Aarkstore.com - Cancer Drug Resistance

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					Aarkstore.com announces, a new market research report is available in its vast collection:

                                Cancer Drug Resistance

Drug resistance is the single most important cause of cancer treatment failure and carries a massive
burden to patients, healthcare providers, drug developers and society. It is estimated that Multidrug
Resistance (MDR) plays a major role in up to 50% of cancer cases. Today, most drug therapies involve
multiple agents, as it is almost universally the case that single drugs (or single-target drugs) will
encounter resistance.

This report gives a comprehensive review of resistance-associated changes and mechanisms for
approved cancer drugs (60 drug classes) and Phase III candidates, as well as an examination of how
developers are tackling drug resistance using novel agents and new drug combinations. This report
looks at every general class of cancer drug in the pipeline or launched (around 400, representing
2000+ agents) and has identified all new drug classes from Preclinical through to Phase III, that will
provide new strategies to tackle resistance.

This new report includes i) A Global Resistance Map: a presentation and review of resistance
mechanisms or resistance-associated changes at the gene, protein or functional level reported for
currently approved cancer drugs, covering 60 general cancer drug classes and 190 agents ii) Drug
Pipeline: a presentation of the entire anticancer drug development pipeline (2000+ agents from
approx. 400 general drug classes), from preclinical to launched, including mechanisms of action of
individual drugs iii) New Drug Mechanisms: new cancer agents in the development pipeline (i.e. drug
mechanisms not previously developed in any previous drug development phase), representing 157,
56, 84 and 37 new drug classes at preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III, respectively iv)
Strategies to Combat Cancer Drug Resistance: including targeting, bypassing or exploiting resistance
mechanisms, current and new drug combinations and novel drugs offering new ways to target drug
resistance. v) Resistance Biomarkers: a presentation of current findings at the gene and/or protein
level for all currently launched anticancer drugs, that offer potential resistance biomarkers for drug
discovery, diagnostics and therapy decisions.

Cancer Drug Resistance: Anticancer drugs fail to kill cancer cells for a number of reasons. These
include kinetic factors, where drugs fail to reach tumours, are poorly absorbed or metabolically
deactivated. Drug resistance mechanisms are either innate, where they are intrinsic to the cancer or
acquired, which occurs due to adaptive changes in response to therapy and due to the selection of
survival phenotypes. Today, new drug combinations are central to the strategy to combat resistance
and this report estimates (from trials in the US & UK) that 40-50% of current cancer drug trials
involve multiple drug combinations. These include combinations of established small molecule drugs
with others, with new agents or with immunotherapeutic molecules. Targeting Resistance
Mechanisms: Advancing knowledge at the gene and protein level in cancer cells is enabling scientists
to better understand interconnected pathways involved cell cycle control, cell signaling and cell death
and this is enabling viability-critical targets or target combinations to be more readily identified. In
developing new combination drug therapies, a key goal is to identify targets that together represent
an Achilles Heel to the cell. For example, scientists have reported that BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutant cells,
which show defective DNA maintenance, are very sensitive to inhibitors of another genome
maintenance pathway. These studies showed that inhibitors of the enzyme PARP (Poly(ADP-Ribose)
polymerase) are able to kill cells that are defective in BRCA1 or BRCA2 at very low concentrations,
compared to normal cancer cells. This illustrates the potential of targeting co-supportive or co-
dependent pathways. Resistance data (at the gene and protein level), cited in this report, provides a
comprehensive and detailed update of scientists’ findings on cancer drug resistance, to assist efforts to
better understand and target the associated mechanisms.
Table of Contents:

Chapter 1 Cancer Drug Resistance 10
This chapter gives a brief introduction to cancer drug resistance and identifies areas covered
later in the report.
1.1 Introduction 11
1.2 Resistance Mechanisms 12
1.3 Innate Resistance 12
1.4 Acquired Resistance 12
1.5 Cancer Stem Cells 13
1.6 Resistance Biomarkers 14
Chapter 1 References

Chapter 2 Cancer Resistance and the Current Drug pipeline 15
This chapter presents a comprehensive review of resistance mechanisms and/or resistance-associated
changes at the gene or protein levels in cancer cells. These have been identified in a number of
cancers and all classes of currently approved anticancer drugs have been included as part of this
review. In total, this represents around 60 different anticancer drug classes (based on their general
pharmacological mechanisms of action) and includes approximately 190 individual cancer drugs. This
chapter also presents the current cancer drug pipeline (preclinical through to phase III) by agent,
pharmacological mechanism and development phase and identifies new drug types (i.e. based on new
general pharmacological mechanisms) being developed to target cancer in new and more effective

2.1 Cancer Drugs 16
2.2 Pharmacological Mechanisms 16
2.3 New Pharmacological Mechanisms 17
2.4 Launched Anti-Cancer Drugs 18
2.4.1 Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors 18
2.4.2 Androgen antagonists 18
2.4.3 Angiogenesis inhibitors 21
2.4.4 Antimetabolite & Antifolates 21
2.4.5 Aromatase inhibitors 22
2.4.6 Bcl2 antagonists 23
2.4.7 Bcr-Abl inhibitors 23
2.4.8 Beta tubulin antagonists 23
2.4.9 B-raf kinase inhibitors 24
2.4.10 Cancer cell lysis 24
2.4.11 CD20 Antagonists 24
2.4.12 Cyclin G1 inhibitors 25
2.4.13 Cysteine Protease Stimulants 25
2.4.14 DNA antagonists 25
2.4.15 DNA synthesis inhibitors 29
2.4.16 DNA topoisomerase ATP hydrolysing inhibitors 30
2.4.17 DNA topoisomerase inhibitors 31
2.4.18 Endothelial growth factor antagonists 31
2.4.19 Endothelial growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors 31
2.4.20 Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 antagonists 32
2.4.21 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Antagonists 32
2.4.22 ErbB-1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors 32
2.4.23 ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors 33

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For More details about above & other Reports plz contact :



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