Updates & Additions
New to This Edition ■ New vignette, “Donating Tissue for Research,” offers
compelling examples of people whose biological
Overview donations were used for proﬁt.
■ Learning Outcomes open the chapters, and ■ New Clinical Connection on tissue engineering tells
how to build a bladder.
are closely linked to Chapter Assessments and
Integrated Assessments/Critical Thinking questions Chapter 6
at each chapter’s end . Many new questions.
■ New small box describes tattoos.
■ A new Chapter Preview—Foundations for
Success—not only provides valuable study tips for Chapter 7
students but also outlines how the students and ■ New vignette, “Preventing Fragility Fractures,”
instructors can utilize the pedagogical features of stresses the importance of attaining maximal bone
the text. Be sure to check it out on page xx. density by age 30.
■ Many legends have been rewritten to more ■ Added bone classiﬁcation at the start of the chapter.
completely reﬂect text content, improving the ■ New ﬁgure 7.6 is a radiograph of epiphyseal plates,
pedagogical content of the ﬁgures. supplementing the illustration in ﬁgure 7.5.
■ Added many new vignettes. ■ Coverage of factors affecting bone development,
growth, and repair.
■ New ﬁgure 7.37 illustrates all six types of synovial
joints in place of detailed ﬁgures of shoulder, hip,
Chapter 1 ■ The Topic of Interest on repair of bone fractures now
■ Improved ﬁgure 1.4 on internal environment. includes a list and ﬁgure showing types of fractures.
■ New ﬁgure 1.13 on directional terms.
■ Improved ﬁgure 1.14 on anatomical planes. Chapter 8
■ Greater emphasis on positive feedback. ■ New vignette, “Double the Muscle,” describes a
mutation that made a newborn look like a weight-
Chapter 2 lifter—and is also found in chickens and cattle.
■ New vignette tells the medical detective story of ■ Clearer explanation of events at the neuromuscular
tracing a copper deﬁciency to zinc excess. junction, including the muscle impulse.
■ Clariﬁcation that ionic bonds form crystals that ■ Improved explanation of the sliding ﬁlament model
dissociate in water. and the sarcomere as the functional unit of muscle
■ Explanation of buffers. contraction.
■ Signiﬁcant modiﬁcation of ﬁgures 2.17 and 2.18, on ■ Improved Table 8.1 summarizes the steps of muscle
amino acid and protein structure. contraction.
■ Updated discussion of control of contractile force of
Chapter 3 a whole muscle.
■ New vignette, “Watching Cells Specialize,” explains ■ Improved explanation of how the relationship of
derivation of human embryonic stem cells from synergistic versus antagonistic muscles may change
8-celled embryos. depending on the action.
■ The Genetics Connection presents extreme and
absent pain syndromes. Chapter 9
■ New vignette, “Islands of Awareness in the
Chapter 4 Vegetative Brain,” describes the surprising results
■ The rewritten vignette focuses on solving the arsenic of functional MRI on a woman thought to be
problem in India and Bangladesh. unresponsive.
■ A new Topic of Interest, “Beyond the Human ■ Discussion of synapse earlier in chapter.
Genome Project: Personalizing Medicine,” stresses ■ New ﬁgure 9.12 of the resting potential and 9.13 of
the many variations on “normal.” the action potential.
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Updates & Additions xv
■ Updated discussion of resting potential, synaptic Chapter 15
potentials, threshold potentials, and the role of
■ New Vignette, “Microbes Are Us,” describes the
astonishing fact that most of the cells in the body
■ New ﬁgure 9.18 illustrates the components of a
(counting the gastrointestinal tract) are not our own.
■ Segmentation and mixing movements added to
discussion of small intestine.
Chapter 10 ■ Topic of Interest on Inﬂammatory Bowel Disease
■ Chapter renamed “The Senses.” replaces constipation.
■ New vignette explores how the brain processes ■ Figure 15.33 is the 2005 FDA food pyramid.
music. ■ Figure 15.34 is a new easy-to-use BMI table.
■ Updated ﬁgure 9.28 and discussion of Broca’s area ■ New Topic of Interest on eating extremes discusses
and Wernicke’s area. the paradox of eating disorders and obesity rampant
■ Updated discussion of the ﬁve primary taste in the same society.
sensations. ■ A new small box introduces stem cells harvested
■ Simpliﬁed ﬁgure 11.3 on the mechanism of non-
steroid hormone action. ■ New vignette on “The Dangers of Secondhand Smoke.”
■ Clariﬁcation of function of the intermediate lobe of ■ Updated ﬁgure 16.17 and description of respiratory
the pituitary. control.
■ The Topic of Interest on diabetes mellitus updates
setback in islet transplants. Chapter 17
■ Vignette on E. coli food poisoning updated with
Chapter 12 recent spinach cases.
■ Box on gout rewritten to discuss post-mortem
■ New vignette, “Universal Precautions” in a Marburg diagnosis from little ﬁnger of King Charles I of Spain.
fever outbreak. ■ Urethral differences in males and females added.
■ Bands and segs distinction added to neutrophil
discussion. Chapter 18
■ New micrographs of white blood cells.
■ New Topic of Interest on leukemia chronicles a ■ Treatment for heatstroke added to opening vignette.
young magazine editor whose life was saved with a
■ Explanation for dissolving clots and box on tPA ■ New Vignette on “Selling Eggs.”
added. ■ New breast cancer tests added to Topic of Interest.
■ Immune thrombocytopenic purpura added to
Genetics Connection. Chapter 20
■ New vignette, “Do Premature Babies Feel Pain?”
Chapter 13 ■ Update on egg freezing added to Topic of Interest.
■ Small box on ectopic pregnancy added.
■ Small box on aneurysms added.
■ Teratogens added to text to complement Topic of
■ Figure on changes in the left ventricle during cardiac
cycle moved to Appendix C.
■ New small box on morning sickness.
■ A schematic of a general reﬂex arc has been added
■ Human milk is contrasted with that of cows and seals.
to ﬁgure 13.16 for clariﬁcation.
■ Small box on premature birth survival statistics added.
■ Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis to select
Chapter 14 against future cancer added to Genetics Connection.
■ Complement and natural killer cells added to the ■ Biochemical excess and deﬁciency associated with
discussion of innate defenses. preeclampsia added to Clinical Connection.
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