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AM GOV 2010_ Texas Edition Chapter 16 – Test Bank Multiple

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					                        AM GOV 2010, Texas Edition
                          Chapter 16 – Test Bank

Multiple Choice
1. According to the text, what prompted a recent full-scale reappraisal of U.S. intelligence
   gathering?
   a. the failure of U.S. intelligence gathering in Somalia
   b. the failure of U.S. intelligence gathering in Russia
   c. the failure of U.S. intelligence gathering in China
   d. the failure of U.S. intelligence gathering in Iraq
   Answer: d
   Page: 412

2. Alexis de Tocqueville, writing in the early19th century about America, noted that America’s
   prosperity rests in part on its
   a. geographic isolation.
   b. defensible borders.
   c. absence of passion for war.
   d. All these answers are correct.
   Answer: d
   Page: 403

3. According to the text, two key strategic doctrines that guided U.S. military power during the
   Cold War period were
   a. isolationism and praetorianism.
   b. brinkmanship and neo-nationalism.
   c. containment and mutually assured destruction (MAD).
   d. None of these answers is correct.
   Answer: c
   Page: 404

4. According to the text, the Soviet empire collapsed in the early 1990s as a result of
   a. the Soviets’ failure to keep pace with America.
   b. a massive loss of Soviet credibility internationally.
   c. both the Soviets’ failure to keep pace with America and a massive loss of their credibility
      internationally.
   d. None of these answers is correct.
   Answer: a
   Page: 405
5. The singular issue that defines American national security policy today is
   a. changes in Russia.
   b. terrorism.
   c. the United Nations crisis.
   d. presidential mismanagement of foreign policy.
   Answer: b
   Page: 406

6. The official military policy adopted by the Bush administration that permits the use of force
   to prevent hostile acts by our enemies even if we are uncertain about the time and place of
   the enemy attack is called
   a. deterrence.
   b. preemption.
   c. plausible deniability.
   d. counter-balance.
   Answer: b
   Page: 406

7. President Bush, in introducing his new national security policy, indicated that the peace and
   security of free nations rests on which of the following
   a. working with other responsible nations to build strong and effective international
      institutions.
   b. the willingness of free nations to restrain aggression and evil by force.
   c. a commitment to the global expansion of democracy.
   d. All these answers are correct.
   Answer: d
   Page: 406

8. The constellation of military, economic, and ideological concerns about security constitute
   what policymakers refer to as a country’s
   a. legacy.
   b. dilemma.
   c. promise.
   d. national interests.
   Answer: d
   Page: 407

9. Foreign policy is generally guided by the assumption that nation-states act in a world that is
   somewhat
   a. anarchic.
   b. controlled.
   c. peaceful.
   d. None of these answers is correct.
   Answer: a
   Page: 408
10. According to the authors, ________ is one of the most venerable and persistent models used
    by foreign policy professionals.
    a. internationalism
    b. liberalism
    c. realism
    d. interdependence
    Answer: c
    Page: 408

11. Game theory is built on the assumption that
    a. states act irrationally.
    b. states act rationally in their self-interest.
    c. the world is chaotic and unpredictable.
    d. None of these answers is correct.
    Answer: b
    Page: 409

12. “Neo-conservatism” contends that in the wake of the September 11th attacks, America would
    a. have to launch periodic preventive wars to defend itself against rogue states and
       terrorists.
    b. act alone, if necessary.
    c. work to democratize the greater Middle East as a long-term solution to terrorist problems.
    d. All these answers are correct.
    Answer: d
    Page: 408

13. National security policy must link ________ and military operations into a coherent
    framework for achieving our goals in the world.
    a. diplomatic
    b. intelligence
    c. economic
    d. All these answers are correct.
    Answer: d
    Page: 409

14. Congress has all of the following powers EXCEPT
    a. authority to declare war.
    b. authority to conduct war.
    c. authority to raise and support armies.
    d. authority to make rules regulating military conduct.
    Answer: b
    Page: 414
15. The National Security Council serves to
    a. advise the president on defense and foreign policy matters.
    b. coordinate the implementation of policy among various government agencies.
    c. both advise the president on defense and foreign policy matters and coordinate the
       implementation of policy among various government agencies.
    d. None of these answers is correct.
    Answer: c
    Page: 410

