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Why Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier by yaosaigeng

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									                               Next Generation Optical Amplifier for
                               10’s of Tera-bps Data Transmission


National Research Laboratory                                               Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier




                                      Optical Communication Systems Lab.
                                           Seoul National University
                                           http://stargate.snu.ac.kr




 SNU                                                                                               KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                             Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                               Outline
National Research Laboratory                                                 Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier



               Background
                     History of Transmission Capacity Expansion
                     Why WDM ?
                     Why Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifiers ?
                     Market Aspects / Relation to Other Technologies
                     Building blocks for Optical Amplifier


               Technologies / Team potential
                     Approach 1 : WEDFA                   Approach 2 : TDFA
                     Approach 3 : Raman amplifier         Approach 4 : Specialty fiber


               Team profile / Approach / Goal


 SNU                                                                                             2   KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                               Fiber Optics Research Lab
                            History of Transmission Capacity Expansion
National Research Laboratory                                                                               Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier



                   10 15
                                                                            10 3


                   10 12                            EDFA                    10 2




                                                                     Gb/s
                                                                            10 1
     BL (bps*km)




                   10   9                    Lightwave

                                                                             1
                   10 6                   MW
                                    Coax
                                                                            0.1
                                                                                   1970       1980       1990        2000          2010
                   10 3                 Telephone
                                                                                                        AT&T
                            Telegraph                                                10 Year Plans Did Not Give Sufficient Capacity
                     1
                     1850      1900            1950        2000 Yr
                                                                                          !! Always Beyond Expectation !!


 SNU                                                                                                                           3    KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                              Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                                                               Why WDM ?
National Research Laboratory                                                                                                              Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier




                                                                               Fiber

                                                                                       Amplifier
                                                                     MUX
                                                       Lasers                                                                       Detectors

                                     Unequalized ZBLAN amplifier spectrum (25 oC)
                            10
                                                                                                                             WDM
                                                                                                            10   4




                                                                                        # of WDM channels
                             0
                                                                                                                              1 Tbps
      Optical Power (dBm)




                                                                                                            10 3
                            -10
                                                                                                                                                  Yr 99 : 40G x 40ch
                            -20                                                                             10   2                                   Raman Amp
                                                                                                                             Yr 98 - 99
                            -30
                                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                     Yr 96 - 97
                            -40
                                                                                                            1
                            -50                                                                             0.1          1         10          100         1000
                              1520      1530    1540      1550   1560
                                                   Wavelength (nm)
                                                                        1570    1580
                                                                                                                        Bit rate per channel (Gbps)
 SNU                                                                                                                                                           4  KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                                                            Fiber Optics Research Lab
                         Why Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier ?
National Research Laboratory                                                         Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier




                                                                                     Silica-Er C+L band
                          RE Pump                                                    Other Rare Earth
                      Raman Pump                                                     Raman Amplifier

            Until the beginning of 1998, less than 10 published papers on Wideband EDFA
            NTT   35nm        1450 - 1485nm       Thulium                                    1998
            NTT   37nm        1300nm region       Praseodymium         PCE < 20%                          1998
            NTT   75nm        1531 - 1606nm       EDFA & Raman                               1998
            NTT   50nm        1460 - 1510nm       TDFA & Raman                               1999
            NTT 110nm                             C & L plus Thulium   PCE < 15%                          1999
            SNU   80nm        1530 - 1610nm       C&L                  PCE > 27%                          1999
            Tyco 100nm        formerly AT&T       Raman                Multi-pump            1999

            Year 1999, Lucent Technology started to hire optical engineers for Raman Amplifier Development
            Year 2000, Raman amplifier became a preliminary product : Major effort by Majors

 SNU                                                                                                      5    KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                         Fiber Optics Research Lab
                 Market Aspects / Relation to Other Technologies
National Research Laboratory                                      Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier



                                                       광전송   장비 / 기술 수출
                대용량            전송     시스템
                                                       기간망   구축 비용 절감

                                                       통신 수요의      안정적       공급
                   차세대               핵심기술

                                                  실리카 계열 EDFA (WEDFA)
                  초광대역              광증폭기          광섬유 Raman 증폭기

                                                  다른 희토류 이온을 첨가한 증폭기

                                                  A. 세계 시장 규모 ($)
                                                  <초광대역      광 증폭기 >
                         소자     기술                2000 년 :12 억 2005 년 : 32 억 +
                                                  <광전송 장비 >
                                                  2000 년 :40 억 2005 년 :120 억

                                                  B.   추가   광선로     포설 비용
     수동광소자               특수광섬유          반도체 레이저   ( km 당 3 억원 ) 절감

 SNU                                                                                  6   KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                    Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                                  Building Blocks for Optical Amplifier
National Research Laboratory                                                                              Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier


                                                                                   Pump LD
                              Market price ~ 30K$                  C band
                                        since 1991
                                                             C+L                                                            C+L
                            while..
                   Component price dropped to
                        1/20 since 1991
                                                                   L band

                              2. 0                                                 Pump LD         Pump LD
                              1. 5
      Gain coefficient(m-1)




                              1. 0
                                                                                               Sub - optical components
                              0. 5
                                                                                               Laser diode / photo diode
                              0. 0                                                                  Specialty Fiber
                              - 5
                               0.                                                                  Optical Isolator
                                                                                                   Optical coupler
                               1.
                              - 0
                                                                                                      AWG / FBG
                               1.
                              - 5                                                                   Spectral filters
                               2.
                              - 0
                                 1400      1450      1500   1550   1600     1650             Also a fundamental module for
                                                  Wavelength(nm)                              optical transmission system
 SNU                                                                                                                          7   KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                            Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                                                             WEDFA
National Research Laboratory                                                                                                                         Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier

                            20                                                                                 20
      Optical Power (dBm)




                                                                                          Optical power(dBm)
                                                                                                               10
                            10                                                                                  0
                                                                                                               -10
                             0
                                                                                                               -20
                            -10                                                                                -30
                                                                                                               -40
                            -20                                                                                -50

                            -30                                                                                300
                                                                                                                     250
                            -40                                                                                 ED         200
                                           C band           L band                                                F
                                                                                                                       le 150
                                                                                                                         ng 100
                            -50                                                                                            th
                              1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640                                                         (m       50
                                                                                                                                )
                                            Wavelength (nm)                                                                                 1500   1520   1540   1560   1580   1600   1620
                                                                                                                                                          Wavelength(nm)
                           IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 12, May to be printed,                                       2000, 5      Wideband EDFA             Patent
                            (international)
                           OSA Applied Optics, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1118-1120                                                    2000, 4     EDFA sensor
                           IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 12, pp. 329-331,       2000, 3                               Wideband EDFA
                           IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 35, pp. 1099-1100                1999, 6                               Wideband EDFA
                           OSA Applied Optics, vol. 38, pp. 2749-2751                     1999, 5                               EDFA sensor
                           IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 11, pp. 316-318,       1999, 3                               EDFA dynamics
                           OSA Optics Letters,      vol. 24, pp. 279-281,                 1999, 3                               Wideband EDFA     Patent (international)
                           IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 11, pp. 42-44,         1999, 1                               Wideband EDFA     Patent (international)
                           IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 10, pp. 1721-1723, 1998, 12                                  WDM EDFA         Patent (international)
                           IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 10, pp. 1168-1170, 1998, 8                                   WDM EDFA         Patent (international)
                           IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 10, pp. 790-792,       1998, 6                               WDM EDFA
 SNU                                                                                                                                                                             8
                                                                                                                                                                                KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                                                                          Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                                          TDFA
National Research Laboratory                                                                                Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier

                                                  Level
   1G
     4                                            5                                      10                                           30
                                                                                                                            Gain




                                                                    Output Power (dBm)
   3F
                      P3                                                                 0                                           25
   3 F2




                                                                                                                                           Gain & NF (dB)
      3                                           4                                                                                   20
   3H
                                                  3                                      -10
                 P2
       4
                                                        1.47m                                                                        15
   3H
                                                  2   Signal band                        -20
       5
   3F
                                                  1                                                                                   10
      4

           P1          1.8m band   0.8m band
                                         ASE
                                                                                         -30                                 NF       5
                            ASE
   3H
     6                                     0                                             -40                                        0
           Pump                  Signal & ASE                                                  1450   1460   1470    1480         1490
                                                                                                      Wavelength (nm)
          1450-1520nm band can be utilized using TDFA and GS-TDFA
                            Low loss region in optical fiber
                            Not seriously explored until recent years
          We developed numerical model for TDFA for the first time (6 months of research)

          Pump laser require specialty fiber (double clad, Yb doped fibers)
          Amplifier, pump laser, and fiber design require extensive numerical analysis

 SNU                                                                                                                              9 KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                              Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                                                 Raman
National Research Laboratory                                                                                                     Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier

                                                         10
                   Outperform
                                                          8




                                             Gain (dB)
              the most recent results
              from Tyco Submarine                         6
             (Simulation, May 1999)                       4
                                                                                                                              98nm 1dB bandw idth
                      plus                                2
                                                         0
      Derivation of new equation set                     1400                                 1450                     1500      1550            1600
           for the much faster
                                                          8
            numerical analysis                                                  150




                                                              Pump power (mW)
                                              NF (dB)
            (IEEE PTL 2000)                               7                     100




