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									Draft consolidated list of Article 13 Health Claims - Other Substances (subject to further examination and changes)
    Food or Food          Health Relationship         Conditions of               Nature of              References                       Example of wording                          Coding     Stakeholder
     component                                            use                     evidence                                             to take into consideration                                   coding
Acetyl-l-carnitine        Neurological support      2-4g acetyl-L-           Randomised, double- Malaguarnea M,                Acetyl-l-carnitine helps to support and maintain    CG09, CT06,
                                                    carnitine daily for up   blind, placebo-         Gargante MP,              healthy brain function.                             CT07, CT14
                                                    to 12 months is          controlled trial        Cristaldi E, Colonna
                                                    suggested based on                               V, Messano M et al.
                                                    trials.                  In vitro study          Acetyl l-carnitine
a-Lactalbumin             Functions in              At least 12 g per day    Scientific Review       LÖNNERDAL, B.&            a-Lactalbumin increases cognitive function          CG09, CT06,
                          neurotransmitter                                                           LIEN, E.L. Nutritional                                                        CT14
                          formation                                          Scientific              and physiologic
                                                                             Investigations          significance of alpha-
                                                                                                     lactalbumin in
Alpha-lipoic-acid         Antioxidant properties    200-600 mg per day       official references for See: Alpha-lipoic-acid    Is an antioxidant                                   CG09, CT06,
                                                                             dietary reference       and Antioxidant           -acts as an antioxidant                             CT21
                                                                             intakes in France,      properties                -helps to reduce oxidative stress                                     328
                                                                             monograph, review,                                -helps to contrast the free radicals action
                                                                             critical studies,                                 -helps to restore intacellular antioxidants (e.i.
Alpha-lipoic-acid         Metabolism of             Min 600 mg per day       human study, review, See: Alpha-lipoic-acid       Contributes to glucose metabolism                   CG09, CT06,
                          carbohydrates                                      animal study, in vitro and Metabolism of          contributes to maintain healthy blood glucose       CT22
                                                                             study                   carbohydrates             levels                                                                329


Aphanizomenon flos-       Helps promote positive    For some, the AFA /      Peer reviewed           Sabelli H; Fink P;        AFA / PEA can support positive mood                 CG09, CT07,
aquae (AFA) (blue-green   effects on mood via its   PEA extract may          journals                Fawcett J; Tom C.                                                             CT14
algae)                    content of                need to be taken for                             Sustained
phenylethyleamine         Phenylethylamine (PEA)    three to four weeks                              antidepressant effect
extract                                             before effects are                               of PEA replacement. J
Amylopectin               Carbohydrate              A serving must           Peer reviewed           1. Leiper JB, et al.      Amylopectin facilitates the replenishment of        CG09, CT06,
                          metabolism                contain approximately    journal articles        Improved gastric          glycogen stores in skeletal muscle.                 CT24
                                                    75 grams.                                        emptying rate in
                                                                                                     humans of a unique
                                                                                                     glucose polymer with
Amylopectin and L-        Carbohydrate and lipid    A serving must           Peer reviewed           1. Leiper JB, et al.      Amylopectin plus L-carnitine facilitate the         CG09, CT06,
carnitine                 metabolism                contain approximately    journal articles        Improved gastric          replenishment of glycogen stores in skeletal        CT24
                                                    75 grams of                                      emptying rate in          muscle, and the switching from carbohydrate
                                                    amylopectin and 1                                humans of a unique        oxidation to fat oxidation.
                                                    gram of L-carnitine.                             glucose polymer with
Antioxidant from          Antioxidant properties    possible if one of the   Official references     See: Antioxidant from     Antioxidant contained in this product contribute    CG09, CT06,
processed fruits and                                other claims             for dietary reference   processed fruits and      to the anti-oxidative functions of the body         CT21
vegetables and juices                               concerning a specific    intakes in France,      vegetables and juices                                                                           330
                                                    antioxidant is           monograph, review,      and antioxidant
                                                    acceptable               critical studies,       properties
Antioxidants              Heart Health              Inclusion of fortified   Workshop                Steinberg, D.             Inclusion of antioxidants in the diet may help      CG09, CT06,
                                                    products in a healthy    Proceedings             Antioxidants in the       maintain a healthy heart                            CT21, CT23
                                                    diet                                             prevention of human
                                                                             Prospective Study       atherosclerosis.
                                                                                                     Summary of the
Antioxidant substance     Protects against damage   As per the dosages       Text Books              Ref 1 - Halliwell B,      Antioxidants protect cells from the harmful/        CG09, CT06,
                          caused by free radicals   listed for the various   Human Intervention      Gutteridge JMC. Free      damaging effects of free radicals.                  CT21
                          and other reactive        antioxidant food         Studies                 radicals in biology and
                          oxygen species            substances, vitamins                             medicine. Oxford          Antioxidants protect against oxidation, which
                                                    and minerals,                                    University Press,         causes cell damage.
Arabinogalactan (extract Intestinal health           Min. 3 g/day              authoritative body,   See: Arabinogalactan        - prebiotic                                         CG09, CT06,
from larch tree)                                                               reviews and different and Intestinal health       - Supports gut regularity                           CT15
                                                                               individual human and                              -helps maintain gut regularity                                    331
                                                                               animal studies                                    -contributes to gut regularity
                                                                                                                                 -increases the production of short-chain fatty
Arginine                  Vascular health            1500 mg per day           reviews, clinical      See: Arginine and          Support of normal blood circulation                 CG09, CT06,
                                                                               practice, individual   Vascular health                                                                CT23
                                                                               studies                                                                                                             332


Aspartame sucrose         Weight control, including Should be consumed      Systematic review        Systematic review and       Weight control /management is helped by using       CG09, CT08,
substitute                weight loss               as part of a calorie    and meta-analysis of     meta-analysis               foods and drinks sweetened with Aspartame in        CT12
                                                    controlled diet.        17 peer-reviewed         de la Hunty, A., M.         place of foods and drinks sweetened with sugar.
                                                                            papers. Assessment       Ashwell and S. Gibson
                                                                            of evidence followed     (2006). "A review of
Anthocyanins              Antioxidant                For consumer to        Joint FAO/WHO            Evaluation of certain       Contains naturally occurring antioxidants, which    CG09, CT06,
                                                     receive the expected Expert Committee on        food additives and          may help to protect against the damage caused       CT21
                                                     health benefits from   Food Additives           contaminants (Twenty-       by free radicals, as part of a healthy lifestyle.
                                                     anthocyanins, at least Prior, R; Wu, X          sixth report of the Joint    Stress, smoking, pollution and ultraviolet
                                                     20 to 40 mg/day must Chun, OK et al             FAO/WHO Expert              radiation can increase the level of harmful free
Anthocyanins              Antioxidant protection     15 - 20mg per portion                           Serum antioxidant           "Act as an antioxidant to protect the body          CG09, CT06,
                                                     of anthocyanins                                 capacity is increased       Help protect cells against oxidative stress         CT21
                                                     (calculated as                                  by consumption of           Helps mop up free radicals
                                                     cyanidin-3-glucoside)                           strawberries, spinach,
                                                                                                     red wine or vitamin C       "
Apple Flavan-3-ols        Helps Maintain Cognitive Product must contain         H
                                                                               •	igh quality human Francis, S. T., K.            (-)-epicatechin is important in maintaining a       CG09, CT07,
                          Health                   at least 70 mg of (-)-      observational studies Head, et al. (2006).        healthy circulation                                 CT14
                                                   epicatechin                                       "The effect of flavanol-
                                                   monomers.                    A
                                                                               •	nimal Studies       rich cocoa on the fMRI
                                                                                                     response to a
Apple vinegar drink       Helps maintain vascular    The product should        FOSHU CLAIM           Japanese Ministry of        Apple vinegar drink helps to maintain vascular      CG09, CT06,
                          health                     contain 15ml Apple                              Health, Labour, and         health                                              CT23
                                                     vinegar with acidity of   Individual Double     Welfare (MHLW)
                                                     5%w/v per serving         blind randomised      ‘Foods for Specified
                                                     It is not advisable to    controlled trial      Health Use’ (FOSHU)
Astaxanthin from          Beneficial for eye health. 4 – 12 mg dose daily.                           EU: Astaxanthin-rich        Supports the eyes.                                  CG09, CT06,
Haematococcus pluvialis                                                        animal study          oleoresin extracted         Visual acuity support. Provides antioxidant         CT17
                                                                               in vitro studies      from Haematococcus          support to the retina.
                                                                               reviews               pluvialis Novel Food
                                                                                                     Approval.
Astaxanthin from          Supports a healthy         4 – 12 mg dose daily.      UK SACN              EU: Astaxanthin-rich        Supports anti-aging through cellular health.        CG09, CT06,
Haematococcus pluvialis   oxidative balance                                    opinion/EU Novel      oleoresin extracted         Supports increased energy                           CT22
                                                                               Food approval, FDA from Haematococcus             levels. Helps control excessive free radicals in
                                                                                                     pluvialis Novel Food        the body. Supports a
                                                                               Randomized            Approval. March 13,         healthy response to oxidative stress. Protects
Astaxanthin from          Supports a healthy         4 – 12 mg dose daily.      UK SACN              EU: Astaxanthin-rich        Supports healthy cholesterol levels. Maintains      CG09, CT06,
Haematococcus pluvialis   cardiovascular system.                               opinion/EU Novel      oleoresin extracted         low C reactive protein                              CT23
                                                                               Food approval, FDA from Haematococcus             levels.
                                                                                                     pluvialis Novel Food
                                                                               Randomized            Approval. March 13,
Bacterial lysate          Immune health              150 mg per day (2x10      texbook, review,      See: Bacterial lysate       Strenghtens the body's natural                      CG09, CT06,
                                                     days, 14 day pause)       individual studies    and Immune health           resistance/supports the immune function             CT20
                                                                                                                                                                                                   333
Beta-alanine    Physical performance       1.6-5.2 g beta alanine Randomised double       See: Beta-alanine and Supplementation helps improve exercise                    CG09, CT06,
                                           per day                blind placebo           Physical performance performance                                                CT11
                                                                  controlled trials                                 /helps reduce muscle fatigue                                        334
                                                                                                                    /helps improve muscle work capacity
                                                                                                                    /contributes to the increase of muscle buffering
Beta-alanine    Beta-alanine improves      Minimum of 6.4g beta Randomised double         Hill et al. 2006 (Hill    Beta-alanine supplementation improves exercise        CG09, CT06,
                exercise performance       alanine per day for 4 blind placebo            CA, Harris RC, Kim        performance                                           CT11
                                           weeks (based on Hill controlled trial          HJ, Harris BD, Sale C,
                                           et al. 2006)                                   Boobis LH, Kim CK,
                                                                                          Wise JA)
Beta-alanine    Beta-alanine improves      Minimum of 6.4g beta Randomised double         Hill et al. 2006 (Hill    Beta-alanine supplementation improves cycling         CG09, CT06,
                cycling performance        alanine per day for 4 blind placebo            CA, Harris RC, Kim        performance                                           CT11
                                           weeks (based on Hill controlled trial          HJ, Harris BD, Sale C,
                                           et al. 2006)                                   Boobis LH, Kim CK,
                                                                                          Wise JA)
Beta-alanine    Beta-alanine reduces       Minimum of 6.4g beta Randomised double         Hill et al. 2005 (Hill C, Beta-alanine supplementation reduces muscle           CG09, CT06,
                muscle fatigue             alanine per day for 4 blind placebo            Harris RC, Kim H J,       fatigue                                               CT11
                                           weeks (based on Hill controlled trial          Boobis L, Sale C,
                                           et al. 2006)                                   Wise JA)
                                                                                          The effect of beta-
Beta-alanine    Beta-alanine improves      Minimum of 6.4g beta Randomised double         Hill et al. 2005 (Hill C, Beta-alanine supplementation improves muscle          CG09, CT06,
                muscle work capacity       alanine per day for 4 blind placebo            Harris RC, Kim H J,       work capacity                                         CT11
                                           weeks (based on Hill controlled trial          Boobis L, Sale C,
                                           et al. 2006)                                   Wise JA)
                                                                                          The effect of beta-
Beta-alanine    Beta-alanine increases     Minimum of 3.2g beta Randomised double         Hill et al. 2005 (Hill C, Beta-alanine supplementation Increases muscle         CG09, CT06,
                muscle carnosine stores    alanine per day for 4 blind placebo            Harris RC, Kim H J,       carnosine stores                                      CT11
                                           weeks (based on       controlled trial         Boobis L, Sale C,
                                           Harris et al. 2006)                            Wise JA)
                                                                                          The effect of beta-
Beta-alanine    Beta-alanine increases     Minimum of 5.2g beta Randomised double         Hill et al. 2006 (Hill    Beta-alanine supplementation increases                CG09, CT06,
                carnosine stores in fast   alanine per day for 4 blind placebo            CA, Harris RC, Kim        carnosine stores in fast twitch muscle fibres         CT11
                twitch muscle fibres       weeks (based on Hill controlled trial          HJ, Harris BD, Sale C,
                                           et al. 2006)                                   Boobis LH, Kim CK,
                                                                                          Wise JA)
Beta-alanine    Beta-alanine increases    Minimum of 3.2g beta Randomised double          Randomised double         Beta-alanine supplementation increases muscle         CG09, CT06,
                muscle buffering capacity alanine per day for 4 blind placebo             blind placebo             buffering capacity                                    CT11
                                          weeks (based on       controlled trial          controlled trial
                                          Harris et al. 2006)
                                                                                          Hill et al. 2006 (Hill
Beta-Carotene   Antioxidant                Min 15% RDA of beta- ciritical                 See: Beta-Carotene       Is an antioxidant that protects the body’s cells       CG09, CT06,
                properties/Protection of   carotene (as vitamin    reviews/clinical       and Antioxidant          -can protect you from free radicals                    CT21
                DNA                        A, conversion factor 6) studies/experimental   properties/Protection    -can protect your cells and tissues from oxidation                   335
                                                                   studies                of DNA                   -can contribute to the total antioxidant capacity of
                                                                                                                   the body
Beta-Carotene   Skin aging/Skin health     Minimum intake of 2    individual human        See: Beta-Carotene       Helps to retard skin aging                             CG09, CT06,
                                           mg per day. Intake     intervention studies,   and Skin aging/Skin      -contributes to maintain a healthy skin                CT18
                                           should not exceed 10   peer reviewed           health                   -promotes healthy skin pigmentation and tanning                      336
                                           mg/d long term if      reviews                                          -the anti-oxidant properties of Beta carotene help
                                           ingested                                                                maintain a healthy and elastic skin
Beta-Carotene   Immune health              Up to 10 mg/day        text books and          See: Beta-Carotene       Beta-carotene helps support healthy immunity           CG09, CT06,
                                                                  monographs,             and Immune health        -contributes to the body's defenses                    CT20
                                                                  individual papers                                -supports non-specific immune function                               337
Beta-Carotene             Immune health in           Up to 10 mg per day    individual papers     See: Beta-Carotene       Beta-carotene helps to support immunity upon           CG09, CT06,
                          relation to UV-radiation   (for 4 - 10 weeks)                           and Immune health in UV-radiation (sun exposure)/helps to maintain              CT18
                                                                                                  relation to UV-radiation healthy immune responses upon UV-radiation                           338
                                                                                                                           (sun exposure)/helps to maintain physiological
                                                                                                                           immune responses of the skin upon UV radiation
Beta-Carotene             Antioxidative              Up to 10 mg per day text books,              See: Beta-Carotene       Beta-carotene supports the skin's natural              CG09, CT06,
                          properties/protection      (for 8-10 weeks)      monographs,            and Antioxidative        defenses against UV-radiation (sun) induced            CT18
                          against UV-induced                               individual papers      properties/protection    damage/enhances the skin's intrinsic defenses                        339
                          erythema                                                                against UV-induced       against erythema induced by recreational UV
                                                                                                  erythema                 exposure;
Beta carotene in          Eye health and vision      At least 15% RDA of individual human         See: Beta carotene in Beta carotene in combination with vitamins C              CG09, CT06,
combination with                                     beta-carotene (as     intervention studies   combination with         and E helps to maintain the health of the eye          CT17
vitamin E and vitamin C                              vitamin A, conversion (RCTs), supported      vitamin E and vitamin -helps protect eye lens and retina from oxidation                       340
                                                     factor 6), vitamin E  by epidemiological     C and Eye health and -are important nutrients for healthy vision
                                                     and vitamin C.        evidence.              vision                   (throughout life)
Beta-glucans              Blood lipid profile        Oral dosing of        High quality RCTs      Frank, J., Sundberg,     Beta-glucans help to maintain healthy blood lipid      CG09, CT06,
                                                     between 3 and 16 g                           B., Kamal-Eldin, A.,     levels                                                 CT23
                                                     have been studied.                           Vessby, B., and
                                                     Beta-glucans                                 Aman, P. Yeast-
                                                     normally derived from                        leavened oat breads
Beta sitosterol           Cholesterol                1 g/day               monographs, critical See: Beta sitosterol       -helps to regulate LDL and total cholesterol           CG09, CT06,
                                                                           reviews, clinical      and Cholesterol          levels;                                                CT23
                                                                           studies                                         -contributes to healthy LDL and total cholesterol                    341
                                                                                                                           level
                                                                                                                           -functions by displacing cholesterol from
Beta sitosterol           Kidney and prostate        Min 60 mg per day     review, human study, See: Beta sitosterol       Helps maintain normal kidney function                  CG09, CT06,
                          health                                           animal study, in vitro and Kidney and                                                                  CT22
                                                                           study                  prostate health                                                                               342


Betaine                   Heart health and           2-30 g per day         textbooks, peer-         See: Betaine and         Contributes to the maintenance of a healthy         CG09, CT06,
                          vascular system                                   reveiwed articles        Heart health and         heart by its ability to promote healthy levels of   CT23
                                                                                                     vascular system          homocysteine/contributes to the normal                            343
                                                                                                                              functioning of the cardiovascular system