16. In the wake of intelligence failures following September 11 and the invasion of Iraq,
    Congress created the position of
    a. Director of Intelligence.
    b. Intelligence Czar.
    c. Secretary of Defense.
    d. NSC Director.
    Answer: a
    Page: 412

17. The State Department is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
    a. acting as the chief diplomatic arm of the U.S. Government.
    b. leading and coordinating U.S. representation abroad.
    c. conveying U.S. foreign policy to foreign governments and international organizations.
    d. managing U.S. military forces on foreign soil.
    Answer: d
    Page: 410

18. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
    a. collects intelligence through human and electronic means.
    b. provides assessments of risk to the nation’s security.
    c. both collects intelligence through human and electronic means and provides assessments
       of risk to the nation’s security.
    d. None of these answers is correct.
    Answer: c
    Page: 412

19. Member agencies of the U.S. intelligence community include all of the following EXCEPT
    a. the Department of Energy.
    b. Air Force Intelligence.
    c. the Drug Enforcement Administration.
    d. the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
    Answer: b
    Page: 412
20. Congress is not powerless in opposing presidential powers related to defense and security.
    Congress can
    a. cut off funding for war.
    b. reject presidential requests for authority to commence hostile activities.
    c. expand or reject presidential requests for foreign aid.
    d. All these answers are correct.
    Answer: d
    Page: 414-415

21. Tools of foreign policy include
    a. military power.
    b. the presidential will to act.
    c. powers granted under the Fourteenth Amendment.
    d. None of these answers is correct.
    Answer: a
    Page: 416

22. According to the text, the country that has the highest military spending (by a large margin)
    is
    a. France.
    b. China.
    c. Russia.
    d. the United States.
    Answer: d
    Page: 416

23. The United States currently has ________ active military personnel.
    a. 300,000
    b. 1 million
    c. 1.5 million
    d. 3 million
    Answer: c
    Page: 416

24. According to the text, foreign aid constitutes ________ of the national budget of the U.S.
    a. less than 1%
    b. 3%
    c. 5%
    d. nearly 10%
    Answer: a
    Page: 418
25. According to the text, the world today (as describes power and domination) is best described
    as a(n)
    a. bipolar world.
    b. tripolar world.
    c. non-polar world.
    d. unipolar world.
    Answer: d
    Page: 420

26. The roots of terrorism include
    a. extreme ideology.
    b. the lack of economic opportunity.
    c. both extreme ideology and the lack of economic opportunity.
    d. None of these answers is correct.
    Answer: c
    Page: 420

27. Current members of the “nuclear club” include all of the following EXCEPT
    a. France.
    b. Iran.
    c. China.
    d. Pakistan.
    Answer: b
    Page: 421

28. According to the text, from the standpoint of U.S. national security, the most vexing regional
    trouble spot is
    a. Asia.
    b. Latin America.
    c. Europe.
    d. the Middle East.
    Answer: d
    Page: 423

29. According to the text, though the roots of tensions in the Middle East are numerous,
    complex, and not easily resolved, ________ might go a long way toward diffusing tension in
    the region.
    a. blocking further Jewish immigration
    b. a solution to the continuing dispute over the establishment of a permanent Palestinian
        state
    c. regime change in Iran
    d. None of these answers is correct.
    Answer: b
    Page: 423
30. According to the text, China
    a. will play an increasingly important role in world affairs.
    b. now is the 2nd largest military spender behind the U.S.
    c. is now the second largest foreign holder of U.S. securities.
    d. All these answers are correct.
    Answer: d
    Page: 424-425

31. The chief distinction between defense policy specifically and foreign policy generally is that
    the former emphasizes
    a. all measures for protecting America’s vital interests.
    b. measures intended to protect American life and property within the country’s own
        borders.
    c. the strategic use of military force.
    d. maintaining peace through foreign economic aid programs.
    e. the need for active diplomacy to prevent armed conflict.
    Answer: c
    Page: 403

32. The central tenet of the Monroe Doctrine is that
    a. the United States would make no attempt to increase its own territorial holdings, and
       would prevent any other country from trying to seize new land.
    b. the United States would regard new European imperial activities in the Americas as a
       threat to American security.
    c. the United States would work closely with European powers to extend the blessings of
       republican government throughout the Americas.
    d. the United States would intervene in the affairs of any American nation whose internal
       disorder threatened regional stability.
    e. the United States would intervene on behalf of people who were struggling to prevent
       their liberties from being taken away by internal factions or outside threats.
    Answer: b
    Page: 403

