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Applying the CMMI for Services to the Process Group _Physician

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					Capability Maturity Model
     Integration (CMMI)
and Lean Six Sigma (LSS)
                       USC CS510 Lecture



Rick Hefner, Ph.D.
                         Hefner, Ph.D.
                       Rick
Northrop Grumman Corporation
          Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Background

    • All companies try to maintain their competitive advantage
       – Hire and retain the best people
       – Technology investments, research & development
       – Process improvement
    • Process improvement typically use two different approaches
       – Emulating best practices used by industry leaders
       – Studying the performance of your current processes




2
    IDEAL:
    An Approach to Process Improvement




      www.sei.cmu.edu/ideal/
3
    Capability Maturity
                Models




4
    Capability Maturity Models

    • A capability maturity model
      is a set of widely accepted
      best-practices used by an
      industry
       – Structured so it can be easily
         understood, adopted




5
    Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) is a
    set of best-practice models

    • Development projects (software, hardware, systems engineering)
    • Service projects (Information Technology, professional services)
    • Acquisition projects (buyers of products and services)

Project Management                 Support                            Process Management
• Project Planning                 • Configuration Management         • Organizational Process Focus
• Project Monitoring and Control   • Process and Product Quality      • Organizational Process
• Supplier Agreement Mgmt.           Assurance                          Definition
• Integrated Project Mgmt.         • Measurement and Analysis         • Organizational Training
• Risk Management                  • Decision Analysis and            • Organizational Process
• Quantitative Project Mgmt.         Resolution                         Performance
                                   • Causal Analysis and Resolution   • Organizational Innovation and
                                                                        Deployment
Development                        Services                           Acquisition
• Requirements Development         • Service Delivery                 • Solicitation and Supplier
• Requirements Management          • Capacity & Availability            Agreement Development
• Technical Solution                 Management                       • Agreement Management
• Product Integration              • Incident Resolution &            • Acquisition Technical
• Verification                       Prevention                         Management
• Validation                       • Service System Transition        • Acquisition Verification
                                   • Service Continuity               • Acquisition Validation
                                   • Service System Development
6                                  • Strategic Service Management
       Organizational Maturity is Ranked
       on a 1-5 Scale
                               Level              Process Areas
    • Higher maturity
                                                  Causal Analysis and Resolution
      implies the capability   5 Optimizing       Organizational Innovation and Deployment

      to reliably deliver
      more
                               4 Quantitatively   Quantitative Project Management
                                  Managed         Organizational Process Performance
      programmatically                            Requirements Development
      challenging systems                         Technical Solution
                                                  Product Integration
                                                  Verification
    • Appraisers evaluate      3 Defined
                                                  Validation
                                                  Organizational Process Focus
      the organizational                          Organizational Process Definition
                                                  Organizational Training
      infrastructure and                          Risk Management
                                                  Integrated Project Management
      projects against all                        Decision Analysis and Resolution
      practices and process                       Requirements Management
      areas in the CMMI
                               2 Managed          Project Planning
                                                  Project Monitoring and Control
                                                  Supplier Agreement Management
                                                  Measurement and Analysis
                                                  Process and Product Quality Assurance
                                                  Configuration Management

                               1 Performed

7
       How Does Industry Use the CMMI?

Companies use the model to
identify process improvements
 – The model identifies practices
   mature organizations should
   use
 – Companies use the model to
   set organizational improvement
   goals (“Achieve CMMI Level 3
   in 2005”)
Customers use the model to
assess contractor capability
 – May ask an organization about
   it’s rating
 – May conduct their own
   appraisal




   8
    Project Planning – Goals and Practices

                 Implementation                             Institutionalization (culture)
    SG 1 Establish Estimates                          GG 2 Institutionalize as a Managed Process
     SP 1.1 Estimate the Scope of the Project            GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy
     SP 1.2 Establish Estimates of Work Product and      GP 2.2 Plan the Process
            Task Attributes                              GP 2.3 Provide Resources
     SP 1.3 Define Project Lifecycle                     GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility
     SP 1.4 Determine Estimates of Effort and Cost       GP 2.5 Train People
    SG 2 Develop a Project Plan                          GP 2.6 Manage Configurations
       SP 2.1 Establish the Budget and Schedule          GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant
       SP 2.2 Identify Project Risks                            Stakeholders
       SP 2.3 Plan for Data Management                   GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process
       SP 2.4 Plan for Project Resources                 GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence
       SP 2.5 Plan for Needed Knowledge and Skills       GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level
                                                                Management
       SP 2.6 Plan Stakeholder Involvement
       SP 2.7 Establish the Project Plan              GG 3 Institutionalize as a Defined Process
                                                         GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process
    SG 3 Obtain Commitment to the Plan
                                                         GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information
       SP 3.1 Review Plans that Affect the Project
       SP 3.2 Reconcile Work and Resource Levels
       SP 3.3 Obtain Plan Commitment

9
     Practice Ratings for the
     Organization/Project




10
     Lean Six Sigma




11
     What is Lean Six Sigma (LSS)?

     • Lean Six Sigma is a powerful
       approach to improving the
       work we do
     • LSS improvement projects
       are performed by teams
     • Teams use a set of tools and
       techniques to understand
       problems and find solutions
     • Lean Six Sigma integrates
       tools and techniques from
       two proven process             +
       improvement methods



12
     A Typical Six Sigma Project
     in Engineering

     The organization notes that systems integration has been
      problematic on past projects (budget/schedule overruns)
     A Six Sigma team is formed to scope the problem, collect data
      from past projects, and determine the root cause(s)
     The team’s analysis of the historical data indicates that
      ineffective peer reviews are leaving significant errors to be
      found in test
     Procedures and criteria for better peer reviews are written,
      using best practices from past projects
     A pilot project uses the new peer review procedures and
      criteria, and collects data to verify they solve the problem
     The organization’s standard process and training is modified to
      incorporate the procedures and criteria, to prevent similar
      problems on future projects
13
     What is Six Sigma?

