water by yanyanliu123


									         Brewing Water

     James River Homebrewers
         January 9, 2008

Siebel Institute of Technology Concise Course Notes
         Ray Daniels, Designing Great Beers
Wolfgang Kunze, Technology of Brewing and Malting
        Richmond Water Report, July 9, 2007
• Water “Requirements”
• Important Ions, Hardness, Alkalinity
  – (OFFLINE; link to presentation will be posted
    to the JRHB Forum to review later)
• Famous Brewing Waters and BEER
• Water Adjustment to match Richmond
         Water Requirements
• Must meet potable water standards
• Appropriate mineral composition
  – Mostly for style, but it affects your mash and
    pH as well!
• Appropriate Acidity and Alkalinity (most
  important for Mash; not as important for
  extract brewing)
 Basic Requirements for Potable
• Microbiologically pure
  – < 1 organism/100 mL; no coliform bacteria
• Clear and colorless
• Free of heavy metal ions (Iron, Lead, Gold,
  Copper, etc.)
• Tasteless and odorless
  – Chlorinated water affects beer flavor
      RICHMOND Water Report
           July, 2007
•   Ca2+: 22ppm     • SO42-: 60ppm
•   Mg2+: 4.4ppm    • Cl-: 19ppm
•   K+: 2.1ppm      • NO2-: <0.05ppm
•   NH4+: 0.85ppm   • Br-: 0.27ppm
•   Na+: 20ppm      • Fl-: 0.81ppm
•   Li+: <0.05ppm   • PO43-: 1.4ppm
•   pH: 7.8         • Turbidity: 0.5
•   TOC: 1.4ppm     • Total Alkalinity as CaCO3:
•   SiO2: 6.8ppm      88ppm
•   CO2: 2.6ppm     • Total Hardness as CaCO3:
•   TDS: 190ppm       96ppm
   Important Ions For Brewing:
         Calcium (Ca++)
• Protects enzymes from thermal degradation,
  extends activity
• Improves trub formation during wort boil
• Decreases pH during mashing and wort boil
   – 100 ppm calcium addition decreases pH by 0.4 pH units
• General rule of thumb:
   – 40-60 ppm is needed in packaged all malt beer.
   – Approximately ½ of calcium is lost during mashing.
   – 80-120 ppm calcium is required from brewing water
     AND calcium addition in mashing all-malt beer.
• Richmond water supply: 22ppm
   Important Ions For Brewing:
       Magnesium (Mg++)
• Magnesium salts are much more soluble
  than those of calcium.
• Less effect on wort pH
• Can provide slightly bitter or sour flavor to
• Richmond Water: 4.4 ppm
   Important Ions For Brewing:
          Sodium (Na+)
• At low concentrations (<100ppm), sodium
  gives a slightly sweet flavor to beer.
• But > 100 ppm, sodium gives a salty flavor.
• Richmond water: 20ppm
   Important Ions For Brewing:
 Carbonate (CO32-) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
• These ions prevent decrease of pH.
• They are twice as effective in raising wort
  pH as calcium is in lowering pH.
• Contribute to alkalinity.
• Should be <75ppm (prefer <50ppm)
• Richmond water:
  – HCO3-: 44ppm
  – CO32-: <2ppm
   Important Ions For Brewing:
  Chloride (Cl-) / Sulfate (SO42-)
• Chloride increases palate fullness and gives a mellow
  flavor to beer.
• Chloride is different from Chlorine in water (HOCl) which
  causes a swimming-pool or similar flavor in beer)
• Sulfate results in drier, more bitter flavors in beer.
• Sulfate can be a source of SO2 and H2S formed during
  fermentation that may give the beer a sulfury note
  (especially in “Burton” beers).
• Richmond water:
   – Cl-: 19ppm
   – SO42-: 60ppm
 Water Hardness includes “Temporary”
 Hardness and “Permanent” Hardness
• Temporary Hardness are the Bicarbonates
   – Can be partly removed by Boiling (CO2 is driven off)
   – Addition of Lime (Calcium Hydroxide) precipitates
     calcium and magnesium carbonates
• Permanent Hardness include Calcium and
  Magnesium Sulfates, Chlorides, and Nitrates.
   – These can be reduced by ion exchange
• Richmond water TOTAL Hardness (Temporary +
  Permanent): 96ppm (expressed as ppm CaCO3)
• Alkalinity is a result of bicarbonates
• Bicarbonates increase wort pH
• Determined by measuring how much acid it takes
  to neutralize bicarbonate
• Effects:
  –   Increases color of beer
  –   Inhibits enzyme actions
  –   Slower Lautering
  –   Lower extract yield of the malt
  –   Less yeast growth
  –   More beer haze
• Richmond Alkalinity: 88ppm (CaCO3 equivalents)
             Residual Alkalinity
• Residual Alkalinity is the difference between the Non-
  Carbonate Hardness and the carbonate hardness.
• It is predictor of the pH in the Mash
• Residual Alkalinity =
  Total Alkalinity (as ppm CaCO3) X 0.056
  – Calcium (as ppm Ca2+) X 0.04
  – Magnesium (as ppm Mg2+) X 0.033
• Predicted Mash pH = 5.8 + 0.028 (Residual Alkalinity)
   – NOTE  Darker grains will provide acidity also that is not
     included in this formula!
• In UNTREATED Richmond Water:
   – Residual Alkalinity = 3.9
   – Predicted Mash pH = 5.9
        Famous Brewing Waters
• Historically, mineral content of local brewing
  water characterized the flavor of specific beers
    – The styles we associate with those areas typically came
      about because of the suitability of the water to produce
      those beers.
•   Pilsen: Light Lager (Bohemian Pilsner)
•   Munich: Dark Lager (Dunkel) and Helles styles
•   Burton: Pale Ale / Bitter
•   Richmond: William’s Beers
                     Pilsen: Pilsner Urquell
      After furious citizens had dumped no less than 36 barrels of undrinkable sludge into the city’s
gutters in 1838, it sparked off a remarkable chain of events - a new brewery building, an innovative new
brewmaster and finally the world’s first golden beer.
      On 4 October 1842 in St Martin’s market, Plzen, Josef Groll unveiled his new creation to
widespread sensation, after all a golden beer had never been seen before.