Betalains                                      phytoconstituent's
                          Antioxidant properties                            authorative body         See: Betalains and       Betalains containing foods contribute to keep       CG09, CT03,
                                               content in fruits and        textbook, reviews,       Antioxidant properties   your body healthy                                   CT21
                                               vegetables expressed         clinical studies                                  -antioxidant containing foods support of healthy                  344
                                               in comparison with                                                             ageing
                                               the daily needs and                                                            -antioxidants contribute to the total antioxidant
Bifidobacterium (BB12) Natural immune function Recommended target           Randomised double        Arunachalan K, Gill      Bifidobacterium cultures enhances natural           CG05, CG09,
fortified cultured milk                        dose for a probiotic is      blind placebo            HS, Chandra RK           immune function,reduces symptoms of                 CT06, CT20
(Hodzeko-Amasi)                                1.0 x 10 [9] colony          controlled clinical      (2000) Enhancement       inflammatory bowel conditions,
                                               forming units (cfu) per      trial, RCT               of natural immune
                                               serving                                               function by dietary
Bioflavonoids             Vein health          500 to 1000 mg per           Meta-analyses            See: Bioflavonoids       helps to maintain healthy venous circulation        CG09, CT06,
                                               day / 100-150 mg in                                   and Vein health                                                              CT23
                                               case of flavonoids                                                                                                                               345
                                               such as
                                               proanthocyanidins
Bioflavonoids from citrus Vascular health      700-1500 mg per day          scientific literature,   See: Bioflavonoids       helps to maintain healthy venous circulation        CG09, CT06,
                                                                            peer-reviewed            from citrus and                                                              CT23
                                                                            articles, reviews        Vascular health                                                                            346
Bovine colostrum           Immune health/source of 1-4 g bovine                 meta-analysis,         See: Bovine colostrum Optimises the natural defense system in healthy     CG09, CT06,
                           immunoglobulins         colostrum per day            critical expert         and Immune           persons                                             CT20
                                                   (total quantity is           reviews, human         health/source of                                                                         347
                                                   dependent on the             intervention studies   immunoglobulins
                                                   concentration of
Bovine colostrum           Supports immune         10 grams per day for         RCTs (human trials)    Shing CM, Peake J,        Colostrum helps athletes maintain a healthy     CG09, CT06,
                           function during periods 57 days                                             Suzuki K, Okutsu M,       immune system during intense training           CT20
                           of intense physical                                                         Pereira R, Stevenson
                           exercise                                                                    L, Jenkins DG,
                                                                                                       Coombes JS. Effects
Bovine colostrum           Supports an                   10 grams per day for   RCTs (human trials)    Shing CM, Jenkins         Combined with regular training, colostrum can   CG09, CT06,
                           improvement in exercise       10 weeks                                      DG, Stevenson L,          improve in exercise performance                 CT11
                           performance when                                                            Coombes JS. The
                           combined with regular                                                       influence of bovine
                           training                                                                    colostrum
Bovine colostrum           Supports an increase in       20 grams per day for   RCT                    Antonio J, Sanders        Combined with exercise and diet, colostrum      CG09, CT06,
                           lean body mass when           8 weeks                (human trial)          MS, Van Gammeren          supports muscle growth                          CT11
                           combined with                                                               D. The effects of
                           resistance exercise                                                         bovine colostrum
                                                                                                       supplementation on
Bovine colostrum           Supports recovery             10 grams per day for   RCTs (human trials)    Shing CM, Jenkins         Bovine colostrum supports optimal recovery after CG09, CT06,
                           following intense             10 weeks                                      DG, Stevenson L,          intense exercise                                 CT11
                           exercise                                                                    Coombes JS. The
                                                                                                       influence of bovine
                                                                                                       colostrum
Bovine lactoferrin         Antimicrobial / antiviral /   200 mg bLF per day    mechanistic             See: Bovine lactoferrin   Contributes to the natural defences             CG09, CT06,
                           innate host defense                                 understanding,          and Antimicrobial /                                                       CT20
                                                         colostrum from non-   critical reviews by     antiviral / innate host                                                                  348
                                                         hyperimmunised cows experts, multiple         defense
                                                                               small human studies
Branched chain amino       Muscle metabolism             Min 3g per day, taken reviews/peer-          See: Branched chain        Helps muscle recovery                           CG09, CT03,
acids (Leucine,                                          during and            reviewed clinical      amino acids (Leucine,      -supports muscle fatigue recovery               CT11
Isoleucine, valine)                                      immediately following studies                Isoleucine, valine)                                                                       349
                                                         the exercise                                 and Muscle
                                                                                                      metabolism
Bromelain                  Immune health                 daily dosage: ≥ 200    expert organizations, See: Bromelain and         Contributes to the normal functioning of the    CG09, CT03,
                                                         mg (with activity 5    textbooks,            Immune health              immune system                                   CT20
                                                         F.I.P/mg).             monographs, meta-                                -helps maintain the body's natural defences                    350
                                                                                analysis, review
                                                                                articles, individual
Bromelain                  Vascular health               daily dosage: ≥ 200    expert organizations, See: Bromelain and         helps to maintein natural blood fluidity and    CG09, CT06,
                                                         mg (with activity 5    textbooks,            Vascular health            vessel patence                                  CT22
                                                         F.I.P/mg).             monographs, meta-                                                                                               351
                                                                                analysis, review
                                                                                articles, individual
Broccoli Sprout Powder     Antioxidant properties        1g per day             Text Book             Encyclopaedia of           Helps to protect the bodies cells against       CG09, CT06,
                                                                                                      Human Nutrition Vol 1      oxidative stress.                               CT21
                                                                                Text Book             2nd edition Ed.
                                                                                                      Caballero B., Allen L.
                                                                                Controlled Clinical   and Prentice A. P.123-
Buckwheat extract          Immune system function 50mg troxerutin and           Human intervention    Turner RB, Fowler SL,      Coldizin helps support the immune system        CG09, CT06,
containing flavonoid-                             25mg zinc gluconate           trial;                Berg K. Treatment of                                                       CT20
mineral (troxerutin -                             (5 lozenges daily)            In vitro study        the common cold with
zinc) complex (Coldizin)                                                                              troxerutin. Acta
                                                                                                      Pathologica,
C12-peption                 Vascular health            Product-specific        epidemiological and     See: C12-peption and      helps to maintain a healthy blood pressure          CG09, CT03,
                                                       claim. 1-4 g milk       intervention studies    Vascular health           -supports a healthy blood pressure                  CT22
                                                       protein derived         with protein                                                                                                        352
                                                       hydrolysate per day     hydrolysate +
                                                                               intervention studies
Caffeine (from              Fat metabolism/Energy      Minimum of 150 mg       Double blind placebo-   See: Caffeine (from       Contributes to the mobilisation of fat stores       CG09, CT08,
tea/coffee/chocolate or     expenditure                per day / 5-15mg/kg     controlled crossover    tea/coffee/chocolate      -contributes ton the stimulation of fat release     CT12
added in pure form)                                    bodywt caffeine         trials/Placebo-         or added in pure form)    -helps to increase fat burning                                    353
                                                                               controlled crossover    and Fat                   -contributes to the oxidation of stored fats
                                                                                                       metabolism/Energy         -helps generate a negative energy balance
Caffeine (from              Cognitive and mental       Min. 32 mg per day      Critical review +       See: Caffeine (from       Contributes to mental performance                   CG09, CT07,
tea/coffee/chocolate or     performance                                        individual studies,     tea/coffee/chocolate      -helps maintain and improve alertness               CT14
added in pure form)                                                            fufose                  or added in pure form)    -aids concentration                                               354
                                                                                                       and Cognitive and         -helps make you feel more energetic
                                                                                                       mental performance        -helps revive you
Caffeine (from              Physical Performance       1-5mg/kg/day            authoritative body,     See: Caffeine (from       Improves physical performance.                      CG09, CT03,
tea/coffee/chocolate or     (short term and                                    individual studies      tea/coffee/chocolate                                                          CT11
added in pure form)         endurance activities)                                                      or added in pure form)                                                                      355
                                                                                                       and Physical
                                                                                                       Performance (short
Caffeine                    Supports resting           The product must        Peer-reviewed           Arciero PJ,               Caffeine can increase resting metabolic rate        CG09, CT06,
                            metabolic rate             contain at least 100    scientific research     Bougopoulos CL,                                                               CT11, CT24
                            and thermogenesis          milligrams caffeine     articles                Nindl BC, Benowitz        Caffeine supports thermogenesis and energy
                                                       per serving or 1-5mg                            NL. (2000) Influence      oxidation
                                                       per kilogram body                               of age on the thermic
Caffeine                    Supports energy and        The product must        Peer-reviewed           Lorist MM, Snel J,        Caffeine boosts energy & mental focus               CG09, CT06,
                            mental performance         contain at least 100    scientific research     Mulder G, Kok A.          Caffeine enhances mental performance                CT07, CT14,
                                                       milligrams caffeine     article                 (1995) Aging, caffeine,   Caffeine supports focus and concentration           CT24
                                                       per serving or 1-5 mg                           and information
                                                       per kilogram body                               processing: an event-
Caffeine                    Supports exercise          The product must        Peer-reviewed           Bell DG, McLellan TM.     Caffeine helps prolong exercise time                CG09, CT06,
                            performance (reduction     contain at least 100    scientific research     (2002) Exercise           Caffeine can help increase time to exhaustion       CT11
                            in perceived exertion,     milligrams caffeine     articles                endurance 1, 3, and 6     allowing you to workout longer
                            improve time to            per serving or 1-5mg                            h after caffeine
                            exhaustion and exercise    per kilogram body                               ingestion in caffeine     Caffeine supports an increase in performance
Caffeine                    Endurance during short     Claim to be only used   Meta analysis           Effects of caffeine       Enhances physical performance.                      CG09, CT06,
                            term high intensity        for Foods for           Review                  ingestion on exercise     Provides a performance edge.                        CT11
                            exercise                   sportpeople under the   RCT                     testing: A Meta-          Can delay the onset of fatigue.
                                                       Dir. 89/398/EEC                                 analysis                  Can increase exercise intensity/work rate.
                                                       Caffeine should be                              Doherty M and Smith
Caffeine (with or without   Reduces perception of      Claim to be only used   Meta analysis           Effects of caffeine       Reduces the perception of effort.                   CG09, CT06,
carbohydrate)               effort.                    for Foods for           RCT                     ingestion on rating of                                                        CT07, CT22
                                                       sportpeople under the                           perceived exertion
                                                       Dir. 89/398/EEC                                 during and after
                                                       caffeine in doses                               exercise: a meta-
Caffeine (with or without   Enhances mental            Claim to be only used   SCF Review              Report of the SCF on      Enhances mental performance.                        CG09, CT07,
carbohydrate)               alertness during intense   for Foods for           Review                  the Composition and       Enhances focus, alertness and concentration.        CT14
                            muscular activity.         sportpeople under the   Original Paper          Specification of Food     Enhances reaction time.
                                                       Dir. 89/398/EEC.        RCT                     Intended to Meet the      Stay sharper for longer.
                                                       Caffeine should be                              Expenditure of Intense
Carnitine                   Fat metabolism             Min 200 mg per day      authorative body        See: Carnitine and        Helps the energy production in the cell by          CG09, CT08,
                                                                               (Italian Ministry of    Fat metabolism            transporting fatty acids in places where they are   CT24
                                                                               Health), reviews and                              used and metabolised                                              356
                                                                               different individual                              -contributes to the fat burning during exercise
                                                                               human and animal                                  -contributes to increased fat oxidation
Carnitine                 Muscle metabolism /         A minimum of 200-         double blind,            See: Carnitine and      Helps improve muscle recovery after exercise      CG09, CT06,
                          Recovery after exercise     500 mg per day            placebo controlled       Muscle metabolism /     -helps maintain optimal repair of muscle tissue   CT11
                                                                                crossover studies on     Recovery after          -supports athletes in recovery from weight                       357
                                                                                healthy humans           exercise                training
                                                                                                                                 -can help recreationally weight-trained in
Carnitine                 Heart health                Min 200 mg per day        reviews and different See: Carnitine and         Helps to maintain healthy blood cholesterol and   CG09, CT06,
                                                                                individual human and Heart health                plasma lipid levels in the elderly                CT22
                                                                                animal studies                                                                                                    358


Carnitine                 Vegetarism                  Min. 200 mg/day           reviews and different See: Carnitine and      Can increase plasma L-Carnitine levels of            CG09, CT06,
                                                                                individual human and Vegetarism               vegetarians                                          CT22
                                                                                animal studies                                -supports plasma L-Carnitine levels in                              359
                                                                                                                              vegetarians
                                                                                                                              provides extra L-Carnitine when dietary intake is
Carnitine                 Pregnancy                   Min. 500 mg/day           reviews and different See: Carnitine and      Can increase L-Carnitine levels during               CG09, CT06,
                                                                                individual human and Pregnancy                pregnancy and lactation                              CT19
                                                                                animal studies                                -can help decrease free fatty acids during                          360
                                                                                                                              pregnancy
                                                                                                                              -can maintain normal L-Carnitine plasma levels
Carotenoids from fruits   Antioxidant properties      30 % of observed          Official references    See: Carotenoids from Carotenoids contained in this product ensure          CG09, CT06,
and vegetables juices                                 intakes per day : 1.5     for dietary reference fruits and vegetables   antioxidant action                                   CT21
                                                      mg                        intakes in France,     juices and Antioxidant                                                                     361
                                                                                review, textbook,      properties
                                                                                epidemiological
Casein protein            Physical performance        10-30 g protein           review, literature and See: Casein protein    Accelerates recovery from exercise                   CG09, CT06,
hydrolysate                                           consumption just          human studies          hydrolysate and        -helps to recover faster                             CT11
                                                      before, during or                                Physical performance -shortens the time to recover completely                              362
                                                      directly after exercise                                                 -helps to enhance endurance performance
                                                      per hour.                                                               -helps to perform longer
Casein                    Absorption rate and         The product must          Peer-reviewed          Boirie Y, Dangin M,    Slower absorbing protein source to deliver           CG09, CT06,
                          muscle accretion            contain at least 10       scientific research    Gachon P, Vasson       essential amino acids to                             CT11
                                                      grams high quality        articles               MP, Maubois JL,        muscles for exercise recovery
                                                      protein per serving                              Beaufrere B. (1997)
                                                      Claim to be used for                             Slow and fast dietary Post-exercise consumption supports muscle
Caseino-                  Satiety                     200 mg per portion        Individual studies,    See: Protein and       Support of sending satiety signals to the brain.     CG09, CT08,
Glycomacropeptide (C-                                                           Journal                Satiety                / Helps to feel full                                 CT12
GMP)                                                                                     Patent                                / Supports satisfaction                                            363


Chitosan                  Weight Management           1-6 g per day, 30         Studies and critical     See: Chitosan and       Contributes to management of weight control        CG09, CT08,
                                                      minutes before the        reviews (meta            Weight Management       -can help in the reduction of body weight          CT12
                                                      main meals                analysis)                                        -can help to the control of weight by reducing the               364
                                                                                                                                 quantity of fat absorbed from the diet

Chlorella                 Immune health               500-1000 mg per day       scientific literature,   See: Chlorella and      Enhancement of vitality-energy                    CG09, CT06,
                                                                                peer-reviewed            Immune health                                                             CT24
                                                                                articles, peer-                                                                                                   365
                                                                                reviewed review
                                                                                article
Choline                   Maintaining healthy liver   The product must          Authoritative Body       IOM. 1998. Choline.     Choline, as a component of phosphatidylcholine, CG09, CT06,
                          functioning                 contain at least 15%      AIs are based on the     In: Dietary Reference   aids in fat transport away from the liver, thereby CT22
                                                      of the AI (AI for adult   intake required to       Intakes for Thiamin,    maintaining healthy liver functioning.”
                                                      males and females         maintain liver           Riboflavin, Niacin,
                                                      varies is 550 and 425     function, as             Vitamin B(6), Folate,
Choline                Cognitive, memory          The product must           Authoritative Body       US National              Choline supports normal neurological functioning.   CG09, CT06,
                       functioning Neurological   contain at least 15%                                Academies of             Choline supports nerve impulse transmission.        CT07, CT14
                       functioning                of the AI (AI for adult    Authoritative body       Science, Institute of    Choline supports cognitive functioning.
                                                  males and females                                   Medicine, 1998           Choline helps maintain memory and brain
                                                  varies is 550 and 425      Authoritative Body       IOM. 1998. Choline.      function.
Choline                Development                20 mg per day              textbook                 See: Choline and         Choline is essential for normal development,        CG09, CT06,
                                                                                                      Development              particular of brain and nervous system              CT14
                                                                                                                                                                                                 366


Chondroitin            Joint Health               120-800 mg/day             meta-analysis,           See: Chondroitin and     Helps to supports the mobility of the joints        CG09, CT06,
                                                                             human intervention       Joint Health             -helps keep joints supple and flexible              CT10
                                                                             studies,                                          -an important component of the joint metabolism                   367
                                                                             recommendations of
                                                                             EULAR
Chondroitin Sulphate   Joint Health and Mobility 300mg/day                   Human Intervention       Bruyere O, Reginster     Renowned for helping maintain joint mobility and    CG09, CT06,
                                                                             Study, In vitro Study    JY, Glucosamine and      flexibility.                                        CT10
                                                  For optimum results,                                Chondroitin Sulphate     Chondroitin (and glucosamine) may help to
                                                  as supported by high       High quality RCTs        as therapeutic agents    support healthy knees.
                                                  quality clinical trials,   (monotherapy)            for knee and hip         Chondroitin (and glucosamine) may help to
Cocoa flavanols        Antioxidative properties   At least 168 mg per        reviews and              See: Cocoa flavanols     - helps protect you from free radicals;             CG09, CT06,
                                                  day (as measured by        individual studies       and Antioxidative        - helps promote healthy cells by minimising free    CT21
                                                  HPLC)                                               properties               radicals;                                                         368
                                                                                                                               - helps to promote healthy cells by neutralising
                                                                                                                               free radicals
Cocoa flavanols        Vascular health            At least 88 mg of          human clinical trials,   See: Cocoa flavanols     Maintenance and promotion of a normal blood         CG09, CT06,
                                                  cocoa flavonols per        epidemiological          and Vascular health      pressure                                            CT23
                                                  day                        studies, reviews                                                                                                    369


Coenzyme Q10           Energy metabolism          30-200 mg per day          monographs,              See: Coenzyme Q10        Supports energy production                        CG09, CT06,
(Ubiquinone)                                                                 textbook, critical       (Ubiquinone) and         -is needed/important for energy production in the CT22
                                                                             reviews                  Energy metabolism        cell                                                              370
                                                                                                                               -plays an important role in the ATP production to
                                                                                                                               maintain healthy condition
Coenzyme Q10           Heart health               100-200 mg per day         textbook, meta-          See: Coenzyme Q10        Supports normal blood pressure                    CG09, CT06,
(Ubiquinone)                                                                 analysis, individual     (Ubiquinone) and                                                           CT23
                                                                             human studies            Heart health             -contributes to a normal blood pressure                           371


Coenzyme Q10           Antioxidant properties     30-200 mg per day          monographs,              See: Coenzyme Q10     Naturally occuring lipid soluble antioxidant in the    CG09, CT06,
(Ubiquinone)                                                                 textbooks, critical      (Ubiquinone) and      body                                                   CT21
                                                                             reviews, individual      Antioxidant properties-helps to protect against lipid oxidation                            372
                                                                             human studies                                  -antioxidant
                                                                                                                            -helps to maintain healthy condition
Coenzyme Q10           Protection of healthy     A minimum dose of           Review                   Young AJ, Johnson S, Coenzyme Q10 may help maintain healthy brain            CG09, CT06,
                       neurological system       300mg is suggested          Prospective,             Steffens DC,          function.                                              CT07, CT14
                                                 with active                 randomised, double-      Doraiswamy PM.
                                                 neurological                blind, parallel-group    Coenzyme Q10: a
                                                 degeneration. Data          study                    review of its promise
Q10                    Ubiquinione takes part in 30 mg /day                  Textbook                 Berg JM, Tynoczko     Q10 is a component in the formation of energy          CG09, CT06,
(Coenzyme Q,           electron-transferring in                              Review                   JL, Stryer L.                                                                CT24
Ubiquinione)           the respiratory chain                                                          Biochemistry.
                                                                                                      Freeman & Company, Q10 contribute to the formation of energy in cells
                                                                                                      2002.
Collagen hydrolysate        Joint health             10g per day (Type I      reviews, study        See: Collagen              -contributes to the functioning of cartilage      CG09, CT06,
                                                     collagen with an                               hydrolysate and Joint      building cells                                    CT10
                                                     average Molecular                              health                     -supports the (natural) regeneration of joint                   373
                                                     Weight of up to 3.500                                                     cartilage
                                                     Dalton)                                                                   -stimulates the build-up of joint cartilage
Combination of millet       Support of hair growth   Dosage: per capsule      Human and in vitro    Hoeller Obrigkeit et       Supports healthy hair growth from within          CG09, CT06,
extract + L-cystine +                                140 mg millet extract    Studies               al., Cutaneous and                                                           CT18
vitamin B5 (calcium                                  + 2 mg L-cystine + 9                           Ocular Toxicology, 25      Supports the growth of healthy hair & nails
panthothenate)                                       mg vitamin B5.                                 (2006): 13-22.
                                                     2 capsules/day.                                                           Supports metabolism of the hair roots
Combination of B vitamins Sustained mental           Agency guidance for      Review and            1) E. Huskisson, S.        Help you stay on top form mentally                CG09, CT07,
(Riboflavin (B2), Niacin,  performance               supplements is that      Human studies         Maggini and M. Ruf.                                                          CT14
Pyridoxine (B6), vitamin                             products containing                            The influence of           May help maintain concentration and alertness
B12, Biotin, Pantothenic                             >1000mg vitamin C                              micronutrients on
Acid, Folic Acid), vitamin                           should carry the label                         cognitive function and
Conjugated linoleic acid Weight management           1.5-3.4 g CLA/day,       clinical studies      See: Conjugated        Aids slimming by reducing body fat and             CG09, CT08,
(CLA)                                                CLA is a commercial                            linoleic acid (CLA) andpreserving lean muscle                             CT12
                                                     mixture of 50:50                               Weight management      -helps to reduce muscle protein loss during a diet                  374
                                                     c10t12 and t9c11                                                      -increases lean tissue mass
                                                     isomers                                                               -increases feelings of fullness and satiety
Conjugated linoleic acid    Insulin sensitivity      Up to 3,4 g CLA per      meta-analysis, single See: Conjugated        contributes to healthy blood glucose level         CG09, CT06,
(CLA)                                                day                      large human studies, linoleic acid (CLA) and                                                    CT12
                                                                              multiple small studies Insulin sensitivity                                                                       375


