Aarkstore.com - Biomarkers in Parkinsons Disease_ 2011 by winaarkstore


									Aarkstore.com announces, a new market research report is available in its vast collection:

                    Biomarkers in Parkinsons Disease, 2011


This report presents a comprehensive update on PD biomarker developments up to 2010. It covers the
major classes of emerging and new markers relating to PD (blood, CSF, metabolomic, image-based,
genetic and others), and focuses on those investigated in controlled human studies. This includes
single and combined markers.

Parkinsons disease (PD) is the second most-common neurodegenerative disorder (after Alzheimer’s
disease), and affects movement control. This condition develops due to the loss of dopamine-
producing nerve cells in the Substantia Nigra, located in the mid brain. According to the US National
Parkinson Foundation (NPF), 50 to 60,000 new cases of PD are diagnosed every year in the US, and
one million people in the US already have the disease. Individual country incidence rates vary, but the
NPF estimates that four to six million people around the world suffer from this condition.

In most cases, PD is diagnosed clinically. While this successfully identifies >90% of individuals
requiring treatment for this condition, findings show that the first motor symptoms, such as
bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, may not occur until 30 to 50% of dopaminergic neurones have
already been lost. This scenario creates an urgent need for tests that enable PD to be detected in its
earliest stages, to allow appropriate treatment to begin.

Important advances have been made in the diagnosis of PD using imaging methods such as
fluorodopa-PET and dopamine transporter SPECT. However, while these methods are important in
clinical research, they are complex, expensive, not widely available and inappropriate for the routine
screening of large populations. Likewise, genetic testing is important to PD in establishing traits,
predisposition and risk but these tests do not or may not confirm the manifest presence of the

These limitations create an urgent need for objective tests that detect and diagnose PD in its earliest
stages, to allow appropriate treatments to begin. Such tests, if they are to meet patient requirements,
should be simple, inexpensive, able to be used close to the clinical setting and available to all. Today,
biomarkers are at the centre of efforts to develop these test capabilities.

Table of Contents:

Executive Summary 3

Chapter 1. Background 22

Chapter 2. Biomarkers in the Blood 32

Chapter 3. Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid 50

Chapter 4. Genetic Biomarkers 58

Chapter 5. Image-Based Biomarkers 72
Chapter 6. Other Biomarkers 78

Chapter 7. Diagnostic Tests 90

Chapter 8. Clinical Trials 94

Chapter 9. Discussion 103

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