33. John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy to guarantee American access to trade with
    a. China.
    b. India.
    c. Africa.
    d. Cuba.
    e. Japan.
    Answer: a
    Page: 403
34. The Roosevelt Corollary was used to justify American intervention in
    a. China.
    b. India.
    c. Africa.
    d. Cuba.
    e. Japan.
    Answer: d
    Page: 403-404

35. The Roosevelt Corollary was used primarily to justify American military interventions in
    a. the Mediterranean.
    b. Southeast Asia.
    c. the South Pacific.
    d. the Caribbean.
    e. Eastern Europe.
    Answer: d
    Page: 403-404

36. The central tenet of the Roosevelt Corollary was that
    a. the United States would make no attempt to increase its own territorial holdings, and
       would prevent any other country from trying to seize new land.
    b. the United States would welcome European military intervention in the internal affairs of
       American countries that had proven themselves incapable of self-government.
    c. the United States would work closely with European powers to extend the blessings of
       republican government throughout the Americas.
    d. the United States would intervene in the affairs of American nations whose internal
       disorder threatened regional stability.
    e. the United States would intervene on behalf of people who were struggling to prevent
       their liberties from being taken away by internal factions or outside threats.
    Answer: d
    Page: 403-404

37. The first federal peacetime draft in U.S. history was established
    a. immediately after the end of World War I.
    b. immediately after the end of World War II.
    c. shortly after the ratification of the Constitution.
    d. at the end of the nineteenth century.
    e. shortly before the United States entered World War II.
    Answer: e
    Page: 404
38. Which of the following statements about American involvement in World War I is most
    accurate?
    a. The United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles that Wilson had helped to
       negotiate to end World War I.
    b. Recognizing the need for an international peacekeeping organization, the United States
       became a charter member of the League of Nations at the end of World War I.
    c. Despite the heavy demands of fighting the war, the United States refused to implement a
       draft, choosing instead to rely on an all-volunteer army.
    d. American involvement in World War I was part of a long tradition of American
       intervention in European wars.
    e. American involvement in World War I ushered in a new era in which American citizens
       had little stake and took little interest in foreign affairs.
    Answer: a
    Page: 404

39. The central tenet of the Truman Doctrine was that
    a. the United States would make no attempt to increase its own territorial holdings, and
       would prevent any other country from trying to seize new land.
    b. the United States would welcome European military intervention in the internal affairs of
       American countries that had proven themselves incapable of self-government.
    c. the United States would work closely with European powers to extend the blessings of
       republican government throughout the Americas.
    d. the United States would intervene in the affairs of American nations whose internal
       disorder threatened regional stability.
    e. the United States would intervene on behalf of people who were struggling to prevent
       their liberties from being taken away by internal factions or outside threats.
    Answer: e
    Page: 404

40. The effectiveness of a foreign policy based on the principle of mutually assured destruction
    required all of the following EXCEPT
    a. a willingness to threaten one’s enemy with annihilation in response to a first strike.
    b. a willingness to accept the annihilation of one’s country as the consequence of launching
       an attack against one’s enemy.
    c. an offensive arsenal capable of annihilating an entire country.
    d. rational actors on both sides who would place self-preservation above ideological goals.
    e. overwhelming military dominance by a single superpower.
    Answer: e
    Page: 404
41. During which conflict did the United States abandon the draft in favor of an all-volunteer
    military force?
    a. World War I
    b. World War II
    c. Korean War
    d. Vietnam War
    e. First Gulf War
    Answer: d
    Page: 404

42. Throughout much of the Cold War, the United States expressed a commitment to prevent
    Communists from seizing control of free countries, a policy that was known as
    a. containment.
    b. rollback.
    c. blowback.
    d. isolationism.
    e. détente.
    Answer: a
    Page: 404

43. Which theoretical perspective has the Obama administration used to define its national
    security and foreign policies?
    a. realism
    b. neoconservatism
    c. foreign policy idealism
    d. foreign policy liberalism
    e. The Obama administration does not seem tied to any one theoretical perspective.
    Answer: e
    Page: 408