Conjugated linoleic acid    Body Weight              Product-specific         meta-analysis,        See: Conjugated            Helps to control fat metabolism                   CG09, CT08,
(CLA) ((cis-9, trans-11     management               claim: 3.4 g CLA per     human studies         linoleic acid (CLA)        -influences lipid metabolism and storage          CT24
conjugated linoleic acid,                            day                                            ((cis-9, trans-11          -increases lean muscle mass                                     377
and trans-10, cis-12                                                                                conjugated linoleic        -reduces body fat percentage
conjugated linoleic acid                                                                            acid, and trans-10, cis-   -helps to reduce body fat mass while increasing
Conjugated linoleic acid    Immune health            Up to 3,4 g CLA per      clinical studies      See: Conjugated            Support of (HepB) vaccine response/Helps          CG09, CT06,
(CLA)                                                day                                            linoleic acid (CLA) and    respiratory comfort in asthma                     CT20
                                                                                                    Immune health                                                                              376


Creatine                    Energy metabolism        A minimum of 6-20g    meta-analysis, RCT,      See: Creatine and       Support in case of intense physical activity         CG09, CT06,
                                                     daily                 text book,               Energy metabolism       -contributes to increased muscle strength            CT24
                                                                           monograph,                                       -contributes to increased muscle torque                            378
                                                                           judgement by                                     production
                                                                           government-related                               -contributes to increased training intensity
Creatine                    Muscular effort          Initial phase: 4      Textbooks /              Gibney M J,             Strengthens /supports /assists human energy          CG09, CT06,
                                                     Weeks 3g/day,         published scientific     Macdonald I A, Roche reserves                                                CT11
                                                     Sustainment: 2-3g/day papers with peer         H M (Hrg.), Nutrition   Supports the building of muscle
                                                                           review,monographs        and Metabolism,         Supports the building of muscle
                                                                                                    edited on behalf of the improves physical performance
Creatine                    Muscular effort /        Initial phase: 4      Textbooks /              Greenhaff P L, Bodin Diminish fatigue after rapid physical activity /        CG09, CT06,
                            Recovery                 Weeks 3g/day,         published scientific     K, Casey A,             For quicker recovery after rapid physical exertion   CT11
                                                     Sustainment: 2-3g/day papers with peer         Constantin-Teodosius
                                                                           review,monographs        D, Green A, Söderlund
                                                                                                    K, Timmons J,
Creatine                    Bodily Constitution      Initial phase: 4      Textbooks /              Gibney M J,             supports the creating of lean tissue mass ( fat      CG09, CT06,
                                                     Weeks 3g/day,         published scientific     Macdonald I A, Roche free muscle)                                            CT11
                                                     Sustainment: 2-3g/day papers with peer         H M (Hrg.), Nutrition
                                                                           review,monographs        and Metabolism,
                                                                                                    edited on behalf of the
Creatine               Cognitive performance       Initial phase: 4      Human Studies           McMorris T, Harris         Improves mental attentiveness                        CG09, CT07,
                                                   Weeks 3g/day,                                 RC, Swain J, Corbett                                                            CT14
                                                   Sustainment: 2-3g/day                         J, Collard K, Dyson R      Improved powers of concentration and ability to
                                                                                                 J, Dye L, Hodgson C,       absorb information
                                                                                                 Draper N, Effect of
Creatine               Increasing Strength         The product must        Peer-reviewed         American College of        Creatine has been shown                              CG09, CT06,
                                                   contain at least 1      scientific research   Sports Medicine            to increase strength.                                CT11
                                                   gram creatine per       reviews               Roundtable. (2000)         Creatine has the ability to enhance muscular
                                                   serving                                       The physiological and      strength
                                                   Claim to be used for    Peer-reviewed         health effects of oral     Ingredient clinically shown to help boost strength
Creatine               Increasing Mass             The product must        Peer-reviewed         Bird SP. (2003)            Creatine has been shown to increase lean             CG09, CT06,
                                                   contain at least 1      scientific research   Creatine                   muscle mass                                          CT11
                                                   gram creatine per       reviews               supplementation and        Creatine has the ability to enhance muscle
                                                   serving                 Peer-reviewed         exercise performance:      growth
                                                   Claim to be used for    scientific meta-      a brief review. J          With proper diet and exercise, creatine can help
Creatine               Increasing Workout          The product must        Peer-reviewed         Stout J, Eckerson J,       Creatine can help enhance physical working           CG09, CT06,
                       Capacity                    contain at least 1      clinical study        Ebersole K et al.          capacity at fatigue threshold                        CT11
                                                   gram creatine per                             (2000) Effect of
                                                   serving                                       creatine loading on
                                                   Claim to be used for                          neuromuscular fatigue
Creatine               Brain / Memory / Older      Initial phase: 4        Human Studies         McMorris T, Harris         Improves mental attentiveness also in the elderly CG09, CT07,
                       people / Parents            Weeks 3g/day,                                 RC, Swain J, Corbett                                                         CT14
                                                   Sustainment: 2-3g/day                         J, Collard K, Dyson R
                                                                                                 J, Dye L, Hodgson C,
                                                                                                 Draper N, Effect of
Cystein rich protein   Glutathione metabolism      3.4 g per day      generally accepted         See: Cystein rich                                                             CG09, CT06,
hydrolysates                                                          role, observational
                                                   (cysteine content of                          protein hydrolysates       -building glutathione levels with cysteine support CT22
                                                   6%)                and intervention           and Glutathione            the body’s natural defense system                                  379
                                                                      studies (human and         metabolism
                                                                      animal)
Docosahexaenoic acid   Cognitive function in the   720–1720 mg of DHA epidemiological            See:                       DHA may help maintain working memory and             CG09, CT07,
(DHA)                  elderly.                    per day.           studies, individual        Docosahexaenoic acid       brain performance in aging adults                    CT14
                                                                      clinical studies           (DHA) or high DHA          -DHA is a building block of the brain and helps                    382
                                                                                                 fish oil. and Cognitive    with the transmission of messages between
                                                                                                 function in the elderly.   nerves
Docosahexaenoic acid   Eye health                  85 mg per day           Textbooks, reviews    See: Docohexaenoic         DHA is an important part of the structure of the     CG09, CT06,
(DHA)                                                                                            acid (DHA) and Eye         retina and, therefore, plays a role in normal eye    CT17
                                                                                                 health                     function                                                           383


Docosahexaenoic acid   Human                       160 - 300 mg per day    Authoritative         See:                  Supports human neurodevelopment/plays an                  CG09, CT05,
(DHA)                  Neurodevelopment            for pregnant and        bodies/scientific     Docosahexaenoic acid  important role in the development of brain and            CT06, CT14
                                                   lactating women         committees,           (DHA) and Human       nerves/contributes to normal brain, nerve and                           380
                                                                           textbooks, critical   Neurodevelopment      visual development therefore a regular
                                                                           reviews                                     consumption of DHA by pregnant and lactating
Docosahexaenoic acid   Optimization of brain       55 - 160 mg per day     Authoritative         See:                  Helps optimize brain maturation/supports normal           CG09, CT03,
(DHA)                  maturation                                          bodies/scientific     Docosahexaenoic acid brain development/supports cognitive function              CT14
                                                                           committees,           (DHA) and             and mental balance in early life                                        381
                                                                           textbooks, critical   Optimization of brain
                                                                           reviews, individual   maturation
2-                     For mental energy           25-200 mg               Bibliographic         Unknown. Deanol. In: Helps support mental development                           CG09, CT07,
Dimethylaminoethanol                                                       references            Martindale. The Extra                                                           CT14
hydrogentartrate                                                                                 Pharmacopoeia. 28th
                                                                                                 Edition.
                                                                                                 Pharmaceutical Press,
EAS Creatine           Increasing Strength    The product must       Peer-reviewed         Arcerio PJ, Hannibal      EAS Creatine (EAS                                    CG09, CT06,
(EAS Phosphagen)                              contain at least 5     scientific clinical   NS, Nindle BC et al.      Phosphagen) is clinically shown to help:             CT11
                                              gram creatine          trials                (2001) Comparison of      Increase Muscular Strength
                                              monohydrate per                              creatine ingestion and    EAS Creatine (formerly Phosphagen) is clinically
                                              serving Claim to be                          resistance training on    shown effective for
EAS Creatine           Increasing Mass        The product must       Peer-reviewed         Arcerio PJ, Hannibal      EAS Creatine (EAS Phosphagen) is clinically          CG09, CT06,
(EAS Phosphagen)                              contain at least 5     scientific clinical   NS, Nindle BC et al.      shown to help: Support                               CT11
                                              gram creatine          trials                (2001) Comparison of      Gains in Lean Muscle Mass EAS Creatine
                                              monohydrate per                              creatine                  (formerly Phosphagen) is clinically shown
                                              serving                                      ingestion and             effective for building muscle mass
EAS Creatine           Increasing Lifting     The product must       Peer-reviewed         Earnest CP, Snell PG,     EAS Creatine (EAS Phosphagen) is clinically          CG09, CT06,
(EAS Phosphagen)       Volume and Performance contain at least 5     scientific clinical   Rodriguez R, Almada       shown to help increase                               CT11
                                              gram creatine          trials                AL and Mitchell TL.       lifting volume.
                                              monohydrate per                              (1995) The effects of
                                              serving                                      creatine monohydrate
EAS Creatine           Increasing Power       The product must       Peer-reviewed         Arcerio PJ, Hannibal      EAS Creatine (EAS Phosphagen) is clinically          CG09, CT06,
(EAS Phosphagen)                              contain at least 5     scientific clinical   NS, Nindle BC et al.      shown to help: Increase                              CT11
                                              gram creatine          trials                (2001) Comparison of      Power
                                              monohydrate per                              creatine ingestion and    EAS Creatine (EAS Phosphagen) is clinically
                                              serving                                      resistance training on    shown effective for
EAS Creatine           Increasing Work        The product must       Peer-reviewed         Stout RJ, Eckerson        EAS Creatine (EAS Phosphagen) is clinically          CG09, CT06,
(EAS Phosphagen)       Capacity               contain at least 5     clinical study        JM, Housh TJ and          tested to improve                                    CT11
                                              gram creatine per                            Ebersole KT. (1999)       anaerobic work capacity
                                              serving                                      The effects of creatine
                                                                                           supplementation on
EAS Phosphagen Elite   Increasing Strength     The product must      Peer-reviewed         Hoffman J, Ratamess       EAS Phosphagen Elite is clinically shown to          CG09, CT06,
                                               contain at least 5    scientific clinical   N, Kang J, et al.         boost muscular strength                              CT11
                                               gram creatine         study                 (2006) Effect of
                                               monohydrate, 1        Research              creatine and beta         EAS Phosphagen Elite is clinically shown to
                                               gram taurine and 33   Presentation          alanine                   increase strength by up
EAS Phosphagen Elite   Increasing Work         The product must      Peer-reviewed         Stout JR, Cramer JT,      EAS Phosphagen Elite is clinically shown to          CG09, CT06,
                       Capacity                contain at least 5    scientific clinical   Mielke M, et al. (2006)   increase anaerobic                                   CT11
                                               gram creatine         study                 Effects of twenty-eight   threshold
                                               monohydrate, 1                              days of beta-alanine
                                               gram taurine and 33                         and creatine              EAS Phosphagen Elite is clinically shown to
EAS Phosphagen Elite   Enhancing Training      The product must      Peer-reviewed         Hoffman J, Ratamess       EAS Phosphagen Elite is designed to provide a        CG09, CT06,
                       Volume & Intensity      contain at least 5    scientific clinical   N, Kang J, et al.         higher quality workout,                              CT11
                                               gram creatine         study                 (2006) Effect of          and the addition of beta alanine appears to
                                               monohydrate, 1        Research              creatine and beta         enhance average training
                                               gram taurine and 33   Presentation          alanine                   volume more so than creatine alone
EAS Phosphagen Elite   Increasing Exercise     The product must      Peer-reviewed         Zoeller RF, Stout JR,     Amp up your workout with EAS Phosphagen              CG09, CT06,
                       Thresholds              contain at least 5    clinical study        O’Kroy JA et al.          Elite, clinically shown to improve ventilatory and   CT11
                                               gram creatine                               (2006) Effects of 28      lactate thresholds for greater cardiorespiratory
                                               monohydrate, 1                              days of beta alanine      endurance in intense workouts (training)
                                               gram taurine and 33                         and creatine
EAS Phosphagen HP      Increasing Strength     The product must      Peer-reviewed         Hoffman J, Ratamess       EAS Phosphagen HP is clinically shown to       CG09, CT06,
                                               contain at least 5    scientific clinical   N, Kang J, et al.         increase strength                              CT11
                                               gram creatine         study                 (2006) Effect of          EAS Phosphagen HP is clinically shown to boost
                                               monohydrate, 1        Research              creatine and beta         muscular strength
                                               gram taurine and 33   Presentation          alanine
EAS Phosphagen HP      Increasing Mass         The product must      Peer-reviewed         Kreider RB, Ferreira      EAS Phosphagen HP is clinically tested to            CG09, CT06,
                                               contain at least 5    scientific clinical   M, Wilson M,              increase lean body mass                              CT11
                                               gram creatine         study                 Gindstaff P, Plisk S,
                                               monohydrate, 1                              Reinardy J, Cantler E
                                               gram taurine and 33                         and Almada AL.
EAS Phosphagen HP          Increasing Lifting     The product must          Peer-reviewed          Kreider RB, Ferreira      EAS Phosphagen HP is clinically shown to          CG09, CT06,
                           Volume and Performance contain at least 5        scientific clinical    M, Wilson M,              improve bench press lift                          CT11
                                                  gram creatine             study                  Gindstaff P, Plisk S,     volume and total lift volume.
                                                  monohydrate, 1                                   Reinardy J, Cantler E
                                                  gram taurine and 33                              and Almada AL.
EAS Phosphagen HP          Enhancing Anaerobic    The product must           Peer-reviewed         Kreider RB, Ferreira      EAS Phosphagen HP can help improve total          CG09, CT06,
                           Working Capacity       contain at least 5         clinical studies      M, Wilson M,              anaerobic work                                    CT11
                                                  gram creatine                                    Gindstaff P, Plisk S,     performed EAS Phosphagen HP is clinically
                                                  monohydrate, 1                                   Reinardy J, Cantler E     tested to help
                                                  gram taurine and 33                              and Almada AL.            improve anaerobic work capacity
Epigallo-catechin-3-       Weight management      115-300 mg per day         Intervention studies, See: Epigallo-catechin-   Helps to maintain and control weight              CG09, CT08,
gallate (EGCG) / Green                                                       backed by             3-gallate (EGCG) /        -contributes to the reduction of body fat         CT12
tea extract, rich in EGCG                                                    epidemiological       Green tea extract, rich   -helps to increase fat oxidation                                384
                                                                             data, animal studies in EGCG and Weight         -helps to increase fat oxidation and to reduce
                                                                             and in-vitro          management                body fat
Epigallo-catechin-3-gallate Blood glucose levels     Based on intervention Intervention studies, See: Epigallo-catechin-     Help to maintain healthy blood glucose levels     CG09, CT06,
(EGCG) / Green tea                                   studies a daily intake backed by              3-gallate (EGCG) /                                                          CT12
extract, rich in EGCG                                of 84-386 mg EGCG epidemiological             Green tea extract, rich                                                                   385
                                                     in the field of glucose data, reviews, animal in EGCG and Blood
                                                     homeostasis can be      studies and in-vitro  glucose levels
Epigallo-catechin-3-gallate Cardio-vascular health   Based on studies with Intervention study,     See: Epigallo-catechin-   in combination with physical activity helps to    CG09, CT06,
(EGCG) / Green tea                                   green tea a daily       backed by             3-gallate (EGCG) /        maintain normal blood pressure                    CT23
extract, rich in EGCG                                intake of EGCG from epidemiological           Green tea extract, rich                                                                   386
                                                     green tea ranging       data, animal studies in EGCG and Cardio-
                                                     from 69 to 657 mg       and in-vitro          vascular health
Ester-C                     Antioxidant              500-1500 mg per day Monographs, peer-         See: Ester-C and          Antioxidant that enhances Vitamin C absorption’s CG09, CT06,
                            properties/Immune health                         reviewed publications Antioxidant               and contributes to the functioning of the immune CT20
                                                                                                   properties/Immune         system                                                          387
                                                                                                   health

Ester-C® (Calcium          Enhances vitamin C         500-1500mg            Human studies and       Wright JV, Suen RM,      Quickly absorbed and gentle on your stomach.      CG09, CT06,
ascorbate with a content   absorption without                               animal studies          Kirk FR. Comparative                                                       CT22
of threonate)              irritating the GI tract,                                                 studies of “Ester C”     Enhances the absorption of Vitamin C.
                           compared with ascorbic                                                   versus L-ascorbic
                           acid                                                                     acid. International      Ester-C® is non-acidic which means it is
Ester-C® (Calcium          Enhanced cellular          500-1500mg            Human study, animal Wright JV, Suen RM,          Enhances uptake and retention of vitamin C        CG09, CT06,
ascorbate with a content   uptake and delayed                               studies, in vitro study Kirk FR. Comparative                                                       CT20, CT22
of threonate)              renal excretion,                                                         studies of “Ester C”     Works synergistically to enhance the absorption
                           compared with ascorbic                                                   versus L-ascorbic        and retention of vitamin C in your body
                           acid, contribute to                                                      acid. International
Evening primrose oil       Skin Health                Product-specific      Meta-analyses and       See: Evening             Helps maintain healthy skin                       CG09, CT06,
                                                      claim: 3000-6000 mg   individual study.       primrose oil and Skin                                                      CT18
                                                      capsules per day                              Health                                                                                   388


Evening primrose oil       Menstrual health           Product-specific      Individual Clinical    See: Evening              Ensures an intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids CG09, CT06,
                                                      claim: 3000 mg        Studies                primrose oil and          that support a normal, healthy attitude during the CT19
                                                      capsules per day                             Menstrual health          menstrual cycle                                                 389


Evening primrose oil and   Bone health                Product-specific    individual clinical      See: Evening              helps maintain bone density and strength by       CG09, CT06,
fish oil                                              claim: 4-6 g of 80% human studies,           primrose oil and fish     increasing intestinal calcium absorption          CT10
                                                      EPO and 20% FO per animal studies            oil and Bone health                                                                       390
                                                      day
Formulated palm and oat Weight management         5-12,5 g per day      human studies        See: Formulated palm Helps to eat less                                        CG09, CT08,
oil emulsion                                                                                 and oat oil emulsion -helps to reduce weight regain after dieting             CT12
                                                                                             and Weight                                                                                  391
                                                                                             management

Gamma Linolenic acid   Skin health                1-3g EPO per day      Meta-analysis        Morse PF et al. 1989:     GLA balances skin moisture content, keeps the       CG09, CT06,
(GLA) from Evening                                corresponds to 90-    Scientific Review    Meta-analysis of          skin smooth, reduces itching, and soothes skin      CT18
primrose Oil                                      330mg GLA per day     Open Study           placebo-controlled        irritation.
                                                                        CT                   studies of the efficacy
                                                                                             of Epogam in the
Glisodin               Endogenous antioxidant     500 mg for 6 weeks.   Human scientific     M. Cloarec, et. al.       Promotes and regulates the production of the        CG09, CT06,
                       enzyme benefits,                                 studies              “Glisodin, a Vegetal      body’s own, natural antioxidants                    CT21, CT23
                       including care of the      250 mg thereafter                          SOD with Gliadin, as
                       heart and circulation                            Open studies         Preventative Agent        Scientifically proven to help maintain cellular
                                                                                             VS. Atherosclerosis,      health and protect against damage caused by
Glisodin               Immune System and          500 mg for 6 weeks.   Human scientific     C. Muth, Y. Glenz, M.     Reinforces the immune system                        CG09, CT06,
                       Antioxidant skin care      250 mg thereafter     studies              Klaus, P.                 Helps maintain the immune system.                   CT18, CT20,
                                                                                             Radermacher,              An integral part of the immune system               CT21
                                                                        Open studies         Guenter Speit, X.         Quenches excess free radicals such as from
                                                                                             Leverve. “Influence of    pollutants, e.g. uv light
Glisodin               Prevents lactic acid build 500 mg for 6 weeks.   Human scientific     A. Wozniak, G.            Reduces lactic acid build up in humans under        CG09, CT06,
                       up, allowing sports        250 mg thereafter     studies              Drewa, G.Chesy, A.        physical stress (e.g. sports people).               CT11
                                                                        Animal studies       Rakowski, M.              Improves stamina/
                                                                                             Rozwodowka, D.            performance
                                                                                             Olszewska. "Effect of     Aids recovery after strenuous exercise.
Glucomanan             Weight management          3 g perday            textbook,            See: Glucomanan and       Contributes to reduce the appetite                  CG09, CT08,
                                                                        monographs and       Weight management         -can help in the management of weight control       CT12
                                                                        critical reviews                               -By expanding in the stomach, glucomannan                         392
                                                                                                                       might be useful for people trying to lose weight,
                                                                                                                       by helping to reduce the appetite
Glucomannan (Konjac)   Bowel / colonic function   2.5 - 5.0 g / day     Textbook             Textbook                  helps to restore / promote / regulate normal        CG09, CT06,
                                                                        Reviews                                        intestinal function                                 CT15
                                                                        Expert statements    1)Martindale: The         -facilitates the intestinal transit
                                                                        Clinical trials      Extra Pharmacopoeia
                                                                                                                       -promotes regularity of the bowel/colonic
Glucomannan (Konjac)   Prebiotic action /         2.5 – 5.0 g / day     Reviews              Textbook                  Glucomannan:                                        CG09, CT06,
                       Bifidogenic action                               Expert statements                              -helps to restore the intestinal flora              CT15
                                                                        Clinical trials      1)Martindale: The         -has a prebiotic effect
                                                                        preclinical trials   Extra Pharmacopoeia       -helps to stimulate the growth of beneficial
                                                                                                                       colon bacteria
Glucomannan (Konjac)   Reduction of glycemic      2.5-5.0 g / day       Textbook             Textbook                  Glucomannan:                                        CG09, CT06,
                       response                                         Reviews                                        -helps to control/ balance blood insulin/           CT12
                                                                        Expert statements    1)Martindale: The         glucose level
                                                                        Clinical trials      Extra Pharmacopoeia       -can help to reduce the glycemic index of a
                                                                                                                       meal
Glucomannan (Konjac)   Cholesterol level          2.5-5.0 g / day       Textbook             Textbook                  Glucomannan:                                        CG09, CT06,
                                                                        Reviews                                        -has beneficial effects on the cholesterol level    CT23
                                                                        Expert statements    1)Martindale: The         (in the blood)
                                                                        Clinical trials      Extra Pharmacopoeia       -helps to maintain healthy cholesterol levels