                                                          6                      50




                                                                                  0
                                                                                      0   5     10        15      20    25
                                                          5                                    D istance (km )



                                                         1400                                 1450                     1500      1550            1600
                                                                                                                 W avelength (nm )

              Amplifier dynamics based on nonlinearity in optical fiber (specialty fiber required)
              Each pump provides approximately 25 - 30nm of gain bandwidth
              Gain bandwidth, wavelength selectable with appropriate pumps

 SNU                                                                                                                                                10   KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                                                   Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                             Specialty Fiber : TDFA
National Research Laboratory                                                                            Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier



      ESA at 980 nm                                            -56
                                                                                                                        100 cm
                                                               -58                                                      50 cm
                           PIQ at 1.55  m
                                                                                                                        25 cm
                                                               -60                                                      13 cm
                                  980 nm




                                                 Power (dBm)
                 1450 nm
                                                               -62


                                                               -64

                                                                                   1460 - 1550nm
                                                               -66
                                                                               Tm 6000ppm Er 1200ppm
                       1550 nm
                                                               -68
      1800 nm

                                                               -70
                                                                 1440   1460   1480    1500   1520     1540    1560    1580        1600
                3+                  3+
            Tm                   Er
                                                                                      Wavelength (nm)

           OSA, Advanced Solid State Lasers, paper MB15                   1999 , 1                  EDF laser
           Optics Letters                                                 in preparation            ASE source


 SNU                                                                                                                          11  KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                            Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                                         Specialty Fiber : pump
National Research Laboratory                                                                                             Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier


                         0.35
                                                                                                                           core




                                                                                      Sm Absorption (dB/Km)
                                                   Sm             Er           500
                         0.30
       Er Fluorescence




                                                                                                                cladding               Er
                         0.25                                                  400
                                                                                                                                       Sm
                         0.20                                                  300
                         0.15
                                                                               200
                         0.10                            *1000
                                                                               100
                         0.05

                         0.00                                                  0
                                 1000       1200        1400     1600       1800
                                                wavelength, nm                                                       1530nm          980nm


                         IEEE Journal of lightwave technology, accepted                                      1999   Fiber Stress
                         Journal of Optics B: Quant. Semiclassic. Optics, accepted                           1999   Hollow Fiber
                         Journal of Non-crystalline Solids, accepted                                         1999   Erbium Fiber
                         Journal of Non-crystalline Solids, accepted                                         1999   Erbium Fiber
                         Optics Communications, Vol. 161, 25                                                 1999   Hollow fiber
                         Optics Communications, Vol. 159/1-3, 139                                            1999   Dispersion
                         IEE Electronics Letters, Vol. 34, No. 19, pp1852-1853                               1998   Annular EDF
                         IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 16, 285                                  1998   Fiber Coating

 SNU                                                                                                                                         12   KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                                            Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                                Approach / Goal
National Research Laboratory                                                               Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier


                           Who could tell us about the target ? We can’t ..
                               well, modest target will be 150nm bandwidth optical amplifier ..
                                     Rather, we promise that we will be keep staying
                                               as one of the world leaders !

              Amplifier structure                                                           Simulation
              Fiber, pump structure                    SNU                                Amplifier Test
              Transmission penalty                                                          Integration


              Tm, Ho, Yb, Nd doping                                                       Spectroscopy
              Heavy metal silica fiber                KJIST                            Manufacturability
              Double clad pump fiber                                                         Co-doping


                   WEDFA                                 RE-DFA                              Raman
                 SNU / Lucent                          KJIST / Brown                    SNU / Southampton



 SNU                                                                                                            13    KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                Fiber Optics Research Lab
                                     Reminder : How much bandwidth?
National Research Laboratory                                                                      Ultra-Wideband Optical Amplifier

                           Current technology cover only 10% of usable bandwidth
                                            Nortel working on 100 Tera bps Ethernet router
                           Lucent / JDS / Cronos / Xros working on 1000 x 1000 WDM channel optical switch
                                Lucent / Nortel / Corning / NEC working on Ultra-wideband amplifier

            wherever the technology goes, we will trace, and will keep staying at the
                                      competitive edge


                                                                                                              SMF

              0.4

                                                                       0. 3 dB / km fiber loss
              0.3


              0.2                                                             C-EDFA         L-EDFA
                               OH-free Fiber                                                              WEDFA
                                                      S   +   -TDFA   GS-TDFA
              0.1                                                                  TDFAs
                                     Raman-Amp

              0.0
                    1300                       1400                    1500                      1600   Wavelength (nm)
 SNU                                                                                                                  14    KJIST
 Optical Communication Systems Lab                                                                      Fiber Optics Research Lab

								
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