      The original Pilsner
      News of this remarkable Plzen beer spread throughout Bohemia. The arrival of the railway and the
beer's popularity amongst German and French tourists soon meant that Plzen's famous brew gained
international appeal.
      But with success inevitably came competition. Josef Groll's original golden beer soon spawned
many imitators, many of which also claimed to be Plzen or Pilsner beer, whether they came from Plzen
or not. In fact, today Pilsner has become a generic term around the world for any bottom-fermented
golden beer sold as 'pils' or 'pilsner'.
      In 1898, the brewery acted to protect itself against inferior competitors and the beer's name was
changed to Pilsner Urquell- a German phrase meaning literally "from the original source, Plzen".
      Some say the name was changed to satisfy consumer demand for the original golden beer. But as
those who know their beer will tell you: you can tell the original Pilsner by its slightly darker shade of
gold, and of course by its taste which is a world apart.
 Munich: Spaten Premium Lager
         (Helles Style)
     This beer is our speciality. In 1894 Spaten became the
first brewery in Munich to produce this brand of light lager.
     Flavor profile: Golden in color with a well-balanced
hop-flavor. The full rounded body is a superb balance
between hops and a malty sweetness.
     Original gravity: 11.7 %
     Alcohol content: 5.2 %

    NOTE: Helles style is not “Traditional Munich” but is
Munich beer style that was created specifically to compete
with Pilsners since Munich brewers were unable to create a
true pilsner with their water!
     Munich: Ayinger Altbairisch
    Up until the Second World War, dark beer was the
predominant beer type in the Munich area. The hard water
found in the region played a special role in producing this
specialty. In his book “Beer International”, the world-
renowned English beer writer, Michael Jackson, accurately
describes the Ayinger “Altbairisch Dunkel” as:
    “A good example of its kind. Impenetrably dark with a
golden-brown gleam when held up to the light, and with a
warm aroma and malty taste, while summoning up coffee
taste sensations on going down. It is brewed from five types
of malt (two of which are torrified dark), and it is only lightly
hopped.” It is produced using the traditional double
fermentation process.
    Burton (Actually Yorkshire):
         Black Sheep Ale
• Actually, about 120 miles
  away… The Beer I was              N. Yorkshire
  looking for wasn’t at the         Brewery Home
• Full flavoured premium bitter,
  with a rich fruity aroma. It
  is brewed with many generous
  handfuls of choice Golding            Burton
  hops giving a bittersweet malty
  taste, followed by Black Sheep'
  characteristic long, dry and
  bitter finish.
• ABV 4.4%
           Famous Brewing Waters

Burton is considered VERY Hard Water
Munich is “Medium Hardness”, although has low levels of Sulfate
and Chloride
Pilsen is EXTREMELY soft wafer
Richmond is fairly soft water, although not as soft as Pilsen, and
carries higher levels of Sulfate and Chloride.
      Possible Salt Additions
• Gypsum (CaSO4 + 2H2O)
  – Molecular weight = 172
• Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 + 2H2O)
  – Molecular weight = 146.6
• Epsom Salts (MgSO4 + 7H2O)
  – Molecular weight = 246.3
• Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
  – Molecular weight = 100
   Richmond Water to make Pilsen Water
• Since Pilsen water is softer than Richmond water, best
  way to make it is to dilute with distilled water.
• DO NOT use water softeners  they add bases to
  soften the water.
• My UNTESTED recommendation (From ProMASH):
   – Use 85% Distilled water + Richmond Water (Filtered
     through charcoal to remove chlorine)
   – ADD 60mg/gal CaCl
   – ADD 100mg/gal MgSO4 (Epsom Salts)
• NOTE: Ca levels are REALLY low for Pilsen style
  water and will not be as good for mash effciency, but
  are appropriate for the style…
Richmond  Pilsen Result:
Richmond Water to make Munich Water

• Munich water is medium hardness, but has low
  levels of Sulfate and Chloride.
• We can get up to the Calcium and Magnesium
  levels by adding salts, but we will definitely be too
  high for Sulfate / Chloride.
• My UNTESTED recommendation:
   – Richmond water filtered through charcoal to remove
   – Add 500mg/Gallon CaCO3 (Be careful; this will RAISE
     your mash pH!!)
   – Add 300mg/Gallon Epsom Salts (MgSO4)
Richmond  Munich Result
Richmond Water to make Burton Water
 • Burton water is very hard.
 • Richmond water can get pretty close by adding a
   lot of salts.
 • My UNTESTED recommendation:
    – Richmond water filtered through charcoal to remove
    – Add 600mg/Gallon CaCO3 (Again, this will raise your
      mash pH).
    – Add 2500mg/Gallon Gypsum (CaSO4)
    – Add 2200mg/Gallon Epsom Salts (MgSO4)
    – Add 400mg/Gallon Calcium Chloride (CaCl)
Richmond  Burton Result
How to use ProMash to calculate
  Water Dilutions / Additions
• Enter a new water profile for Richmond
How to use ProMash to calculate
  Water Dilutions / Additions
•   Go to Calculators  Water Profile
•   Enter Target water and source water.
•   Adjust dilution level
•   Adjust salt addition levels for each salt
•   Tweak it until you are happy. 
How to use ProMash to calculate
  Water Dilutions / Additions

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