Glucomannan (Konjac)   Bowel / colonic function   2.5 - 5.0 g / day     Textbook             Textbook                  helps to restore / promote / regulate normal        CG09, CT06,
                                                                        Reviews                                        intestinal function                                 CT15
                                                                        Clinical trials      1)Martindale: The         -facilitates the intestinal transit
                                                                                             Extra Pharmacopoeia       -promotes regularity of the bowel/colonic
                                                                                                                       function
Glucomannan (Konjac)       Prebiotic action /       2.5 – 5.0 g / day      Reviews                 Textbook                  helps to restore the intestinal flora                   CG09, CT06,
                           Bifidogenic action                              Clinical trials                                   -has a prebiotic effect                                 CT15
                                                                           preclinical trials      1)Martindale: The         -helps to stimulate the growth of beneficial
                                                                                                   Extra Pharmacopoeia       colon bacteria
                                                                                                                             -helps to stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria
Glucomannan (Konjac)       Reduction of glycemic    2.5-5.0 g / day        Textbook                Textbook                  -helps to control/ balance blood insulin/               CG09, CT06,
                           response                                        Reviews                                           glucose level                                           CT12
                                                                           Clinical trials         1)Martindale: The         -can help to reduce the glycemic index of a
                                                                                                   Extra Pharmacopoeia       meal
                                                                                                                             -has beneficial effects on blood glucose and
Glucomannan (Konjac)       Cholesterol level        2.5-5.0 g / day        Textbook                Textbook                  has beneficial effects on the cholesterol level (in     CG09, CT06,
                                                                           Reviews                                           the blood)                                              CT23
                                                                           Clinical trials         1)Martindale: The         -helps to maintain healthy cholesterol levels
                                                                                                   Extra Pharmacopoeia

Glucosamine                Joint health            The equivalent of     critical reviews, meta-   See: Glucosamine          Glucosamine alone or in combination with                CG09, CT06,
                                                   1200-1500 mg/day as analysis, human             and Joint health          chondroitin sulfate contributes to the                  CT10
                                                   glucosaminesulphate intervention trials                                   maintenance of flexibility and mobility of the joints                 393
                                                                         (RCT), individual                                   -helps to maintain healthy joints
                                                                         studies                                             -supports mobility
Glucosamine               Joint health, especially In the forms          Good quality RCTs         Cibere J, Kopec JA,       Glucosamine (and chondroitin) may help to               CG09, CT06,
                          knees                    glucosamine           (monotherapy)             Thorne A, et al.          maintain healthy joints                                 CT10
                                                   sulphate,                                       Randomized, double-       Glucosamine (and chondroitin) helps support
                                                   hydrochloride or      Good quality RCT          blind, placebo-           healthy knees
                                                   hydroiodide, with the (combination              controlled
Glucosamine               Joint health.            Claim to be only used Cochrane review           Glucosamine therapy       Helps maintain joint health.                            CG09, CT06,
(Glucosamine HCl or                                for Foods for         Review                    for treating              Helps maintain healthy and flexible joints.             CT10
Glucosamine sulphate)                              sportpeople under the RCT                       osteoarthritis (Review)
                                                   Dir. 89/398/EEC                                 Towheed TE, Maxwell
                                                   1500 mg glucosamine                             L, Anastassiades TP,
Glucosamine               Joint health.            Claim to be only used RCT                       Glucosamine,              Helps maintain joint health.                            CG09, CT06,
(Glucosamine HCl or                                for Foods for                                   Chondroitin Sulfate,      Helps maintain healthy and flexible joints.             CT10
Glucosamine sulphate)                              sportpeople under the                           and the Two in
and Chondroitin sulphate                           Dir. 89/398/EEC                                 Combination for
                                                   Glucosamine 1000-                               Painful Knee
Glucosamine hydrochloride Joint Health             Product must contain Expert Opinion             Jordan KM, Arden NK,      Glucosamine helps to maintain strong joints and         CG09, CT06,
                                                   at least 1500 mg of   (Position Statement)      Doherty M et al.:         connective tissues.                                     CT10
                                                   glucosamine                                     EULAR                     Naturally required by the body as building blocks
                                                   hydrochloride per     Cochrane Review,          recommendations           for connective tissues which are optimal for joint
                                                   serving               expert opinion            2003: an evidence         health and mobility.
Glucosinolates            Immune health            Phytoconstituent's    authorative body,         See: Glucosinolates       Foods containing glucosinolates help strengthen         CG09, CT06,
                                                   content in vegetables textbook, reviews,        and Immune health         our body's defences                                     CT20
                                                   expressed in          clinical studies                                                                                                          394
                                                   comparison with the
                                                   daily needs and
Glutamine and glutamin Metabolic stress/protein min.5 g glutamine /day generally accepted          See: Glutamine and        Extra dietary supply of glutamine restores              CG09, CT06,
peptide                   synthesis/gut                                  roles (6), meta-          glutamin peptide and      plasma glutamine levels after metabolic stress          CT11
                          permeability/carbohydrat                       analyses and critical     Metabolic                 -contributes to gut protein synthesis                                 395
                          e metabolism                                   expert reviews (4)        stress/protein            -help decrease permeability of gut cells
                                                                         and human                 synthesis/gut             -helps to replenish carbohydrate stores in the
Glutamine                 Immune health            50-400 mg/kg per day authoritative medical      See: Glutamine and        Supports the immune system                              CG09, CT06,
                                                                         text regarding the        Immune health             -is an important nutrient for those cells requiring     CT20
                                                                         biochemical and                                     rapid renewal such as immune cells (e.g.                              396
                                                                         physiological                                       lymphocytes)
                                                                         properties of                                       -is an important fuel for rapidly dividing cells,
Glutamine                 Muscle function            50–900 mg/kg per day authoritative medical See: Glutamine and               Skeletal muscle represents the greatest store of    CG09, CT06,
                                                                          text: Biochemistry for Muscle function                 glutamine in the body                               CT11
                                                                          the medicinal                                          -muscle tissue is an important source of                          397
                                                                          sciences                                               glutamine
                                                                                                                                 -high intensity exercise decreases plasma
Glutamine                 Mental health              Min 100 mg per day      monographs, peer-        See: Glutamine and                                                         CG09, CT07,
                                                                             reviewed                 Mental health              -supports concentration and mental performance CT14
                                                                             publications,                                       under conditions of mental or physical exertion                   398
                                                                             textbooks                                           -helps to maintain working memory and brain
                                                                                                                                 performance in aging adults
Green Lipped Mussel      Joint health                1050 mg per day, and Randomised double           (1) Gibson RG,             may help to maintain healthy joints             CG09, CT06,
Extract.A freeze dried                               down to 700 mg per     blind, placebo            Gibson SLM, Conway         helps to maintain joint mobility                CT10
powder extract of New                                day for prolonged use controlled human           V, et al., "Perna          helps keep joints supple and flexible
Zealand Green Lipped                                                        clinical trials with 66   canaliculus in the
Mussel Perna canaliculus                             1.125g for a 65 kg dog patients                  treatment of arthritis".
Hyaluronic Acid          Joint Health                Product must contain Meta-analysis               Wang CT, Lin J,            The Hyaluronic Acid in Schiff® Move Free®           CG09, CT06,
                                                     at least 3 mg of high                            Chang CJ, Lin YT,          helps lubricate and support joints.                 CT10
                                                     molecular weight (>    Systematic Review         Hou SM. Therapeutic
                                                     700 kDa average)                                 effects of hyaluronic
                                                     Hyaluronic Acid per                              acid on osteoarthritis
Hydrolysate with peptide Stress                      Product specific claim individual studies,       See: Hydrolysate with      Can moderate the tensional response to stress,      CG09, CT03,
                                                     / 150mg/day            Articles, AFSSA,          peptide and Stress         notably with particularly sensitive subjects        CT22
                                                                            DGCCRF, FDA                                                                                                            399


Hypotonic                 Ergogenic role in sports   50 - 270 mOsm/kg        SCF Review:           Report of the SCF on          Hypotonic                                           CG09, CT06,
                          and exercise                                                             the Composition and           Hypotonic drinks rapidly empty from the gut and     CT11
                                                                             Review                Specification of Food         promote water absorption
                                                                                                   Intended to Meet the          Hypotonic drinks help maintain hydration
                                                                             Nutrition in Exercise Expenditure of Intense        Hypotonic drinks promote fast effective hydration
5-HTP                     Mood enhancement           The strongest           Cochrane data-base Shaw K, Turner J, Del            “Helps to promote healthy serotonin levels which    CG09, CT07,
                                                     research study used     systematic review     Mar. C.Tryptophan             can enhance mood”                                   CT14
                                                     300mg daily.            Randomized, double- and 5-
                                                     To also present a       blind, placebo-       hydroxytrptophan for          “5-HTP is the direct chemical precursor to the
                                                     statement indicating    controlled trial      depression.                   neurotransmitter serotonin, which may promote a
HMB (B-hydroxy B-         Support exercise           The product must        Peer-reviewed         Knitter AE, Panton L,         HMB helps to enhance muscle energetics and      CG09, CT06,
methylbutyrate            recovery                   contain at least 1      scientific research   Rathmacher A, et al.          recuperation.                                   CT11
monohydrate)                                         gram HMB per serving    articles              (2000) Effects of beta-       HMB helps with muscle energetics and
                                                                                                   hydroxy-beta-                 recuperation
                                                     Claim to be used for    Peer-reviewed         methylbutyrate on
HMB (B-hydroxy B-         Minimize muscle protein    The product must        Peer-reviewed         Knitter AE, Panton L,         HMB helps to reduce muscle protein breakdown        CG09, CT06,
methylbutyrate            breakdown                  contain at least 1      scientific research   Rathmacher A, et al.          following exercise                                  CT11
monohydrate)                                         gram HMB per serving    articles              (2000) Effects of beta-       Ingredient clinically shown to support protection
                                                     Claim to be used for                          hydroxy-beta-                 of muscles
                                                     foods for active                              methylbutyrate on             from breakdown following exercise
HMB (B- hydroxy B-        Increasing strength        The product must        Peer-reviewed         Jówko E, Ostaszewski          HMB supports strength                               CG09, CT06,
methylbutyrate                                       contain at least 1      scientific research   P, Jank M, et al.                                                                 CT11
monohydrate)                                         gram HMB per serving    articles              (2001) Creatine and           HMB has been shown to
                                                     Claim to be used for    Peer-reviewed         beta-hydroxy-beta-            increase strength.
                                                     foods for active        scientific research   methylbutyrate (HMB)
HMB (B-hydroxy B-         Increasing Mass            The product must        Peer-reviewed         Jówko E, Ostaszewski          Supplementing with HMB may help improve             CG09, CT06,
methylbutyrate                                       contain at least 1      scientific research   P, Jank M, et al.             body composition                                    CT11
monohydrate)                                         gram HMB per serving    articles              (2001) Creatine and
                                                     Claim to be used for    Peer-reviewed         beta-hydroxy-beta-            HMB supports maintenance of lean muscle mass
                                                     foods for active        scientific research   methylbutyrate (HMB)
HMB (B-hydroxy B-        Increasing exercise       The product must     Peer-reviewed             Vukovich MD and             HMB may help increase the onset of blood      CG09, CT06,
methylbutyrate           lactate threshold and     contain at least 1   scientific research       Dreifort GD. (2001)         lactate accumulation and VO2 peak.            CT11
monohydrate)             VO2 peak                  gram HMB per serving article                   Effect of beta-hydroxy
                                                                                                  beta-methylbutyrate
                                                   Claim to be used for                           on the onset of blood
HMB                      HMB and aerobic           Minimum of 3g per       Human RCTs             Vukovich MD, Dreifort       HMB supplementation aids aerobic metabolism   CG09, CT06,
                         metabolism                day for 2 weeks (3)                            GD. Effect of beta-         in endurance athletes, such as cyclists and   CT11, CT24
                                                                                                  hydroxy beta-               runners
                                                                                                  methylbutyrate on the
                                                                                                  onset of blood lactate
HMB                      HMB and lean body         Minimum of 3g HMB       Human RCTs             Jowko E, Ostaszewski        HMB can increase gains in lean body mass      CG09, CT06,
                         mass                      per day for 2 weeks                            P, Jank M, Sacharuk         during resistance training                    CT11
                                                   combined with                                  J, Zieniewicz A,
                                                   resistance training                            Wilczak J, Nissen S.
                                                   (10)                                           Creatine and beta-
HMB                      HMB and training          Minimum of 1.5g per     Human RCTs             Vukovich MD, Dreifort       HMB can improve body adaptation to intense    CG09, CT06,
                         adaptations               day 2 weeks (10)                               GD. Effect of beta-         training                                      CT11
                                                                                                  hydroxy beta-
                                                                                                  methylbutyrate on the
                                                                                                  onset of blood lactate
HMB and HMB/KIC          HMB and exercise          Minimum of 3g per       Human RCTs             van Someren KA,             HMB supplementation can reduce muscle         CG09, CT06,
combinations             induced muscle            day HMB and 0.3g                               Edwards AJ,                 breakdown after intense training.             CT11
                         breakdown                 KIC daily for 2 weeks                          Howatson G.
                                                   (1)                                            Supplementation with        HMB reduces the loss of muscle proteins after
                                                                                                  beta-hydroxy-beta-          intense training
HMB and                  HMB and muscle            Minimum of 3g per       Human RCTs             van Someren KA,             HMB supplementation supports muscle recovery CG09, CT06,
HMB/KIC combinations     recovery after training   day HMB and 0.3g                               Edwards AJ,                 after training                                CT11
                                                   KIC daily for 2 weeks                          Howatson G.
                                                   (1                                             Supplementation with
                                                                                                  beta-hydroxy-beta-
HMB and                  HMB and normal muscle Minimum of 3g per           Human RCTs             van Someren KA,             HMB supplementation maintains normal muscle   CG09, CT06,
HMB/KIC combinations     repair                day HMB and 0.3g                                   Edwards AJ,                 repair after training                         CT11
                                               KIC daily for 2 weeks                              Howatson G.
                                               (1)                                                Supplementation with
                                                                                                  beta-hydroxy-beta-
HMB and                  HMB and changes in        Minimum of 3g per       Human RCTs             van Someren KA,             HMB increases muscle strength when taken      CG09, CT06,
HMB/KIC combinations     muscle strength during    day HMB and 0.3g                               Edwards AJ,                 during a resistance training program.         CT11
                         training                  KIC daily for 2 weeks                          Howatson G.
                                                   (1) taken in                                   Supplementation with
                                                   conjunction with                               beta-hydroxy-beta-
Inositol (Common         Cognitive and mental      >500 mg/day             -Studies;              See: Inositol and           -Contributes to mental performance;           CG09, CT07,
Names: Inositol, myo-    performance                                       -critical reviews      Cogntive performance        -Contributes to mental concentration;         CT14
inositol)                                                                  (meta analysis)                                                                                                400