44. Which of the following initiatives would be most appropriate to a policy of détente?
    a. forming new alliances to isolate one’s chief rival
    b. vilifying one’s chief rival with alarmist rhetoric
    c. reaching an agreement with one’s chief rival to decrease each side’s military arsenal
    d. using all means short of outright war to decrease the influence and standing of one’s chief
       rival
    e. hurting one’s chief rival by waging proxy wars against its weaker allies or satellites
    Answer: c
    Page: 405
45. According to the Bush Doctrine, the most effective means for ending the threat posed by
    international terrorism would be to
    a. establish democratic governments in every country.
    b. convert all the world’s peoples to Christianity.
    c. create a multi-polar world in which no single nation wields overwhelming military force.
    d. negotiate with hostile regimes in order to strike a favorable balance of power.
    e. insist that no country should resort to the use of military force except in response to the
        armed aggression of another country.
    Answer: a
    Page: 406

46. Presidents Wilson and Carter are primarily associated with which school of foreign policy?
    a. realism
    b. neoconservatism
    c. liberalism
    d. idealism
    e. game theory
    Answer: d
    Page: 408

47. The establishment of the United Nations and the Marshall Plan are both most fully aligned
    with the principles of which school of foreign policy?
    a. realism
    b. neoconservatism
    c. liberalism
    d. idealism
    e. game theory
    Answer: c
    Page: 408

48. Which school of foreign policy is most closely associated with the goal of spreading
    American values through peaceful means?
    a. realism
    b. neoconservatism
    c. liberalism
    d. idealism
    e. game theory
    Answer: d
    Page: 408
49. President Richard Nixon and his advisor Henry Kissinger are primarily associated with
    which school of foreign policy?
    a. realism
    b. neoconservatism
    c. liberalism
    d. idealism
    e. game theory
    Answer: a
    Page: 408

50. Which school of foreign policy is concerned with protecting national interests through
    military force, but demonstrates little explicit interest in spreading American values?
    a. realism
    b. neoconservatism
    c. liberalism
    d. idealism
    e. game theory
    Answer: a
    Page: 408

51. The goal of invading Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein’s regime and establish a democratic
    government in its place fits most squarely with the foreign policy principles of
    a. realists.
    b. neoconservatives.
    c. liberals.
    d. idealists.
    e. game theorists.
    Answer: b
    Page: 408

52. The governing principle behind game theory is that
    a. states act in a rational manner designed to maximize their gains and minimize their
       losses.
    b. in any situation, a gain by one state must result in a corresponding loss by another state.
    c. the element of random chance is an inescapable feature of international affairs, and one
       that dooms all foreign policy predictions to failure.
    d. a state “wins” in foreign policy only when it has ensured that no potential rival can
       challenge its international supremacy.
    e. no state can achieve its foreign policy goals unless it can enlist a sufficient number of
       allies to its “team.”
    Answer: a
    Page: 409
53. Which of the following statements about the handling of foreign policy in American history
    is LEAST accurate?
    a. The Constitution places sole responsibility for foreign policy in the hands of the
        president.
    b. The executive branch has the most, but not the sole, influence in shaping foreign policy.
    c. The executive branch has claimed primary responsibility for shaping foreign policy since
        the time of George Washington.
    d. The power of the executive branch over foreign policy has generally increased since the
        founding of the republic.
    e. Public opinion and the pressure of special interest groups can place effective constraints
        on the executive branch’s foreign policy options.
    Answer: a
    Page: 409-410

54. Which of the following persons does not traditionally hold a seat on the National Security
    Council?
    a. Speaker of the House
    b. Secretary of the Treasury
    c. chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
    d. Director of National Intelligence
    e. the vice president
    Answer: a
    Page: 410

55. The National Security Council was created
    a. by the Washington administration.
    b. during the Civil War.
    c. in the months before the U.S. entered World War I.
    d. shortly after the end of World War II.
    e. after the intelligence failures that resulted in the attacks of September 11, 2001.
    Answer: d
    Page: 410

56. Which of the following branches does not have a representative within the Joint Chiefs of
    Staff?
    a. Air Force
    b. Coast Guard
    c. Army
    d. Marines
    e. Navy
    Answer: b
    Page: 412
57. The U.S. intelligence community consists of approximately how many different intelligence
    agencies?
    a. one
    b. three
    c. six
    d. eleven
    e. sixteen
    Answer: e
    Page: 412

58. The DEA and the FBI are both arms of which government agency?
    a. Justice Department
    b. State Department
    c. Defense Department
    d. Treasury Department
    e. Congress
    Answer: a
    Page: 412-413