     • Six Sigma is a management philosophy based on meeting
       business objectives by reducing variation
        – A disciplined, data-driven methodology for decision making and
          process improvement
     • To increase process performance, you have to decrease
       variation
                                      Too late                     Too early                   Too late
              Too early
                                                                                                          • Greater
                                                                                                            predictability in the
         Defects                             Defects                                                        process
                                                                                                          • Less waste and
                                                        Reduce                                              rework, which
                                                       variation
                      Delivery Time                                            Delivery Time
                                                                                                            lowers costs
                                                                                                          • Products and
                   Spread of variation too                                Spread of variation
                     wide compared to                                    narrow compared to
                                                                                                            services that
                       specifications                                       specifications                  perform better and
                                                                                                            last longer
                                                                                                          • Happier customers
14
     A General Purpose Problem-Solving
     Methodology: DMAIC

        Problem or goal statement (Y)



       Define          Measure          Analyze             Improve            Control



       • Refine problem & goal    • An improvement journey to achieve goals and resolve
         statements.                problems by discovering and understanding relationships
       • Define project scope &     between process inputs and outputs, such as
         boundaries.
                                   Y = f(defect profile, yield)
                                      = f(review rate, method, complexity……)




15
     DMAIC Roadmap


      Define      Measure        Analyze         Improve        Control

     Define       Identify       Explore         Identify       Define
     project      needed         data            possible       control
     scope        data                           solutions      method

      Establish   Obtain         Characterize    Select          Implement
      formal      data set       process &       solution
      project                    problem
                                                                 Document
                  Evaluate                       Implement
                  data quality   Update          (pilot as
                                 improvement     needed)
                                 project scope
                  Summarize&     & scale
                  baseline                       Evaluate
                  data
                                                             Phase Exit Review




16
     DMAIC Toolkit


      Define            Measure            Analyze           Improve           Control
       Benchmark          GQIM and         Cause & Effect      Design of         Statistical
     Contract/Charter      Indicator      Diagrams/ Matrix    Experiments        Controls:
                          Templates       Failure Modes &       Modeling       Control Charts
       Kano Model
                        Data Collection   Effects Analysis       ANOVA          Time Series
       Voice of the        Methods
        Customer                             Statistical      Tolerancing        methods
                        Measurement          Inference
       Voice of the       System                             Robust Design
        Business                             Reliability                       Non-Statistical
                         Evaluation           Analysis          Systems
     Quality Function                                           Thinking         Controls:
      Deployment                             Root Cause                         Procedural
                                               Analysis,     Decision & Risk
                                                                Analysis        adherence
                                          including 5 Whys
                                                                               Performance
                                          Hypothesis Test                      Management
                                                                                 Preventive
                                                                                 measures


17
     The Voices of Six Sigma

     • Six Sigma includes powerful techniques
       for understanding the problem you are
       trying to solve
        – Voice of Customer
        – Voice of Process
        – Voice of Business
     • These techniques are useful in non-Six Sigma settings for
       understanding:
        – Customer requirements and needs
        – Process performance and capability
        – Business priorities and trends




18
     What is Lean?

     • Series of tools and techniques refined by Toyota and called the
       “Toyota Production System”
        – Called “Lean” by Womack, Jones and Roos in The Machine That
         Changed the World
     • Focused on increasing efficiency by eliminating non-value
       added process steps and wasteful practices
     • Being adopted world-wide by both manufacturing and
       transactional based organizations
     • Utilizes tools like “Value Stream Mapping,” “Just in Time” and
       “Kaizen”




          LEAN FOCUS: ELIMINATE WASTE AND REDUCE CYCLE TIME

19
     5 Principles of Lean Process



                              1. Define VALUE as seen by
                                 your customer
                          5   2. Identify the VALUE STREAM for
                                 each product
                      4       3. Make value FLOW without
                                 interruptions
                  3
                              4. Allow customer to PULL value
              2                  from the producer
          1                   5. Continuous pursuit of
                                 PERFECTION

20
     SEI’s Strategic Classification Taxonomy




     Summary of the SEI approach of harmonizing multiple models, by Jeannine Siviy and Pat Kirwan, 2008
     PrIME Workshop, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/prime/hardquestionsoutput.html
21
     Northrop Grumman Approach

         We systematically analyze all quality and
                                                      We improve our process assets based on
       process data and trends to determine how to
                                                        internal and external best practices
                  improve our processes
                                                                                                         Deployed
                                                                                                            to
                         Analysis                                 Disposition
                                                                                    Information          programs
       ISO/AS9100
         Findings                                Industry
                                                                                                Policy
                                                Standards        Configuration
      CMMI Appraisal      • Process Group                        Control Board
                                                 Internal
        Findings          • Metrics Working                                                Procedures
                                               Best Practices
        Customer            Group
                                                 Six Sigma
        Comments          • Program                                                            Training
                                                  Projects
       Independent          Management
          Audits            Advisory Board       External                                 Checklists and
                                               Best Practices                                Guides
     Lessons Learned &
          Metrics                                                                         Templates and
                                                                                            Examples

               Tools         eToolkit            eCAS              PAL

                                    StartIt!         Workbench           PCDB

22

				
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