1986;314:512-514.
19. Shi L, Starfield B. "Income inequality, primary care, and health indicators." J Fam
Pract. 1999;48:275-284

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