59. Which of the following statements about the U.S. intelligence community is LEAST
    accurate?
    a. The failure of different sections of the community to communicate effectively with each
       other is at least partly to blame for the September 11, 2001, attacks.
    b. Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the president authorized the NSA to
       eavesdrop on the communications of American citizens.
    c. The primary activity of CIA agents is engaging in covert operations designed to
       undermine hostile regimes.
    d. A secret court of eleven judges appointed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was
       established in 1978 to authorize certain acts of covert surveillance within American
       borders.
    e. There are more than a dozen separate agencies directly involved in collecting and
       analyzing intelligence for the U.S. government.
    Answer: c
    Page: 412-414

60. Diplomacy is primarily the responsibility of
    a. the State Department.
    b. the Defense Department.
    c. Congress.
    d. the vice president.
    e. the armed forces.
    Answer: a
    Page: 410
61. Which of the following statements about the role of public opinion in foreign policy is most
    accurate?
    a. The American public consistently demonstrates sustained and well-informed interest in
       foreign policy.
    b. Government officials have little incentive to take public opinion into account when
       launching major foreign policy initiatives.
    c. Traditionally, government officials have based their foreign policy initiatives almost
       entirely on the expressed will of the people.
    d. The manner in which foreign policy initiatives are “framed” tends to influence the level
       of public support for those initiatives.
    e. Even when an administration’s foreign policy proves harmful to the national interest, the
       American people are generally indifferent to foreign affairs.
    Answer: d
    Page: 416

62. Which of the following statements about U.S. foreign aid is LEAST accurate?
    a. To promote peace and stability, the U.S. government insists that the money that it sends
       abroad not be used for military purposes.
    b. In many instances, the U.S. government sends money to foreign countries with the
       understanding that those countries will use the money to buy weaponry from American
       companies.
    c. The U.S. government sometimes provides money to foreign governments with the
       expectation that those governments will advance U.S. interests by fighting terrorism or
       drug-trafficking.
    d. Based on the percentage of national income, no major donor nation provides less foreign
       aid than does the United States.
    e. Some of the financial aid the U.S. government provides to foreign countries is intended
       be used to develop the domestic economies of those nations.
    Answer: a
    Page: 418-419

63. Which of the following countries is NOT a permanent member of the UN Security Council?
    a. France
    b. China
    c. Russia
    d. Germany
    e. the United Kingdom
    Answer: d
    Page: 419
64. Which of the following statements about the U.S. relationship with international
    organizations is LEAST accurate?
    a. The U.S. is one of five countries with a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
    b. During the 1990s, the U.S. successfully courted UN support for several major foreign
       policy initiatives, including the First Gulf War.
    c. The U.S. has consistently refused to engage in military actions without the expressed
       consent of the UN’s Security Council and General Body.
    d. By tradition, the U.S. gets to select the president of the World Bank.
    e. The U.S. works closely with international organizations such as WHO to address actual
       and potential health threats throughout the world.
    Answer: c
    Page: 419-420

65. Since the end of the Cold War,
    a. the United States and Russia have attempted to weaken each other through a series of
       “proxy wars.”
    b. Russia has ceased to hold significant power on the world stage.
    c. the international community has meekly acquiesced in American international
       supremacy.
    d. the United States has encouraged the expansion of NATO to include a number of nations
       that formerly belonged to the Soviet Bloc.
    e. the United States has encouraged the restoration of the Russian military and the
       expansion of Russian territory in order to restore a bipolar world system.
    Answer: d
    Page: 418

66. Which of the following statements about the U.S. and the threat of terrorism are LEAST
    accurate?
    a. During the 1990s, the United States generally responded to terrorist acts with criminal
       proceedings rather than military engagements.
    b. Among the groups that attacked U.S. soldiers in Iraq were foreign jihadists from places
       like Syria and Saudi Arabia.
    c. The United States failed to gain broad international support for either its invasion of
       Afghanistan or its invasion of Iraq.
    d. In the decade leading up to September 11, 2001, Islamic terrorists launched a number of
       attacks on American targets in the U.S. and abroad.
    e. Although the U.S. and its allies succeeded in toppling the Taliban regime, they failed to
       establish lasting internal peace within Afghanistan.
    Answer: c
    Page: 420-421
67. Which of the following factors is NOT frequently cited as a source of the terrorist threat the
    United States faces today?
    a. the emergence of radical Islamic fundamentalism
    b. the creation and expansion of Israel
    c. feelings of powerlessness
    d. limited economic opportunities
    e. the Middle East’s lack of valuable natural resources
    Answer: e
    Page: 420-421