Iron-Micronised          Blood, haemoglobin and    Recommended             Expert panel                                       Iron needed for energy production.            CG09, CT06,
microencapsulated ferric energy production         dosage: 2-12 mg/day     Animal study           Sakaguchi N, Rao TP,        -Iron necessary for blood formation.          CT23, CT24
pyrophosphate                                      LD50 = 5000mg/kg        Human study            Nakata H, Nanbu H,
                                                   BW was observed in      In vitro               Juneja LR, 2004. Iron
                                                   rats                    Review                 Absorption and
Isomalt                  Low glycemic properties   Total or partial        Authoritative bodies   EU Directive 94/35/EC       Isomalt induces a low glycemic and low        CG09, CT06,
                                                   replacement of high     Critical reviews       (Sweetener,                 insulinemic response                          CT12
                                                   and/or medium           Individual studies     Preambel),
                                                   glycemic                Blood glucose          http://europa.eu.int/eur-   Low glycemic and low insulinemic response /
                                                   carbohydrates by        measurements           lex/en/consleg/pdf/199      effect
Isomalt                      Dental health - General   According to US          Authoritative bodies EU Directive 94/35/EC       Used as an alternative to sugars between meals    CG09, CT06,
                                                       21CFR§101.80:            Critical reviews     (Sweeteners,                can promote dental health.                        CT16
                                                       When fermentable         Individual studies:  Preamble),
                                                       carbohydrates are        a) Human studies in  http://europa.eu.int/eur-   Does not cause acid production and thus is kind
                                                       present in the polyol-   situ: pH-telemetry   lex/en/consleg/pdf/199      to teeth.
Isomaltulose                 Dental health             According to US          Authoritative bodies FOSHU                       Isomaltulose is kind to teeth                     CG09, CT06,
(PALATINOSE TM)                                        21CFR§101.80:            Critical reviews     EU Novel Food                                                                 CT16
                                                       When fermentable         Individual studies   Approval: Initial           Isomaltulose can promote dental health
                                                       carbohydrates are        a) human in situ     Assessment Report of
                                                       present in the food,     studies: pH-telemetrythe BfR (with no later      Isomaltulose inhibits glucan synthesis,
Isotonic                     Ergogenic role in sports  270-330 mOsm/kg          SCF Review:          Report of the SCF on        Isotonic                                          CG09, CT06,
                             and exercise                                       Review               the Composition and         In balance with the body’s own fluid              CT11
                                                                                Nutrition in ExerciseSpecification of Food       Isotonic drinks rapidly empty from the gut and
                                                                                and Sport Series     Intended to Meet the        promote water absorption
                                                                                Textbook             Expenditure of Intense      Isotonic drinks help maintain hydration
Lacprodan CGMP-10            Plays a role in          15 g Lacprodan            scientific reviews   WANG, B.& BRAND-            Sialic acid may improve learning and memory.      CG09, CT06,
(active ingredient: Sialic   development of the brain CGMP-10 per day           scientific           MILLER, J. The role                                                           CT07, CT14
acid)                                                                           investigations       and potential of sialic
                                                      or                                             acid in human
                                                                                                     nutrition.;Eur J Clin
Lactic acid bacteria/        Intestinal health        1x 108 cfu /day        Authoritative/Scientifi Marteau PR.:                 H
                                                                                                                                 •	elps balancing intestinal activity.             CG09, CT06,
Entero coccus faecium                                                        c Bodies                Probiotics in clinical       H
                                                                                                                                 •	elps decreasing the number of loose stools      CT15
                                                                             Meta-analysis           conditions. Clinical         H
                                                                                                                                 •	elps decreasing the number of loose stools in
                                                                             Review                  Reviews in Allergy          connection with use of antibiotics
                                                                             Randomized double- and Immunology
Lecithin                     For metabolism of        50-120 mg              Bibliographic           Higgins JPT, Flicker L      It promotes the correct function of the nervous   CG09, CT06,
                             nervous system                                  references              lecithin for dementia       system.                                           CT07, CT14,
                                                                                                     and cognitive               To maintain optimal mental and cognitive          CT24
                                                                                                     impairement (               performance
                                                                                                     Cochrane Review)
Lecithin                     For fat metabolism       50 - 120 mg            Bibliographic           Higgins JPT, Flicker L      Necessary for the metabolism of fat               CG09, CT06,
                                                                             references              Lecithin for dementia                                                         CT24
                                                                                                     and cognitive
                                                                                                     impairement
                                                                                                     (Cochrane Review)
L-theanine                   Relaxation               Recommended            FDA (USA)               GRAS                        -help relaxation without drowsiness.              CG09, CT07,
                                                      dosage: 50~250 mg      JFFA (Japan)            (http://www.cfsan.fda.g     -Stress relief.                                   CT14
                                                      JFFA approved for      Expert Review           ov/~rdb/opa-
                                                      unlimited use in foods Text book               g209.html)                  -Physical stress relief.
                                                      with the exception of Human Study                                          -Relax from fatigue.
L-theanine                   Menstrual health         200mg/day              Human study             Terashima T and             help to maintained a calm and relaxed physical    CG09, CT06,
                                                                                                     Yokogoshi H.2001.           and psychological statepre-menstrual period. -    CT19
                                                                                                     Ameliorated effect of       support in premenstrual syndrome. Support a
                                                                                                     theanine and                normal healthy attitude during menstrual cycle.
                                                                                                     premenstrual
L- theanine                  Cognitive function       200 mg                 Animal study            Terashima K, Seto J         -Help learning performance.                       CG09, CT07,
                                                                             Human study             and Yokogoshi H.            -Help to improve concentration.                   CT14
                                                                                                     1999. The effects of L-     -Help to improve attention.
                                                                                                     theanine for learning       -Sports support
                                                                                                     ability on Rats, 14th
L-theanine                   Relaxed sleep and        200 mg                 Human study             Kim K, Uchiyama M,          -Contributes to normal relaxed sleep              CG09, CT06,
                             refreshed awakening                             Review                  Okawa M, Liu X and          -Refresh wakeup                                   CT07, CT14,
                                                                                                     Ogihara R. 2000. An                                                           CT22
                                                                                                     epidemiological study
                                                                                                     of insomnia among the
L-theanine                Neurological functions     Up to 1 mg/kg BW in   Animal study              Terashima T,             -Neuroprotective.                                    CG09, CT06,
                                                     animal studies        In vitro                  Kitagawa A, Atsumi C     -Brain support                                       CT14
                                                                           Review                    and Yokogoshi H.
                                                                                                     2004. Effect of
                                                                           human study               theanine intake on
L-glutamine               Intestinal Health        A stimulatory effect    Animal study              L-Glutamine.             Glutamine helps promote and maintain integrity       CG09, CT06,
                                                   has been noted at       Prospective,              Alternative Medicine     of the intestinal lining.                            CT15
                                                   high doses, some        randomised,               Review. Vol.6 (4)
                                                   people may              controlled trial          2001; 406-410            Glutamine may help prevent intestinal
                                                   experience diarrhoea    Review                                             permeability.
Lutein (Marigold Extract) Required for Macular     Maximum Lutein          JECFA- Expert             1.)Joint FAO/WHO         “Helps maintaining healthy eye function.”            CG09, CT06,
                          Pigmentation in the eyes /Zeaxanthin ADI level   Committee on Food         Expert Committee on      “Oral supplementation                                CT17
                          which helps              is 2mg/Kg of Body       Additives                 Food Additives           of Lutein and Zeaxanthin helps increasing
                          maintenance of healthy   Weight.                 Peer reviewed             (JECFA)Report 63rd        macular pigment levels in plasma and retina.”
                          eye functions            In the various human    scientific publications   Meeting in Geneva        Oral supplementation with lutein results
Lutein                    Eye health               Minimum 6 mg/day        Authoritative body:       See: Lutein and Eye      Helps support eye health                             CG09, CT06,
                                                   (regular consumption    The positive statement    health                   /helps maintain healthy eyes                         CT17
                                                   of lutein via dietary   issued by the French                               /nutrition for eyes                                                403
                                                   sources or/and          National Food Safety                               /promotes healthy eye function/helps maintain
                                                                           Agency (AFSSA) that
                                                   supplementation)                                                           macular and retinal health
                                                                           lutein helps to protect
Lutein                    Skin health              Minimum 10 mg/day       text books, critical      See: Lutein and Skin     Helps support skin health                            CG09, CT06,
                                                   (regular consumption    reviews, numerous         health                   /helps promote healthy skin                          CT18
                                                   of lutein via dietary   published and peer                                 /helps maintain healthy skin                                       404
                                                   sources or/and          reviewed articles                                  /helps to maintain your skin’s healthy look and
                                                   supplementation)        reporting a wide                                   feel
Lutein/zeaxanthin         Natural macular pigment e.g. 10 mg lutein/day    Clinical studies,         * LAST-Studie, Stuart    Eye protection factor(s)                             CG09, CT06,
                          (yellow spot of eye)                             survey articles           Richer et al.:                                                                CT17
                                                                                                     Optometry, Vol. 75,
                                                                                                     No. 4 (2004); :Double-
                                                                                                     masled , placebo
Lycopene                  Skin health                Min. 6 mg/day          review, controlled       See: Lycopene and      Contributes to the maintenance of healthy skin         CG09, CT06,
                                                                            human studies,           Skin health            when exposed to sun light. (Avoid sunburns by          CT18
                                                     WARNING NEEDED: uncontrolled human                                     using an effective sun screen. Lycopene is not a                     405
                                                     Avoid sunburns by      studies, in vitro                               replacement for sun screens)
                                                     using an effective sun studies
Lycopene                  Antioxidant properties     7-16 mg/day            critical                 See: Lycopene and        Lycopenes contained in this product ensure           CG09, CT03,
                                                                            reviews/individual       Antioxidant properties   antioxidant action                                   CT21
                                                                            studies                                           /ensure protective effect on the organism                          407
                                                                                                                              /contribute to the protection of the cellular
                                                                                                                              membranes from oxidation
Lycopene                  Antioxidant properties /   Up to 12 mg/day       Afssa notice No           See: Lycopene and                                                             CG09, CT06,
                          protection of DNA                                2004-SA-336 esp pp        Antioxidant properties   / lycopene is an antioxidant and helps to protect    CT21
                                                                           2/11, critical reviews,   / protection of DNA      the body’s cells                                                   408
                                                                           individual clinical                                /helps to maintain intact body cells
                                                                           studies, experimental
Lycopene                  Prostate health            6-8 mg per day        Individual                See: Lycopene and        Contributes to the normal functioning of the         CG09, CT06,
                                                                           epidemiological and       Prostate health          prostate/helps to maintain a healthy                 CT19
                                                                           intervention studies,                              prostate/helps to keep your prostate in                            406
                                                                           backed by animal                                   shape/helps to reduce oxidative damage of
                                                                           and in-vitro studies,                              prostate cells and tissue/helps to maintain intact
Lycopene                  Heart health               40-60 mg per day      Individual                See: Lycopene and        Helps to maintain a healthy heart/contributes to     CG09, CT06,
                                                                           epidemiological and       Heart health             maintain a healthy cardiovascular                    CT22
                                                                           intervention studies,                              system/contributes to protect the arteries from                    409
                                                                           meta-analysis,                                     narrowing and hardening/contributes to keep the
                                                                           backed by in-vitro                                 arteries healthy/helps to maintain a normal blood
Lycopenes from tomato     Antioxidant properties    Estimated sufficient     monographs,            See: Lycopenes from      Lycopenes contained in this product ensure           CG09, CT03,
juices                                              intakes: 6 to 10 mg      reviews, critical      tomato juices and        antioxidant action                                   CT21
                                                    per day                  studies,               Antioxidant properties                                                                      410
                                                                             epidemiological
                                                                             studies, clinical
Lysine                    Body tissues              groups with              revies/peer-reviewed   See: Lysine and Body     Lysine is an essential amino acid that is            CG09, CT03,
                                                    insufficient intake of   clinical studies       tissues                  necessary for maintenance of the body/body           CT22
                                                    animal proteins                                                          tissues/body function                                              411
                                                                                                                             -addition of lysine enhances of cereal protein
                                                                                                                             quality
Malic acid                Muscles/energy            600mg/daily minimum Review                      Werbach MR.              Malic acid is needed for proper functioning of the   CG09, CT06,
                                                    is suggested.         Randomised, double-       Nutritional strategies   energy cycle.                                        CT11, CT24
                                                                          blind, placebo            for treating chronic
                                                    Safety during         controlled ,              fatigue syndrome.
                                                    pregnancy/lactation   crossover trial           Altern Med Rev. 2000
Medium Chain              Weight management         30-40 g/day short     clinical studies          See: Medium Chain        Helps to increase satiety after a meal               CG09, CT08,
Triglycerides (MCT)                                 term use. 10 g/d long (RCT), textbooks,         Triglycerides (MCT)      /helps to increase energy expenditure by             CT12
                                                    term use              review articles           and Weight               increasing the metabolic rate                                      412
                                                                                                    management               /helps with weight loss by increasing metabolic
                                                                                                                             rate
Methionine                Lipid metabolism          2-5 g per day            reviews, clinical      See: Methionine and      Helps to maintain a healthy cholesterol level        CG09, CT06,
                                                                             studies                Lipid metabolism                                                              CT22
                                                                                                                                                                                                413


Methylsulfon-ylmethane    Joint support             500 to 1000mg/day        System-atic Review;    Ameye, L. G. and W.      For joint maintenance                                CG09, CT06,
(MSM)                                                                                               S. Chee (2006).                                                               CT10
                                                                             Human intervention     "Osteoarthritis and      Helps maintain proper functioning of joints,
                                                                             trials;                nutrition. From          tendons and ligaments
                                                                                                    nutraceuticals to
Methylsulfonylmethane     Joint support -           Glucosamine              Human interven-tion Usha PR, Naidu MUR.         Synergistic combination for joint maintenance        CG09, CT06,
(MSM)                     synergistic effect        (1246.5mg/ day) +        trial                  Randomized, Double-                                                           CT10
in combination with                                 MSM (1500mg/day)                                Blind, Parallel,
glucosamine HCl                                                                                     Placebo-Controlled
                                                                                                    Study of Oral
MSM                       Joint comfort/Joint health Minimum 1500 mg/day     Human intervention     Kim LS, Axelrod LJ,      MSM helps maintain/support joint health, comfort CG09, CT06,
(methylsulfonylmethane)                                                      studies                Howard P, Buratovich     & mobility                                       CT10
                                                  Effective Dosage                                  N, Waters RF.
                                                  Range 1500-6000            Recognised text        Efficacy of              MSM helps maintain/support cartilage
                                                  mg/day                     books/critical reviews methylsulfonylmethane    metabolism and function.
Moderated sodium         Hydration                Claim to be only used      Position Statement     National Athletic        Maintain hydration.                                  CG09, CT06,
carbohydrate-electrolyte                          for Foods for              Review paper           Trainers’ Association    Replaces fluid and salts lost in sweat.              CT22
drinks                                            sportpeople under the      RCT                    Position Statement:      Maintains hydration more effectively than plain
                                                  Dir. 89/398/EEC.                                  Fluid Replacement for    water.
                                                  Metabolisable                                     Athletes                 Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
Mycoprotein              Cholesterol maintenance Consumption of 6g           Progress in            Nakamura, H.,            As part of a low fat diet, mycoprotein helps         CG09, CT06,
                                                  mycoprotein per day        Medicine, American Ishikawa, T.,                maintain normal cholesterol levels that keep your    CT23
                                                  from low fat & low         Journal of Clinical    Akanuma, M.,             heart healthy
                                                  saturated fat products     Nutrition              Nishiwaki, M.,
                                                  (<3% fat; <1.5%                                   Yamashita, T.,
Mycoprotein              Reduction in calorie     Consumption of (18g        Euro.J.Clin.Nutr       Burley, V.J., Paul       Mycoprotein satisfies your appetite for longer on    CG09, CT08,
                         content due to increased of) mycoprotein (per                              A.W., Blundell J.E.      fewer calories                                       CT12
                         satiety                  day) as part of a          Obesity in Europe 91 (1993) Influence of
                                                  balanced, low fat diet.                           High Fibre Food
                                                                             Am.J.Clin.Nutr.        (Myco-protein) on
Natural Palm Oil         Antioxidant                Up to 11.9 mg/day      Peer-reviewed         Human studies:           Are antioxidants that protects the body's cells     CG09, CT06,
Carotenes                properties/protection of                          scientific papers     Kiokias, S., Gordon,     Can protect you from free radicals which cause      CT21
                         DNA                                                                     M.H. 2003. Dietary       cell
                                                                                                 supplementation with     damage
                                                                                                 a natural carotenoid     Can protect your cells and tissues from oxidative
Natural Palm Oil         Health during              Up to 7.0 mg/day       Peer-reviewed         Human studies:           Can increase provitamin A levels during             CG09, CT06,
Carotenes                pregnancy/ Bioavailability                        scientific papers     Lietz, G., Mulokozi,     pregnancy                                           CT19
                                                                                                 G., Henry, J.C.K.,       and lactation
                                                                                                 Tomkins, A.M.
                                                                                                 Xantophyll and
Nucleotides              Immune health              Min 33.5 mg per day    review, animal study, See: Nucleotides and     Contributes to the normal functioning of the        CG09, CT06,
                                                                           in vitro study        Immune health            immune system                                       CT20
                                                                                                                          /supports natural defences                                        414


Nucleotides              Immune system/exercise Typical adult dosage:      Reviews               van Buren CT,            Dietary nucleotides enhance immune system           CG09, CT06,
                         stress                    500 mg - 1000 mg                              Kulkarni AD, Rudolph     function following exercise stress                  CT11, CT20
                                                   exogenous RNA           Clinical trials       FB.
                                                   nucleotides, derived,                         The role of
                                                   for example, from                             nucleotides in adult
Nucleotides              Gastro-intestinal support Typical adult dosage:   Reviews               van Buren CT,            Dietary nucleotides help support a healthy gastro- CG09, CT06,
                                                   250 mg - 1000 mg                              Kulkarni AD, Rudolph     intestinal tract                                   CT15
                                                   exogenous RNA           Clinical trials /     FB.
                                                   nucleotides, derived,   observational studies The role of
                                                   for example, from                             nucleotides in adult
Nucleotides              General wellbeing /       Typical adult dosage:   Reviews               van Buren CT,            Dietary nucleotides are conditionally essential     CG09, CT06,
                         immunity / digestive      250 mg - 1000 mg                              Kulkarni AD, Rudolph     nutrients that provide building blocks for new      CT15, CT20,
                         health                    exogenous RNA           Clinical trials       FB.                      cells.                                              CT22
                                                   nucleotides, derived,                         The role of
                                                   for example, from                             nucleotides in adult     Dietary nucleotides:
Omega-3 fatty acids      Joint health              200-500mg EPA,          Meta-Analysis         Goldberg RJ, Katz J,     Omega-3 fatty acids (Hi-EPA) with Glucosamine       CG09, CT06,
(Hi-EPA) with                                      50-250mg DHA,                                 2007: A meta-analysis    help to maintain joint health                       CT10
Glucosamine                                        1-1.5g Glucosamine      Scientific            of the analgesic
                                                   per day                 Review                effects of omega-3
                                                                                                 polyunsaturated fatty
Papain                   Immune health              > 200 mg (with         expert org.,          See: Papain and          Supports normal immune function                     CG09, CT06,
                                                    activity 1,5 FIP/mg)   textbooks,            Immune health            /supports body own defence mechanisms               CT20
                                                                           monographs, meta-                                                                                                415
                                                                           analysis review
                                                                           articles, individual
Phenylalanine            Mental health              750-3000 mg per day    monographs, peer-     See: Phenylalanine       -Contributes to mental activity;                    CG09, CT07,
                                                                           reviewed publications and Mental health        '-stimulates mental alertness                       CT14
                                                                                                                                                                                            416


Phosphatidyl choline /   Cholesterol / Heart health 1.2-6g per day         experts/reviews/mono See: Phosphatidyl         Helps to maintain a normal cholesterol level        CG09, CT06,
lecithin                                                                   graphs/RCT           choline / lecithin and                                                        CT22
                                                                                                Cholesterol / Heart                                                                         417
                                                                                                health

Phosphatidyl choline /   Cognitive function         1.5-8 g per day        critical reviews,     See: Phosphatidyl        - Contributes to the memory function                CG09, CT07,
lecithin                                                                   animal and human      choline / lecithin and   - Contributes to mental and cognitive function      CT14
                                                                           studies,              Cognitive function                                                                         418
Phosphatidyl serine          Mental health / Cognitive 300-400 mg per day     RCTs, endorsement          See: Phosphatidyl           Support of cognitive functions in young people       CG09, CT06,
                             function                                         by national experts,       serine and Mental           /contributes to the maintenance of cognitive         CT14
                                                                              clinical reviews,          health / Cognitive          functions with aging                                                  419
                                                                              individual human           function                    /supports memory and brain performance in
                                                                              clinical studies                                       aging adults
Phospholidips                Liver health             Min 1 g per day         human study, review,       See: Phospholidips          Contributes to the normal functioning of the liver   CG09, CT06,
(Phosphatidyl choline,                                                        animal study               (Phosphatidyl choline,                                                           CT22
Phosphatidyl                                                                                             Phosphatidyl                                                                                      420
ethanolamine,                                                                                            ethanolamine,
Phosphatidyl inositol,                                                                                   Phosphatidyl inositol,
Phytosterols (mixture of     Cholesterol metabolism   Min. 1 g per day        human study, review        See: Phytosterols           Contributes to normal cholesterol level in blood     CG09, CT03,
Beta-sitosterol,                                                                                         (mixture of Beta-                                                                CT22
Campesterol,                                                                                             sitosterol,                                                                                       421
Stigmasterol,                                                                                            Campesterol,
Brassicasterol,                                                                                          Stigmasterol,
Phytosterols (mixture of     Prostate health          280 mg/day              review, animal study,      See: Phytosterols           Contributes to normal functioning of urinary tract   CG09, CT06,
Beta-sitosterol,                                                              in vitro study             (mixture of Beta-                                                                CT22
Campesterol,                                                                                             sitosterol,                                                                                       422
Stigmasterol,                                                                                            Campesterol,
Brassicasterol,                                                                                          Stigmasterol,
Polyphenols from             Antioxidant properties   30 % of observed        opinions of the            See: Polyphenols from       Polyphenols contained in this product ensure         CG09, CT06,
processed fruits and                                  intakes per day : 0.3 g French Food Safety         processed fruits and        antioxidant action                                   CT21
vegetables and juices                                                         and Security Agency,       vegetables and juices                                                                             423
                                                                              official references for    and Antioxidant
                                                                              dietary reference          properties
Polyphenols (general and     Antioxidant properties   Min. 30% of intakes     FUFOSE, critical           See: Polyphenols            Polyphenols contained in this product ensure         CG09, CT06,
from grape, olive and                                 per day / Intakes are reviews and                  (general and from           antioxidant action                                   CT21
cacao in particular)                                  3000 to 5000 ORAC       individual studies         grape, olive and cacao      '-help prevent tissue oxidation;                                      424
                                                      unit per day                                       in particular) and          '-helps guard against oxydation caused by free
                                                                                                         Antioxidant properties      radicals
Polyphenols from olive       Antioxidant properties   20 g of an olive oil    reviews,                   See: Polyphenols from       Polyphenols from olive have an antioxidant           CG09, CT03,
(olive fruit, olive mild                              with a polyphenol       epidemiological            olive (olive fruit, olive   activity that may help maintain healthy LDL          CT21
waste waters or olive oil)                            content of 200 mg/kg    studies, clinical          mild waste waters or        cholesterol level and lipid oxidation                                 425
                                                      / Min 2 mg per day of   trials, in vivo studies,   olive oil) and
                                                      hydroxytyrosol          in vitro studies           Antioxidant properties
Polyphenols from olive       Lipid metabolism         20 g of an olive oil    reviews,                                       polyphenols are absorbed from olive oil in the
                                                                                                         See: Polyphenols from                                                            CG09, CT06,
(olive fruit, olive mild                              with a polyphenol       epidemiological                                intestine and metabolized there or in the liver,
                                                                                                         olive (olive fruit, olive                                                        CT21
waste waters or olive oil)                            content of 200 mg/kg    studies, clinical          mild waste waters orand have been shown to be able to bind LDL in                                 426
                                                      / Min 2 mg per day of   trials, in vivo studies,   olive oil) and Lipidvivo
                                                      hydroxytyrosol          in vitro studies           metabolism          /they have demonstrated scavenging properties
Polyphenols from red wine Antioxidant properties      Min 300 mg per day      reviews, clinical                              Polyphenols from red wine :
                                                                                                         See: Polyphenols from                                                            CG09, CT06,
                                                                              trials, in vivo studies,   red wine and        - ensure antioxidant action;                                 CT21
                                                                              in vitro studies                               - have an antioxidant effect;
                                                                                                         Antioxidant properties                                                                            427
                                                                                                                             - help prevent tissue oxidation;
                                                                                                                             - help mop up free radicals in cells;
Polyphenols derived from     Lipid metabolism         Min 300 mg per day      reviews, clinical        See: Polyphenols from - contribute to good LDL cholesterol level                   CG09, CT06,
red wine                                                                      trials, in vivo studies, red wine and Lipid                                                                 CT23
                                                                              in vitro studies         metabolism                                                                                          428


Polyphenols derived from     Vascular functions       Min 300 mg per day      Reviews/in vivo            See: Polyphenols from Total red wine polyphenols help vascular                   CG09,CT06,CT23
red wine                                                                      studies/in vitro           red wine and Vascular functions that contribute to a healthy
                                                                              studies                    functions             cardiovascular system                                                       429
Polyphenols from tea       Antioxidant properties /    240-540 mg of          randomised clinical   See: Polyphenols from   Polyphenols contained in this product ensure        CG09, CT03,
                           Hearth health               polyphenols per day    trials                tea and Antioxidant     antioxidant action/polyphenols contained in this    CT22
                                                                                                    properties / Hearth     product ensure protective effect on the organism;                 430
                                                                                                    health                  -contains antioxidant/s;
                                                                                                                            -is a source of antioxdiant/s.
Propolis                   Immune Support              Minimum 500mg per In vivo:                   Samet, N., Laurent,     Helps to protect cells from oxidatation.            CG09, CT06,
                           Propolis helps to protect   day.                    Randomized, double- C., Sursala, S.M.,       - Helps maintain a healthy immune system.           CT20, CT21
                           cells from free radical                             blind, placebo-      Samet-Rubinsteen, N. - Supports cell health & function.
                           damage and helps            Warning - Propolis      controlled study     The effect of bee       - Well known source of antioxidants.
                           maintain a healthy          may cause sever                              propolis on recurrent   - Natural defense against free radicals.
Propolis.                  Maintain oral               Dilute to 0.5%          In vivo:             Gebaraa, E. C.,         Supports oral health.                               CG09, CT06,
                           healththrough the           propolis. Use as a      Clinical, placebo-   Pustiglioni, A. N., de                                                      CT16, CT21
                           presence of high levels     spray or rinse twice    controlled trial.    Lima, L. A., Mayer, M.
                           of antioxidant              daily.                                       P.
                           bioflavonoids.                                      In vivo:             Propolis extract as an
Protein hydrolysate        Insulin secretion and       15-25 g per day         peer-reviewed        See: Protein            Help promote healthy blood sugar levels/can         CG09, CT03,
                           blood sugar levels                                  human intervention   hydrolysate and         lower postprandial blood sugar to normal            CT12
                                                                               studies/product      Insulin secretion and   levels/helps to regulate sugar peaks after a                      431
                                                                               relaterd data from   blood sugar levels      meal/helps improve blood glucose control/helps
                                                                               RCT/critical review                          reduce plasma glucose levels/helps limit the
Quercetin                  Antioxidant properties      phytoconstituent's      authoriative body,   See: Quercetin and      Quercetin containing foods contribute to keep       CG09, CT06,
                                                       content in fruits and   textbook, reviews,   Antioxidant properties your body healthy                                    CT21
                                                       vegetables expressed clinical studies                                /antioxidant containing foods support of healthy                  432
                                                       in comparison with                                                   ageing
                                                       the daily needs and                                                  /antioxidants contribute to the total antioxidant
Red yeast rice             Cholesterol                 200 mg red yeast rice monograph,             See: Red yeast rice     Contributes to maintain a healthy cholesterol in    CG09, CT08,
(Monascus Purpureus /                                  (rice fermented by      individual studies,  and Cholesterol         the framework of a healthy balanced diet            CT12
Ang-Khak)                                              Monascus purpureus) animal studies,                                  /supports healthy cholesterol                                     433
                                                       assayed for             tradition of use,
                                                       Monacoline              review, letters
Red yeast rice (Monascus   Blood lipids                Adult dosage: 600-      RCTs                 Lin, C. C., Li, T. C.,  Red yeast rice may help to control / regulate       CG09, CT06,
purpureus)                                             2400 mg taken daily                          and Lai, M. M.          blood lipids / lipid profile                        CT23
                                                       (usually in two doses)                       Efficacy and safety of
                                                       for at least 8 weeks.                        Monascus purpureus
                                                       Formulations should                          Went rice in subjects
Rutoside                   For circulatory system      Regular consumption Bibliographic            Kuhnau J The            Helps to maintain capillary integrity               CG09, CT06,
                                                       of rutoside via dietary references           flavonoids. A class of                                                      CT23
                                                       sources or                                   semi-essential food
                                                       supplementation                              components: their role
                                                                                                    in human nutrition.
Rye Grass Pollen           Maintenance of normal       Quantity:               Cochrane review,     Macdonald et al. A      Prostabrit helps the maintenance of normal          CG09, CT06,
                           urinary function            2 tablets per day       Systematic reviews, systematic review of     urinary flow                                        CT22
                                                       providing               Double-blind,        Cenilton for the        Prostabrit contains standardised pollen extracts
                                                       standardised extracts placebo-controlled     treatment of benign     from the rye grass; these plant extracts have
                                                       per tablet: 360mg       intervention trials  prostatic hyperplasia. been shown to help support a normal urinary
Rye grass pollen extract   Prostate health             Product-specific        Cochrane review,     See: Rye grass pollen Contains standardised pollen extracts from the        CG09, CT06,
                                                       claim. 720mg water      Systematic review,   extract and Prostate    rye grass/these plant extracts have been            CT19
                                                       soluble extracts +      Double-blind,        health                  available for over 30 years and taken by men                      434
                                                       36mg fat soluble        placebo-controlled                           who continue to lead an active and comfortable
                                                       extracts per day        intervention trials                          lifestyle
Silica / Silicious earth   Essential part of the       Typical intake: 20-500 authoritative bodies, See: Silica / Silicious Plays an important part in the connective tissue    CG09, CT06,
                           connective tissues, skin    mg silicon per day      reviews, clinical    earth and Essential     /helps maintain healthy hair, skin and nails        CT18
                           and hair                                            studies, animal      part of the connective /helps strengthen skin, hair and nails                             435
                                                                               studies              tissues, skin and hair /helps maintain healthy skin, joints and bone and
                                                                                                                            strong hair and nails
Sodium bicarbonate          Supports an optimal pH     500-5000 mg            Textbook                 Kleinedler, S & Spitz,   Sodium bicarbonate can reduce acid levels in            CG09, CT06,
                            environment in the                                                         S. The American          the stomach.                                            CT15
                            stomach                                                                    Heritage® Science
                                                                                                       Dictionary. ISBN
                                                                                                       0618455043
Soy Isoflavones             Menopause                  35 to 100 mg of soy    reviews, meta-                              Helps to maintain a calm and comfortable
                                                                                                       See: Soy Isoflavones                                                             CG09, CT06,
                                                       isoflavones per day    analyses, human          and Menopause      menopause                                                     CT19
                                                                              clinical trials,                            /helps women coping with the telltale signs                                 436
                                                                              epidemiological                             associated with menopause, such as hot flushes,
                                                                              studies                                     sweating, restlessness and irritability
Soy Isoflavones             Bone health                40 to 100 mg of soy    human clinical trials, See: Soy Isoflavones Maintenance of healty bones                                   CG09, CT06,
                                                       isoflavones            epidemiological        and Bone health      /(natural)                                                    CT10
                                                                              studies, reviews,                           /support to bone health                                                     437
                                                                              meta-analysis                               /contributes to the maintenance of normal bone
                                                                                                                          strength in post-menopausal women
Standardised Potato         Satiety/Weight             Product-specific       critical reviews peer- See: Standardised    When taken before a meal, supports the body's                 CG09, CT08,
Extract                     management/Promotion       claim. 15-30 mg of     reviewed articles,     Potato Extract and   natural satiety response                                      CT12
                            of CCK release             proteinase inhibitors  RCT / critical review Satiety/Weight        /naturally supports feelings of fullness after a                            438
                                                       from the standardized on glycemic             management/Promotio meal
                                                       potato extract         index/peer-reviewed n of CCK release        /helps manage appetite and hunger
Stearic acid                Lipid metabolism           Up to 5% daily energy monographs, peer- See: Stearic acid and Stearic acid helps to maintain a balanced blood                    CG09, CT06,
                                                       intake as stearic acid reviewed               Lipid metabolism     cholesterol                                                   CT22
                                                                              publications, WHO                                                                                                       439
                                                                              technical report

Taurine                     Antioxidant properties     1000 – 3000 mg         Textbooks,               See: Taurine and         Supports the protection of the body’s cells        CG09, CT06,
                                                                              Monographs,              Antioxidant properties   '- supports the protection from free radicals;     CT21
                                                                              Reviews                                           -supports the protection of cells and tissues from                    441
                                                                                                                                oxidation

Taurine                     Cognitive                  100-500 mg per day     -Studies and reviews See: Taurine and             -Helps physical and mental performance in               CG09, CT07,
                            function/Mental health                                                 Cognitive function           cases of temporary stress                               CT14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      442


Taurine                     Ergogenic role in sports   Sports foods and food RCT                       Role of taurine          Helps to delay the onset of fatigue.                    CG09, CT06,
                            and exercise               supplements            Animal study             supplementation to       Helps to maintain energy levels for prolonged           CT11
                                                       containing taurine and                          prevent exercise-        periods during intense competition / exercise.
                                                       targeted at sports                              induced oxidative        Enhances endurance and helps to maintain peak
                                                       people.                                         stress in healthy        effort during times of high physical demand.
Taurine                     For cardiovascular         75-150 mg              Bibliographic            1.Sturman JA.            It protects eye retina, for protection of liver cells   CG09, CT06,
                            system health                                     references               Taurine in               from toxins, for proper heart function, proper          CT23
                                                                                                       development. Physiol     cardio-vascular health
                                                                                                       Rev 1993;73:119-147

Tomato extract              Maintains cardiovascular 250mg extract/day        Reviews                  - Reviews                Contributes to the maintenance of a healthy             CG09, CT06,
containing lycopene         health                   (providing up to 15      Human intervention       1.Rissanen, T.,          cardiovascular system                                   CT23
                                                     mg lycopene/day)         studies                  Voutilainen, S.,
                                                                              Epidemiological          Nyyssonen, K. and        Maintains cardiovascular health
                                                                              studies                  Salonen, J. T.,
Tomato extract containing   Antioxidant                166-250mg              Reviews                  1 - Reviews              Helps to maintain intact cells                          CG09, CT06,
lycopene                    properties/cell and DNA    extract/day (providing Human intervention       1.Astley, S. B. and                                                              CT21
                            protection                 10-15 mg lycopene)     studies                  Elliott, R. M. How
                                                                              Epidemiological          Strong Is the Evidence
                                                                              studies                  that Lycopene
Tomato extract containing   Maintains prostate health 250mg extract/day        Reviews                1 - Reviews               Helps to maintain normal prostate health            CG09, CT06,
lycopene                                               (providing up to15 mg Human intervention       1.Basu, A. and                                                                CT19
                                                       lycopene)               studies                Imrhan, V. Tomatoes       Helps to maintain a healthy prostate
                                                                               Epidemiological        versus lycopene in
                                                                               studies                oxidative stress and
Tomato extract containing   Maintains skin health      250mg extract/day       Reviews                1 - Reviews               Helps to maintain healthy appearance and            CG09, CT06,
lycopene                                               (providing up to15 mg Human intervention       1.Stahl, W.,              structure of the skin when exposed to sun           CT18
                                                       lycopene)               studies                Heinrich, U., Aust, O.,
                                                                               Epidemiological        Tronnier, H., and Sies,   Helps protect the skin from exposure to sun
                                                                               studies                H. Lycopene-rich
Tomato extract, grape       Antioxidant combination, Target groups: Adults Textbook knowledge,        1.T. el Hindi, G.         scientifically proven mix of naturally occurring    CG09, CT06,
seeds extract, vitamin C    for antioxidant protection Applicable to           reviews, clinical      Ehlers, M. Demchuk, I.    antioxidants that work in synergy helping to        CT21
and E, Selenium             system                     products which          studies                Pfitzner:                 protect cells from free radical damage
(Seresis Pharmaton)                                    contain following daily                        Determination of the      scientifically proven to help maintaining a good
                                                       dosage ranges:                                 antioxidant capacity of   level of vitamins and antioxidants in the whole
Tomato extract, grape       For cardiovascular health Target groups: Adults Textbook knowledge,       1.T. el Hindi, G.         For maintenance of heart and cardiovascular         CG09, CT06,
seeds extract, vitamin C                                                       reviews, clinical      Ehlers, M. Demchuk, I.    health,                                             CT23
and E, Selenium                                        Applicable to           studies                Pfitzner:                 Helps to improve cardiovascular system, general
(Seresis Pharmaton)                                    products which                                 Determination of the      ageing process, immunological problems and
                                                       contain following daily                        antioxidant capacity of   protecting from environmental stresses
Tomato extract, grape       Skin anti-ageing agent     Target groups: Adults Textbook knowledge,      1.T. el Hindi, G.         Helps to improve general ageing process,            CG09, CT06,
seeds extract, vitamin C                               Applicable to           reviews, clinical      Ehlers, M. Demchuk, I.    protecting skin from environmental stress,          CT18, CT22
and E, Selenium                                        products which          studies                Pfitzner:                 scientifically proven to help protecting the skin
(Seresis Pharmaton)                                    contain following daily                        Determination of the      from premature ageing
                                                       dosage ranges:                                 antioxidant capacity of
Tomato extract, grape       For skin health            Target groups: Adults Textbook knowledge,      1.T. el Hindi, G.         It helps to improve health and appearance of the    CG09, CT06,
seeds extract, vitamin C                               Applicable to           reviews, clinical      Ehlers, M. Demchuk, I.    skin by improving the development of collagen,      CT18
and E, Selenium                                        products which          studies                Pfitzner:                 It supports the skin’s natural defences against
(Seresis Pharmaton)                                    contain following daily                        Determination of the      UV-irradiation (sun) induced damage
                                                       dosage ranges:                                 antioxidant capacity of
Troxerutin                  Vascular health            60 mg/day               review, human study,   See: Troxerutin and       Contributes to the normal functioning of the veins CG09, CT06,
                                                                               animal study           Vascular health                                                              CT23
                                                                                                                                                                                                  443


Tryptophan                  Mental and nerve          100-750 mg per day      -Studies;               See: Tryptophan and       -Helps to a normal sleep                            CG09, CT06,
                            function                                          -critical reviews       Mental and nerve          /Helps to get a restful sleep                       CT14
                                                                              (meta analysis)         function                  /Contributes to maintain nervous balance                          444


Tyrosine                    Cognitive                 >500 mg/day             -Studies;               See: Tyrosine and         -Helps maintain physical and mental                 CG09, CT07,
                            function/Mental health                            -critical reviews       Cognitive function        concentration in cases of temporary stress          CT14
                                                                              (meta analysis)                                                                                                     445