68. Which of the following statements about nuclear weaponry is most accurate?
    a. No nation has ever dismantled its entire nuclear arsenal.
    b. The United States maintains the largest nuclear arsenal in the world.
    c. Since the ratification of the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, there have been no
       new additions to the five nations which constitute the “nuclear club.”
    d. It is highly likely that, in the immediate future, a non-state actor will acquire the means to
       build and deliver a nuclear bomb.
    e. The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty between the United States and Russia expired in
       2009.
    Answer: e
    Page: 421


True or False
69. The requirements for defending our nation change dramatically depending on the source and
    the nature of the enemies that we face.
    Answer: True
    Page: 403

70. During World War I, the draft was seen as a very undemocratic response to the need for
    military personnel, since it required all men to register with the Selective Service System and
    to remain available for service regardless of individual wealth or education.
    Answer: False
    Page: 404

71. The draft was replaced in 1973 with a system of voluntary military enlistment.
    Answer: True
    Page: 404

72. According to the text, the most important foreign policy goal facing any nation is
    maintaining nation-to-nation friendships in an increasingly complex world.
    Answer: False
    Page: 407
73. Liberalism is a perspective of international relations that focuses on the potential for
    cooperation among nations in meeting common goals such as prosperity and peace.
    Answer: True
    Page: 408

74. According to the authors, the founders intended Congress to play a very limited part in
    decisions about war and peace.
    Answer: False
    Page: 414-415

75. According to the text, some civil libertarians fear that the mingling of information from
    domestic and foreign sources resulting from the reorganization of the intelligence community
    may lead to unwarranted spying on U.S. citizens.
    Answer: True
    Page: 413

76. According to the text, Congress has never taken any action to influence war termination.
    Answer: False
    Page: 414-415

77. According to the text, for the most part, Americans display far less knowledge of
    international and foreign affairs than domestic policy matters.
    Answer: True
    Page: 416

78. Diplomacy is the use of peaceful means to build support for common interests and to avoid
    warfare.
    Answer: True
    Page: 417

79. According to the text, polls have shown that many Americans are convinced of the
    effectiveness of foreign aid programs.
    Answer: False
    Page: 418

80. Until 2001, the U.S. had approached terrorism much like a criminal activity, protecting
    targets as best we could and prosecuting terrorists as criminals.
    Answer: True
    Page: 420

81. The U.S. has refused to destroy a significant portion of the nuclear arsenal that it maintained
    during the Cold War.
    Answer: False
    Page: 421
82. Africa is a continent that has become riddled by civil wars pitting ethnic and tribal rivals
    against each other and resulting in displacement, starvation, and massive loss of life.
    Answer: True
    Page: 423-424


Essay
83. One of the most important powers of the presidency is its influence over foreign policy.
    Discuss the major presidential initiatives that have had a major or lasting impact on
    American history. Has there been a common theme coursing through these major initiatives,
    or have different presidents pursued radically different policies? Which presidential
    initiatives have proven most successful? Why have those policies been more effective than
    the failed initiatives of other presidents?
    Answer: Answers will vary.

84. Discuss the threats that confront American interests and international stability more
    generally. Which ones are the most threatening? Which ones, if any, can the United States
    safely ignore? What would be the best means with which to confront these threats?
    Answer: Answers will vary.

85. Describe the means by which the U.S. government and the American people can influence
    foreign affairs. What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each of these means?
    Which of these means has been used most successfully in the past?
    Answer: Answers will vary.

86. Describe the major schools of thought which have shaped American foreign policy for the
    past seventy-five years. Explain the preferred goals and tactics of each one. Which of these
    schools has produced the most enduring foreign policy successes? Which should be used to
    address the threats faced by the United States today?
    Answer: Answers will vary.

87. Explain how the U.S. government shapes its foreign policy. Describe the roles given to both
    civilian organizations and the military. Which branch of the government wields the most
    influence over foreign policy? What role does public opinion play in shaping foreign policy?
    Should the American people have more or less of a say in the handling of foreign affairs?
    Answer: Answers will vary.

				
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