Vitamins, minerals, trace Mental performance          Applicable to           Statement on the        1.K. Wesnes, R.           in cases of decreasing concentration as well as     CG09, CT07,
elements and                                          multivitamin/mineral    rationale of the        Luthringer, L.            decreasing mental alertness.                        CT14
standardized ginseng                                  product which contain   combination             Ambrosetti, C. Edgar,     scientifically proven to promote maintenance of
G115 extract                                          following daily                                 O. Petrini: The effects   mental faculties .
(Pharmaton capsules,                                  dosage ranges::                                 of a combination of
Vitamins, minerals, trace Energy metabolism           Applicable to           Statement on the        1.K. Wesnes, R.           scientifically proven to help to sustain energy     CG09, CT06,
elements and                                          multivitamin/mineral    rationale of the        Luthringer, L.            within the body throughout the day and to help      CT24
standardized ginseng                                  product which contain   combination             Ambrosetti, C. Edgar,     coping with stress.
G115 extract                                          following daily                                 O. Petrini: The effects
(Pharmaton capsules, film                             dosage ranges::                                 of a combination of
Vitamins, minerals,          Nutritional support (for   Target groups:        Textbook knowledge, 1.Unknown. Dietary           It helps to support an adequate                     CG09, CT06,
lysine and/or arginine       children and adults) in    children of 1-5 years,reviews, clinical     Reference Intakes for      vitamins/minerals/lysine supplementation in         CT22
and/or taurine               case of unbalanced         schoolchildren,       studies               Vitamins (Biotin,          children, in case of unbalanced or insufficient
(Pharmaton Kiddi)            nutrition                  adolescents and                             Choline, Folate,           nutrition and lack of appetite,
                                                        adults                                      Niacin, Pantothenic
Vitamins, minerals, lysine   Nutritional support after  Target groups:        Textbook knowledge, 1.Unknown. Dietary           When a child is recovering from illness, or has a   CG09, CT06,
and/or arginine and/or       illness                    children of 1-5 years,reviews, clinical     Reference Intakes for      loss of appetite, Pharmaton Kiddi provides          CT22
taurine                                                 schoolchildren,       studies               Vitamins (Biotin,          important vitamins, minerals. These are
(Pharmaton Kiddi)                                       adolescents and                             Choline, Folate,           important for developing and supporting proper
                                                        adults                                      Niacin, Pantothenic        immune system functions.
Vitamins, minerals, lysine   Nutritional support to     Target groups:        Textbook knowledge, 1.Unknown. Dietary           scientifically proven to support attention and      CG09, CT07,
and/or arginine and/or       help mental performance                          reviews, clinical     Reference Intakes for      mental performance                                  CT14
taurine                                                children of 1-5 years, studies               Vitamins (Biotin,
(Pharmaton Kiddi)                                      schoolchildren,                              Choline, Folate,
                                                       adolescents and                              Niacin, Pantothenic
VitaVeggie® Vegetable        Excellent source of       100 mg to 1 g of       Scientific Journal    Tomer DP, McLeman                                                              CG09, CT06,
Antioxidant Blend            healthy vegetable         VitaVeggie®            Article               LD, Ohmine S,              VitaVeggiet® Vegetable Antioxidant Blend is an      CT21
                             antioxidants              Vegetable Antioxidant                        Scherer PM, Murray         excellent source of healthy vegetable
                                                       Blend provides 500 to                        BK & O'Neill KL            antioxidants.
                                                       5,000 ORAC units                             (2007) Comparison of
VitaGrape® Grape Seed        Excellent source of       100 mg – 600 mg        Scientific Journal    Terra X, Valls J, Vitrac   VitaGrape® Grape Seed Extract is an excellent CG09, CT06,
Extract 95% OPC              oligoremic                daily recommended      Article               X, et al. (2007) Grape-    source of oligoremic proanthocyanidins (OPC’s), CT21
                             proanthocyanidins that    dose, which provides                         seed procyanidins act      compounds that have been associated with the
                             have been associated      95 to 570 of OPC’s.                          as antiinflammatory        reduction of oxidative stress.
                             with the reduction of                                                  agents in endotoxin-
Wheat dextrin                Bowel health/digestive    AI for total fiber     Publication           Vermorel et al. Eur J      Increasing fiber intake helps maintain digestive    CG09, CT06,
                             health/bowel movement (IOM): 26-38 g/day                               Nutr 2004;43:344-352       health                                              CT15
                                                       (ideally 8.5-12.5                            Van den Heuvel et al.      Wheat dextrin promotes healthy functioning of
                                                       g/day soluble fiber)                         Eur J Clin Nutr            your digestive system
                                                                                                    2004;58:1046-1055
Wheat dextrin                Bowel health/SCFA         AI for total fiber     Publication           Slavin JL. Dietary fiber   Wheat dextrin is fermented in the gut leading to    CG09, CT06,
                             production                (IOM): 26-38 g/day                           and Irritable Bowel        the production of the beneficial SCFA               CT15
                                                       (ideally 8.5-12.5                            Syndrome (submitted)       Wheat dextrin helps promote colon health
                                                       g/day soluble fiber)                         Stewart ML et al.
                                                                                                    Digestive Disease          Wheat dextrin nourishes the digestive tract,
Wheat dextrin                Heart Health              AI for total fiber     Publications          Minekus M, Jelier M,       Diet rich in fiber can help you maintain good       CG09, CT06,
                                                       (IOM): 26-38 g/day                           Xiao JZ, Kondo S,          cardiovascular health                               CT23
                                                       (ideally 8.5-12.5                            Iwatsuki K, Kokubo S,      Dietary fiber helps maintain healthy cholesterol
                                                       g/day soluble fiber)                         Bos M, Dunnewind B,        levels to promote overall heart health
                                                                                                    Havenaar R. Biosci
Whey Protein Milk            Weight management         Suggest intake of      US Patent             Ward L, Bastian E,         Whey protein milk mineral complex helps             CG09, CT08,
Mineral Complex                                        24g/day                                      Paulsen S & Dunne C.       promote fat loss.                                   CT12
                                                       To be consumed as      Scientific Review     2007. Compositions         Whey protein milk mineral complex helps
                                                       part of a calorie      (Book Chapter)        and methods for            maintain lean body mass.
                                                       controlled diet                              treatment of body          Whey protein milk mineral complex helps
Zeaxanthin                   Eye health and vision     1-3 mg/day, if taken   individual human      See: Zeaxanthin and        An optimal intake of zeaxanthin contributes to      CT06 CT17
                                                       together with lutein.  intervention studies  Eye health and vision      eye health                                          CT21 CG09
                                                                              (in combination with                             /supports normal vision                                           446
                                                                              lutein), supported by                            /absorbs blue light and scavenges reactive
                                                                              epidemiological                                  oxygen species in the eye (lens, retina) and,
 A combination of the fatty   α-linolenic acid, EPA      Minimum amounts           Authoritative body;   a. Evidence accepted       A combination of the fatty acids α-linolenic acid, CG09,CT06,CT14
acids α-linolenic acid, EPA   and DHA and B-vitamins     that should be present    Textbooks; Human      by independent expert      EPA and DHA, the vitamins B1, B6, B12,              ,
(eicosapentaenoic acid) &     (vitamin B1, B6, B12 and   per daily serving:        Studies; Animal       bodies:                    and folic acid provides important nutrients for the
DHA (docosahexaenoic          folic acid) are            15% RDA of the B-         studies                Health Canada and         brain
acid) and                     nutrients that have been   vitamins                                        the Canadian Food
B-vitamins (vitamin B1,       identified as important    = 0.21 mg                                       Inspection Agency
B6, B12 and folic acid).      nutrients for the brain.   Thiamin/vitamin B1,                             have approved the
                                                         0.3 mg vitamin B6,                              following biological
                                                         0.15 mcg vitamin                                role claim: “DHA, an
                                                         B12, 30 mcg                                     omega-3 fatty acid,
                                                         folacin/folic acid                              supports the normal
                                                         (RDA values as                                  development of the
                                                         defined in the annex                            brain, eyes and
                                                         of Council directive                            nerves”.
                                                         90/496/EEC on                                   (2003 Guide to Food
                                                         nutrition labelling for                         Labelling, section 8-5,
                                                         foodstuffs)                                     and also available
                                                         AND                                             under
                                                         0.3 g α-linolenic acid                          http://www.inspection.g
                                                         AND                                             c.ca/english/fssa/labeti
                                                         100 mg of EPA and                               /guide/prefacee.pdf)
                                                         DHA, of which at least
                                                         30 mg DHA                                       The Turkish Ministry
                                                         Maximum amounts                                 of Agricultural and
                                                         per daily serving:                              Rural Affairs approved
                                                         1.4 mg for vitamin B1                           the claim “DHA helps
                                                         2 mg for vitamin B6                             in normal growth of
                                                         2 mcg for vitamin B12                           brain and growth of
                                                         200 mcg for folacin /                           eye and nerve system”
                                                         folic acid     Pattern                          (Communiqué
                                                         of Comsumption                                  Revising and
                                                         (Daily serving):                                Amending Turkish
Single and oligomeric         Antioxidant Activity       For fat spreads:of
                                                         50-300 mg/day 15-         2 Monographs          Food Codex
                                                                                                         "Monographs                This Food Component scavenges free radicals          CG09,CT06,CT21
flavan-3-ols.                                            Single and Oligomeric     1 Human Study         1. Oligomeric              and has significant antioxidant activity.            ,
                                                         flavan-3-ols in           Animal Studies        Proanthocyanidins -
                                                         concentrations >          Ex vivo Studies       Monograph. (2003).
                                                         85%, and with             In vitro Studies      Alt Med Rev. 8(4), 442-
Single and oligomeric         Vascular Activity          50-300 mg/day of          2 Monographs          Monographs                 This Food Component keeps blood vessels              CG09,CT06,CT23
flavan-3-ols.                                            Single and Oligomeric     10 Human Study        1. Oligomeric              healthy by helping them maintain normal              ,
                                                         flavan-3-ols in           Animal Studies        Proanthocyanidins -        structure, elasticity and permeability, especially
                                                         concentrations >          In vitro Studies      Monograph. (2003).         in legs and eyes.
                                                         85%, and with                                   Alt Med Rev. 8(4), 442-
Single and oligomeric         Dermal Activity            50-300 mg/day of          2 Monographs          Monographs                 This Food Component has significant                  CG09,CT06,CT21
flavan-3-ols.                                            Single and Oligomeric     1 Human Study         1. Oligomeric              antioxidant activity and helps the skin maintain     ,CT18,
                                                         flavan-3-ols in           Animal Studies        Proanthocyanidins -        normal functions under UV-induced stress.
                                                         concentrations >          Ex vivo Studies       Monograph. (2003).
                                                         85%, and with             In vitro Studies      Alt Med Rev. 8(4), 442-
Calcium phosphoryl            Dental health              Incorporated in           "Scientific report    Inaba D., Kamasaka         remineralizes/restores tooth enamel after meals; CG02,CT06,CT16
oligosaccharide                                          toothfriendly             (human study)"        H., Minami K.,             increases tooth surface hardness; helps          ,
                                                         confectionery such as     "Scientific report    Nishimura T., Kuriki       strengthen teeth
                                                         chewing gum candies       (in vitro study)"     T., Imai S. and
                                                         and chocolate at          "Scientific report    Yonemitsu M. (2002a).
Glucomannan                   Heart health               3 – 13 g/d                "Scientific report;   Arvill A, Bodin L.         For people with elevated blood cholesterol;Helps CG09,CT06,CT23
                                                                                   (human study)";       (1995). Effect of short-   maintain normal blood cholesterol levels         ,CT24,
                                                                                   "Scientific report;   term ingestion of
                                                                                   (human study)";       konjac glucomannan
                                                                                   "Scientific report;   on serum cholesterol
Fat-reduced cream          Gastrointestinal health    ≥2g milk              "Scientific report;   Kivinen A. et al.          For people with a sensitive stomach, Soothes a       CG03,CT06,CT15
powder (rich source of                                phospholipids per     (human study)";       (1992).                    sensitive stomach,                                   ,
milk phospholipids)                                   eating occasion       "Scientific report;   Gastroprotection with      Protects the stomach lining
                                                                            (animal study)";      milk phospholipids: a
                                                                            "Scientific report;   first human study.
Fat-reduced cream          Cardiovascular health      ≥0.7g milk            "Scientific report;   Hellhammer et al.          Helps control blood cholesterol; for people with     CG06,CT06,CT23
powder [rich source of                                sphingomyelin,        (human study)";       (2007). Effects of milk    elevated blood cholesterol;                          ,CT24,
milk sphingomyelin (a                                 corresponding to      "Scientific report;   phosphatidylserine
sphingolipid)]                                        13.5g fat-reduced     (human study)";       intake on endocrine
                                                      cream powder, per     "Scientific report;   and psychological
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit  Protection of body          10 grams x2/day       Text books Human      See reference              Contains a high amount of naturally occuring         CG08,CT06,CT21,
Kalash MA 4               tissues, cells,                                   studies      Animal   document NL E115-0-        antioxidants / antioxidants help protect you from
                          membranes and lipids                              studies               REF Maharishi              radicals which cause cell damage/antioxidants
                          from oxidative damage                                                   Ayurveda Amrit Kalash      help protect your cells, tissues and organs from
                          (such as the oxidation of                                               MA 4 and protection        oxidative damage/antioxidants contribute to the
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit Protection of body           500mg x2/day          Textbooks Reviews     See reference              Contains a high amount of naturally occuring         CG08,CT06,CT21,
Kalash MA 5               tissues, cells,                                     Animal studies      document NL E115-0-        antioxidants / antioxidants help protect you from
                          membranes and lipids                              In Vitro studies      REF Maharishi              radicals which cause cell damage/antioxidants
                          from oxidative damage                                                   Ayurveda Amrit Kalash      help protect your cells, tissues and organs from
                          (such as the oxidation of                                               MA 5 and protection        oxidative damage/antioxidants contribute to the
Maharishi Ayurveda Mens' Protection of body           500mg x2/day          Textbooks Reviews     See reference              Contains a high amount of naturally occuring         CG08,CT06,CT21,
Rasayana MA-631           tissues, cells,                                     Human studies       document NL E115-0-        antioxidants / antioxidants help protect you from
                          membranes and lipids                              Animal studies        REF Maharishi              radicals which cause cell damage/antioxidants
                          from oxidative damage                              In Vitro studies     Ayurveda Mens'             help protect your cells and tissues from oxidative
                          (such as the oxidation of                                               Rasayana MA-631 and        damage/antioxidants contribute to the total
Maharishi Ayurveda Herbal Protection of body          Infuse 2g x 1-3/day   Textbooks Reviews     See reference              Contains a high amount of naturally occuring         CG08,CT06,CT21,
Coffee Substitute (MA704) tissues, cells,                                     Human studies       document NL E115-0-        antioxidants / antioxidants help protect you from
                          membranes and lipids                               In Vitro studies     REF Maharishi              radicals which cause cell damage/antioxidants
                          from oxidative damage                                                   Ayurveda Herbal            help protect your cells and tissues from oxidative
                          (such as the oxidation of                                               Coffee Substitute          damage/antioxidants contribute to the total
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit Antioxidant effect 1000 x    10 grams x2/day       Human studies         See reference              Has an antioxidative effect which is 1000 times      CG08,CT06,CT21,
Kalash MA 4               greater than Vitamins C                                                 document NL E115-0-        greater than Vitamins C or E
                          or E                                                                    REF Maharishi
                                                                                                  Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                                  MA 4 and antioxidant
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Antioxidant effect 1000 x 500mg x2/day           Human studies         See reference              Has an antioxidative effect which is 1000 times      CG08,CT06,CT21,
Kalash MA 5                greater than Vitamins C                                                document NL E115-0-        greater than Vitamins C or E
                           or E                                                                   REF Maharishi
                                                                                                  Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                                  MA 5 and antioxidant
Maharishi Ayurveda Mens'   Antioxidant effect 1000 x 500mg x2/day           Human studies         See reference              Has an antioxidative effect which is 1000 times      CG08,CT06,CT21,
Rasayana MA-631            greater than Vitamins C                                                document NL E115-0-        greater than Vitamins C or E
                           or E                                                                   REF Maharishi
                                                                                                  Ayurveda Mens'
                                                                                                  Rasayana MA 631 and
Maharishi Ayurveda Herbal Antioxidant effect 1000 x Infuse 2g x 1-3/day     Human studies         See reference              Has an antioxidative effect which is 1000 times      CG08,CT06,CT21,
Coffee Substitute (MA704) greater than Vitamins C                                                 document NL E115-0-        greater than Vitamins C or E
                          or E                                                                    REF Maharishi
                                                                                                  Ayurveda Herbal
                                                                                                  Coffee Substitute
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Improvement in the        10 grams x2/day        Textbooks   Human     See reference              Improves cardiovascular health / Helps maintain      CG08,CT06,CT23,
Kalash MA 4                health of arterial walls,                        studies               document NL E115-0-        cardiovascular health
                           reduced oxidation of LDL                                               REF Maharishi
                                                                                                  Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                                  MA 4 and
                                                                                                  improvement in the
                                                                                                  health of arterial walls
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Improvement in the          500mg x2/day      Textbook Human        See reference            Improves cardiovascular health / Helps maintain   CG08,CT06,CT23,
Kalash MA 5                health of arterial walls,                     studies               document NL E115-0- cardiovascular health
                           reduced oxidation of                                                REF Maharishi
                           LDL, reduced platelet                                               Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                           aggregation                                                         MA 5 and
                                                                                               improvement in the
                                                                                               health of arterial walls

Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Improvement in the          MA4: 10 grams     Textbook    Human See reference            Improves cardiovascular health / Helps maintain       CG08,CT06,CT23,
Kalash MA 4 + MA 5         health of the heart         x2/day and MA5:   studies     In Vitro document NL E115-0- cardiovascular health
                                                       500mg x2/day      study                REF Maharishi
                                                                                              Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                              MA 4 + MA 5 and
                                                                                              Improvement in the
                                                                                              health of the heart

Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Retardation of the aging    MA4: 10 grams     Textbook Human       See reference             Slows down the aging process                      CG08,CT06,CT22,
Kalash MA 4 + MA 5         process                     x2/day and MA5:   study Animal studies document NL E115-0-
                                                       500mg x2/day                           REF Maharishi
                                                                                              Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                              MA 4 + MA 5 and
                                                                                              retardation of the
                                                                                              aging process
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Retardation of aging of     MA4: 10 grams     Textbook      Human See reference              Slows down the aging process in the brain         CG08,CT06,CT22,
Kalash MA 4 + MA 5         the brain, Inhibits age-    x2/day and MA5:   study Animal studies document NL E115-0-                                                         CT14,
                           related degenerative        500mg x2/day                           REF Maharishi
                           processes in the brain                                             Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                              MA 4 + MA 5 and
                                                                                              retardation of the
                                                                                              aging of the brain
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Improved functioning of     10 grams x2/day   Textbooks Reviews    See reference             Strengthens the immune systen. Strengthens the CG08,CT06,CT20,
Kalash MA 4                immune system and the                          Animal studies      document NL E115-0-       body's natural defenses / Helps maintain the
                                                                                              REF Maharishi             immune system, the body's natural defenses
                                                                                              Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                              MA 4 and the
                                                                                              Improved functioning
                                                                                              of immune system
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Improved functioning of     500mg x2/day      Textbooks Review     See reference             Strengthens the immune systen. Strengthens the CG08,CT06,CT20,
Kalash MA 5                immune system                                    Animal studies    document NL E115-0-       body's natural defenses / Helps maintain the
                                                                                              REF Maharishi             immune system, the body's natural defenses
                                                                                              Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                                                                                              MA 5 and the
                                                                                              Improved functioning
                                                                                              of immune system
Maharishi Ayurveda         Protection of brain         500mg x2/day      Reviews     Animal   See reference             Contains a high amount of naturally occuring      CG08,CT06,CT21,
Student Rasayana MA 724    tissues, cells,                               stuies               document NL E115-0-       antioxidants / antioxidants help protect you from
                           membranes and lipids                                               REF Maharishi             radicals which can cause cell damage in the
                           from oxidative damage.                                             Ayurveda Student          brain/antioxidants help protect the cells and
                                                                                              Rasayana MA 724 and       tissues of your brain from oxidative damage
                                                                                              the protection of brain
                                                                                              tissues
Maharishi Ayurveda Amrit   Protects body tissues    500mg x2/day     Individual study       See reference             Helps protect body tissues from environmental      CG08,CT06,CT22,
Kalash MA 5                from reactive oxgen                       Animal study           document NL E115-0-       toxins / Helps maintain resistance to
                           species induced by the                                           REF Maharishi             environmental toxins
                           environmental toxin                                              Ayurveda Amrit Kalash
                           toluene                                                          MA 5 and the
                                                                                            protection of body
                                                                                            tissues from reactive
                                                                                            oxgen species
bovine lactoferrin         skin health / skin       140 mg per day   reviews / individual   Britigan B.E., Serody     Promotes the development of a pure skin            CG09,CT06,CT18
                           impurities                                studies / animal       J.S. & Cohen M.S.         Contributes to the reduction of skin impurities    ,
                                                                     studies/ in vitro      (1994) In : Hutchens T    Supports the development of a pure skin
                                                                     studies                W, Rumball S V &          Supports the reduction of skin impurities
                                                                                            Lönnerdal B eds.          Supports the maintenance of a healthy skin
                                                                                            Lactoferrin: Structure    Contributes to the development of a healthy skin
                                                                                            and Function,             Promotes the maintenance of a healthy skin
                                                                                            Advances in               Promotes the development of a healthy skin
                                                                                            Experimental              Für eine reine und klare Haut.
                                                                                            Medicine and Biology      Für eine klare und gesunde Haut
                                                                                            357, 143-156, Plenum      Voor een zuivere huid van binnenuit
                                                                                            Press, New York. The      Voor een zuivere en gezonde huid
                                                                                            role of lactoferrin as
                                                                                            an anti-inflammatory
                                                                                            molecule.
                                                                                            Brock, J.H. (2002)
                                                                                            Biochemistry and Cell
                                                                                            Biology 80, 1-6. The
                                                                                            physiology of
                                                                                            lactoferrin.
                                                                                            Conneely, O.M.
                                                                                            (2001) Journal of the
                                                                                            American College of
                                                                                            Nutrition 20, 389S-
                                                                                            395S. Anti-
                                                                                            inflammatory activities
                                                                                            of lactoferrin.
                                                                                            GRAS Notice
                                                                                            GRN000077
                                                                                            (http://www.cfsan.fda.g
                                                                                            ov/~rdb/opa-gras.html)
                                                                                            Legrand D., Elass E.
                                                                                            & Mazurier J. (2004)
Scutellaria baicalensis    Supports joint function   10mg - 2200mg/day   Scientific Studies,   1. Baicalin Promoted       •Acts as natural occuring anti-oxidant.            CG09,CT06,CT21
Georgi (root) for use as a                           or more             Reports, Literature   the Repair of DNA          •Reduces the oxidative stress caused by            ,CT10,CT11,
food supplement.                                                         Reviews               Single Strand              collagen damage.                 •Supports joint
(Common name: Chinese                                                                          Breakage Caused by         health. •Maintain joint flexibility and protects
skullcap) Currently on the                                                                     H2O2 in Cultured           tendons. •Contributes to the proper function of
market as traditional tea                                                                      NIH3T3 Fibroblasts.        skeleton muscles in normal physical activity,
decoctions and food                                                                            Biol. Pharm. Bull.         physical exercise, or sport activity. •Improves
supplements. (Also known                                                                       26(2) 282—284              mobility.
as Ben Cao; Huang gin;                                                                         (2003).
Baikal Skullcap;                                                                               2. Synergistic Effect of
Scutellariae Radix)                                                                            Scutellaria baicalensis
                                                                                               and Grape Seed
                                                                                               Proanthocyanidins on
                                                                                               Scavenging Reactive
                                                                                               Oxygen Species in
                                                                                               Vitro. The American
                                                                                               Journal of Chinese
                                                                                               Medicine, Vol. 32, No.
                                                                                               1, 89–95.
                                                                                               3. Several Culinary
                                                                                               and medicinal herbs
                                                                                               are important source
                                                                                               of dietary antioxidants.
                                                                                                The Journal of
                                                                                               Nutrition. 133 (5),
                                                                                               1286-1291. 2003.
                                                                                               4. Enhancing effects
                                                                                               of Scutellaria
                                                                                               baicalensis and some
                                                                                               of its constituents on
                                                                                               TGF-b1 gene
                                                                                               expression in RAW
                                                                                               264.7 Murine
Combination of extracts    cognitive function,       Orally as a food      "Scientific support;      "Cognitive function        •Supports brain function •Supports memory   CG09,CT06,
from Acacia catechu        memory, and mental        supplement at 125 -   (human study)";           after long-term            •Helps improve focus and attention          CT07,CT14,CT21
(heartwood) and            alert, mental endurance   2200 mg/day           "Scientific support; in   treatment with multiple    •Protects against oxidative stress.         ,CT22,
Scutellaria baicalensis    support                                         vitro & in vivo           nutraceutical              •Promotes memory and cognitive function
(root) for use as a food                                                   study)"; "Scientific      compound                   associated with age decline.
supplement (Lasoperin®).                                                   support; (safety          formulations with the
                                                                           study)"; "Scientific      primary constituents of
                                                                           support; (reviews)";      Ginseng, Scutellaria
                                                                           "Scientific support;      baicalensis and
                                                                           (PCT pending              Acacia catechu. J.
                                                                           patents in Europe)";      Patrick Kesslak, Josh
                                                                           "Scientific support;      Reynolds, Robert
                                                                           (in vitro study)";        Heller, Institute for
                                                                           "Scientific support;      Brain Aging and
                                                                           (in vivo study)"; More    Dementia, University
                                                                           Science support from      of California, Irvineand
                                                                           Scutellaria;              Cognitive Care, Inc.; ";
                                                                                                     "A Medicinal Extract of
                                                                                                     Scutellaria baicalensis
                                                                                                     and Acacia catechu;
                                                                                                     acts as a Dual
                                                                                                     Inhibitor of
                                                                                                     Cyclooxygenase and
                                                                                                     5-lipoxygenase to;
                                                                                                     Reduce Inflammation.
                                                                                                     J. Medicinal Food.
                                                                                                     10(3), 2007, 442-
                                                                                                     451."; "SAFETY
                                                                                                     EVALUATION OF A
                                                                                                     COMBINATION,
                                                                                                     DEFINED EXTRACT
                                                                                                     OF SCUTELLARIA
                                                                                                     BAICALENSIS AND;
Combination of extracts    Weight Maintenance   Orally as a food      Scientific Studies,       "SAFETY AND               •Helps Maintain a healthy body weight •Assists    CG09,CT08,
from Acacia catechu                             supplement at 250 -   Reports, Literature       EFFICACY OF A             in the management of weight control through       CT06,CT12,CT24
(heartwood) and                                 2200 mg/day           Reviews; "Scientific      PROPRIETARY               improved fructose utilization and stablized blood ,
Scutellaria baicalensis                                               support; Genomic          PLANT-DERIVED;            sugar levels   •Helps maintians normal glucose
(root) for use as a food                                              study)"; "Scientific      ANTI-                     and fructose metabolism
supplement (Diafin®).                                                 support; in vitro & in    INFLAMMATORY IN
                                                                      vivo study)";             HUMANS: A
                                                                      "Scientific support;      RANDOMIZED,
                                                                      (safety study)";          DOUBLE-BLIND,
                                                                      "Scientific support;      PLACEBO-
                                                                      (reviews)"; "Scientific   CONTROLLED
                                                                      support; (PCT             TRIAL. Clinical report
                                                                      pending patents in        from Dr. John S.
                                                                      Europe)"; "Scientific     Sampalis, JSS
                                                                      support; (in vitro        medical research inc.
                                                                      study)"; "Scientific      3465 Cote des
                                                                      support; (in vitro        Neiges, suite 501,
                                                                      study)"; "Scientific      Montreal, Quebec, ;
                                                                      support; (in vitro        H3H 1T7"; "A
                                                                      study)"; "Scientific      medicinal plant extract
                                                                      support; (in vitro        of Scutellaria
                                                                      study)"; "Scientific      baicalensis and
                                                                      support; (in vitro        Acacia catechu;
                                                                      study)";                  reduced LPS
                                                                                                stimulated gene
                                                                                                expression in immune
                                                                                                cells: A;
                                                                                                comprehensive
                                                                                                genomic study using
                                                                                                QPCR, ELISA, and
                                                                                                microarray. Submitted
                                                                                                to Journal of Food
                                                                                                Biochemistry, Sept.
Prickly Ash (bark)         Supports vein Health   Orally as a food   Clinical Trial          Evaluation of a           • Supports vein health           CG09,CT06,CT23
Zanthoxylum clava-                                supplement at      literature review US    Standardized Alkaloid     • Supports normal blood flow     ,
herculis L. and                                   250mg/day          Patent # 6, 210,680     Extract from Stem         • Enhances circulation
Zanthoxylum americanum                                               Demonstrated            Bark of Southern          • Improves Healthy Circulation
for use in food                                                      Significant increased   Prickly Ash
supplements. (Trunorin™)                                             Vascular Blood Flow     (Xanthoxylum Clava
                                                                     in Human Clinical       herculis ) as an
                                                                     Trial                   efficacious Treatment
                                                                                             from Varicose Veins, a
                                                                                             clinical Trial ,
                                                                                             demontrating
                                                                                             improved blood flow
                                                                                             .M.Grieve, A Moden
                                                                                             Herbal, Dover
                                                                                             Publications , Inc. 70-
                                                                                             71,1971
                                                                                             • W. Boericke, M.D,
                                                                                             Materia media with
                                                                                             repertory, Ninth
                                                                                             Edition , B. Jain pub
                                                                                             679. 1985
                                                                                             • W.H. Lewis and
                                                                                             M.P.F Elcin Lewis,
                                                                                             Medical Botany, John
                                                                                             Wiley & Sons Pub,
                                                                                             191-243, 1977,
                                                                                             255.289.363
                                                                                             • Wine Show Sheen.
                                                                                             Ian -Lih Tsai, Che-
                                                                                             ming Teng, Feng-Nien
                                                                                             ko, Ih-Sheng Chen
                                                                                             Indolopyridoquizaline
                                                                                             Alakloids with anti-
Prickly Ash (bark)         Supports Vascular Health Orally as a food   Review of literature    US Patent " Method      Supports vascular health   CG09,CT06,CT23
Zanthoxylum clava-                                  supplement at      cited in US Patent      for Treatment of                                   ,
herculis L. and                                     250mg/day          5,955,085               varicose veins using
Zanthoxylum americanum                                                 Demonstrated            xanthoxylum from
for use in food                                                        Significant increased   prickly ash tree" sep
supplements. (Trunorin™)                                               Vascular Blood Flow     21, 1999. D. Brown ,
                                                                       in Human Clinical       The Herbs Society of
                                                                       Trial                   America , Dorlingh
                                                                                               Kinderstet Pub. Inc.
                                                                                               Page 372, 1995•
                                                                                               M.Grieve, A Moden
                                                                                               Herbal, Dover
                                                                                               Publications , Inc. 70-
                                                                                               71,1971
                                                                                               • W. Boericke, M.D,
                                                                                               Materia media with
                                                                                               repertory, Ninth
                                                                                               Edition , B. Jain pub
                                                                                               679. 1985
                                                                                               • W.H. Lewis and
                                                                                               M.P.F Elcin Lewis,
                                                                                               Medical Botany, John
                                                                                               Wiley & Sons Pub,
                                                                                               191-243, 1977,
                                                                                               255.289.363
                                                                                               • Wine Show Sheen.
                                                                                               Ian -Lih Tsai, Che-
                                                                                               ming Teng, Feng-Nien
                                                                                               ko, Ih-Sheng Chen
                                                                                               Indolopyridoquizaline
                                                                                               Alakloids with anti-
                                                                                               platelet Aggregation
                                                                                               Activity From
Prickly Ash (bark)         Supports Normal Blood    Orally as a food   animal studies/     Anti-Inflammatory and     • Supports vein health                    CG09,CT06,CT23
Zanthoxylum clava-         Flow                     supplement at      Literature Review   Analgesic activities of   • Supports vascular health                ,
herculis L. and                                     250mg/day                              the ethanolic extracts    • Supports normal blood flow
Zanthoxylum americanum                                                                     from Zanthoxylum          • Enhances circulation
for use in food                                                                            riedelianum (Rutaceae     • Improves Healthy Circulation
supplements. (Trunorin™)                                                                   ) leaves and stem
                                                                                           bark. D. Brown , The
                                                                                           Herbs Society of
                                                                                           America , Dorlingh
                                                                                           Kinderstet Pub. Inc.
                                                                                           Page 372, 1995•
                                                                                           M.Grieve, A Moden
                                                                                           Herbal, Dover
                                                                                           Publications , Inc. 70-
                                                                                           71,1971
                                                                                           • W. Boericke, M.D,
                                                                                           Materia media with
                                                                                           repertory, Ninth
                                                                                           Edition , B. Jain pub
                                                                                           679. 1985
                                                                                           • W.H. Lewis and
                                                                                           M.P.F Elcin Lewis,
                                                                                           Medical Botany, John
                                                                                           Wiley & Sons Pub,
                                                                                           191-243, 1977,
                                                                                           255.289.363
                                                                                           • Wine Show Sheen.
                                                                                           Ian -Lih Tsai, Che-
                                                                                           ming Teng, Feng-Nien
                                                                                           ko, Ih-Sheng Chen
                                                                                           Indolopyridoquizaline
                                                                                           Alkaloids with anti-
Prickly Ash (bark)         Relieves Fluid           Orally as a food   animal studies/     platelet Aggregation
                                                                                           Anti-Inflammatory and     • Relieves Fluid congestion in the legs   CG09,CT06,CT23
Zanthoxylum clava-         congestion in the legs   supplement at      Literature Review   Analgesic activities of                                             ,
herculis L. and                                     250mg/day                              the ethanolic extracts
Zanthoxylum americanum                                                                     from Zanthoxylum
for use in food                                                                            riedelianum (Rutaceae
supplements. (Trunorin™)                                                                   ) leaves and stem
                                                                                           bark ( J Pharm
                                                                                           Pharmacol. 2007 Aug
                                                                                           ; 59(8) : 1151-8. A.
                                                                                           Chevalier The
                                                                                           Encyclopedia of
                                                                                           Medicinal Plants
                                                                                           Dorling Kinderstey
                                                                                           Pub, Inc 26:185-241
                                                                                           1986. D. Brown , The
                                                                                           Herbs Society of
                                                                                           America , Dorlingh
                                                                                           Kinderstet Pub. Inc.
                                                                                           Page 372, 1995
Prickly Ash (bark)         Helps Minimize the       Orally as a food   Clinical Trial         Evaluation of a           • Supports vein health                          CG09,CT06,CT23
Zanthoxylum clava-         appearance of varicose   supplement at      Promotes topical and   Standardized Alkaloid     • Supports vascular health                      ,
herculis L. and            veins and spider veins   250mg/day          Systemic anti-         Extract from Stem         • Supports normal blood flow
Zanthoxylum americanum                                                 inflammatory           Bark of Southern          • Helps minimize the appearance of varicose and
for use in food                                                        function. Promotes     Prickly Ash               spider veins
supplements. (Trunorin™)                                               improved blood flow    (Xanthoxylum              • Enhances circulation
                                                                       and prevents           Clavaheculis ) as an
                                                                       leakage. Increases     efficacious Treatment
                                                                       production of          from Varicose Veins.
                                                                       antiplatelets .        D. Brown , The Herbs
                                                                       Literature Review      Society of America ,
                                                                                              Dorlingh Kinderstet
                                                                                              Pub. Inc. Page 372,
                                                                                              1995• M.Grieve, A
                                                                                              Moden Herbal, Dover
                                                                                              Publications , Inc. 70-
                                                                                              71,1971
                                                                                              • W. Boericke, M.D,
                                                                                              Materia media with
                                                                                              repertory, Ninth
                                                                                              Edition , B. Jain pub
                                                                                              679. 1985
                                                                                              • W.H. Lewis and
                                                                                              M.P.F Elcin Lewis,
                                                                                              Medical Botany, John
                                                                                              Wiley & Sons Pub,
                                                                                              191-243, 1977,
                                                                                              255.289.363
                                                                                              • Wine Show Sheen.
                                                                                              Ian -Lih Tsai, Che-
                                                                                              ming Teng, Feng-Nien
                                                                                              ko, Ih-Sheng Chen
                                                                                              Indolopyridoquizaline
L-arginine   sexual health   1500 mg L-arginine   Monographs, review 1. Monographs              Helps sexual function, sexual appetite and
                             per day              article, clinical     – Monograph L-          erectile function
                                                  studies, animal study arginine - Medline NIH
                                                                        (http://www.nlm.nih.gov
                                                                        /medlineplus/druginfo/n
                                                                        atural/patient-
                                                                        arginine.html)
                                                                        - Monograph L-
                                                                        arginine Natural
                                                                        Medicines (
                                                                        www.naturaldatabase.
                                                                        com)
                                                                        2. Review article:
                                                                        Natural Pharmacy,
                                                                        Natural Aphrodisiacs,
                                                                        dec. 2004, E. Kamhi
                                                                        3. Clinical Studies
                                                                        - BJU Int. 1999
                                                                        Feb;83(3):269-
                                                                        73.Effect of oral
                                                                        administration of high-
                                                                        dose nitric oxide donor
                                                                        L-arginine in men with
                                                                        organic erectile
                                                                        dysfunction: results of
                                                                        a double-blind,
                                                                        randomized, placebo-
                                                                        controlled study. Chen
                                                                        J, Wollman Y,
                                                                        Chernichovsky T,
                                                                        Iaina A, Sofer M,
                                                                        Matzkin H.                                                           CG03 CT06, CT22,
                                                                        - Eur Urol. 2002
Cordyceps sinensis   Adaptogen,                3 gram dried powder      Monographs   MONOGRAPHS, A1J.-          Helps to strengthen the body Supports immune CG09,CT06,CT22
                        supports energy level, or equivalent extracts                Y.Dionne,                  system Invigorates the body         Supports ,CT20,CT21,CT1
                            Invigoration of                                          B.SC.Pharm,                energetic alertness Supports the             1,
                     the body, supports                                              Cordyceps, 24              immunesystem by delivering antioxidants
                     immunesystem                                                    October 2006, Societé        Increases performance and endurance of a
                                                                                     Canadienne de              heavy exercise or sportsactivity
                                                                                     Recherche sur les
                                                                                     PSN,
                                                                                     http://www.passeports
                                                                                     ante.net/fr/Solutions/Pl
                                                                                     antesSupplements/Fic
                                                                                     he.aspx?doc=cordycep
                                                                                     s_ps,
                                                                                     A2Miller, Richard
                                                                                     Alan. 2005. ,
                                                                                     Cordiceps sinensis, ,
                                                                                     The longevity and
                                                                                     energy mushroom
                                                                                     used by the Chinese
                                                                                     nobility for more than
                                                                                     3000 years, Institute
                                                                                     for Natural Product
                                                                                     Research ,
                                                                                     www.nwbotanicals.org/
                                                                                     nwb/lexicon/flyer.htm,
                                                                                     A3Cordyceps,
                                                                                     www.drugs.com/npp/co
                                                                                     rdyceps.html,
                                                                                     A4Cordyceps,
                                                                                     http://www.altcancer.co
                                                                                     m/phyto/cordyceps.htm
                                                                                     ,
                                                                                     A5Cordyceps , Natural
Arabinoxylan                 Immune system             Arabinoxylan from       individual human       Maeda, H., K.              Natural enhancer of immune system. Supports      CG04,CT06,CT20
                                                       corn husk or rice       studies:-----case      Ichihashi, T. Fujii, et    the immune system. Supports the immune           ,
                                                       bran. Dose range: 15-   report:--animal        al., Oral administration   response. Support of the body's defence.
                                                       45 mg/kg.               studies:               of hydrolyzed rice
                                                                                                      bran prevents the
                                                                                                      common cold
                                                                                                      syndrome in the
                                                                                                      elderly based on its
                                                                                                      immunomodulatory
                                                                                                      action. Biofactors,
                                                                                                      2004. 21(1-4): p. 185-
                                                                                                      7.-Kimoto, Y. and K.
                                                                                                      Ogawa, Studies on
                                                                                                      soluble arabinoxylan
                                                                                                      form corn husk -
                                                                                                      effects on immune
                                                                                                      system in a clinical
                                                                                                      trial. 2006.-Ghoneum,
                                                                                                      M., Enhancement of
                                                                                                      human natural killer
                                                                                                      cell activity by
                                                                                                      modified arabinoxylan
                                                                                                      from rice bran. Int
                                                                                                      Immunotherapy, 1998.
                                                                                                      XIV(2): p. 89-99.-
                                                                                                      Ghoneum, M. and G.
                                                                                                      Namatalla, NK
                                                                                                      immunomodulatory
                                                                                                      function in 27 cancer
                                                                                                      patients by a modified
                                                                                                      arabinoxylan from rice
                                                                                                      bran. 87 th Annual
Lignans                      Phyto-estrogenic          2 mg/serving            Textbooks and          meeting of the NL E4-
                                                                                                      See: document              Phytonutrients that show similar attributes to   CG09,CT06,CT22
                             properties                                        expert reports,        0-B-REF Lignans and        phytoestrogens in soya.                          ,
                                                                               reviews, bioche-       Phytoestrogenic
                                                                               mical evidence in      properties
                                                                               humans and animals,
                                                                               intake data.

Sterols/ stanols and their   Heart health and artery   See reference section Authoritative body,      JHCI, FDA, SNF,        Sterols/ stanols and their esters promote heart      CG09,CT06,CT23
esters                       health because of LDL                           scientific body,         Voedingscentrum,       health/keep your arteries healthy                    ,
                             cholesterol lowering                            expert panel,            NCEP panel, AHA,
                                                                             metaanalysis             IAS. See: document
                                                                                                      NL E4-0-B-REF
                                                                                                      Sterols/ stanols and
                                                                                                      their esters and Heart
                                                                                                      health and artery
                                                                                                      health because of LDL
                                                                                                      cholesterol lowering

C12-peption                  Vascular health           Product-specific        epidemiological and    See: document NL E4- helps to maintain a healthy blood                      CG09,CT06,CT23
                                                       claim. 1-4 g milk       intervention studies   0-B-REF C12-peption pressure/supports a healthy blood pressure              ,
                                                       protein derived         with protein           and Vascular health
                                                       hydrolysate per day     hydrolysate +
                                                                               intervention studies
Bovine lactoferrin   Antimicrobial / antiviral /   200 mg bLF per day   mechanistic            See: document NL E4-      Contributes to the natural defences against       CG09,CT06,CT20
                     innate host defense                                understanding,         0-B-REF Bovine            microorganisms and viruses                        ,
                                                                        critical reviews by    lactoferrin and
                                                                        experts, multiple      Antimicrobial /
                                                                        small human studies    antiviral / innate host
                                                                                               defense
Bovine colostrum     Immune health/source of 1-4 g bovine               meta-analysis,         See: document NL E4-      Optimises the natural defense system in healthy   CG09,CT06,CT20
                     immunoglobulins         colostrum per day          critical expert        0-B-REF Bovine            persons                                           ,
                                             (total quantity is         reviews, human         colostrum and
                                             dependent on the           intervention studies   Immune health/source
                                             concentration of                                  of immunoglobulins
                                             immunoglobulines in
                                             the colostrum
                                             preparation)
NL: 78139   Needs warning
NL: 78165   Incomplete
            example of wording
NL: 78407   Missing references




NL: 78409   Different condition
            of use and different
            list of references


NL: 78173   Incomplete
            example of wording



NL: 78174   Incomplete
            example of wording
NL: 78440   Missing references
NL: 78181   Incomplete
            example of wording
NL; 78156/ 78187   Incomplete
                   example of wording



NL: 78188          Incomplete
                   example of wording
NL: 782026   Incomplete
             example of wording




NL: 782029   Incomplete
             example of wording
NL: 78220   Incomplete
            example of wording




NL: 78408   Different condition
            of use
NL: 79149




NL: 78455




NL: 78456




NL: 78457




NL: 78622




NL: 78324
NL: 77888




NL: 78066




NL: 78481




NL: 78482




NL: 78483




NL: 78484




NL: 78485




NL: 78486




NL: 78487




NL: 78488




NL: 78489
NL: 78490




NL: 78491




NL: 78492




NL: 78493




NL: 78495




NL: 78496




NL: 78499
NL: 78502




NL: 78310
NL: 78308
NL: 78307
NL: 78309
NL: 78302
NL: 78303
NL: 78304




NL: 78305
NL: 78306
NL: 76342
NL: 78293
NL: 77954




NL: 78203




NL: 78241




NL: 78155
NL: 78151




NL: 78150
CG03 CT06, CT22,   NL: 76342
          Adaptoge 3 gram
Cordyceps sinensis              Monograp MONOGR        Helps to     CG09,CT
          n,          dried     hs       APHS,         strengthe    06,CT22,
                      powder or          A1J.-         n the        CT20,CT2
          supports equivalent            Y.Dionne,     body         1,CT11,
          energy       extracts          B.SC.Phar     Supports
          level,                         m,            immune
                                         Cordycep      system
          Invigoratio                    s, 24         Invigorate
          n of the                       October       s the
          body,                          2006,         body
          supports                       Societé
          immunesy                       Canadien      Supports
          stem                           ne de         energetic
                                         Recherch      alertness
                                         e sur les
                                         PSN,          Supports
                                         http://www    the
                                         .passeport    immunesy
                                         sante.net/f   stem by
                                         r/Solutions   delivering
                                         /PlantesS     antioxidan
                                         upplement     ts
                                         s/Fiche.as
                                         px?doc=c      Increases
                                         ordyceps_     performan
                                         ps,           ce and
                                         A2Miller,     enduranc
                                         Richard       e of a
                                         Alan.         heavy
                                         2005. ,       exercise
                                         Cordiceps     or
                                          sinensis,    sportsacti              NL: 78293
                                         , The         vity

								
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